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Karoo and Ferrar denote a major geologic province consisting of flood basalt, which mostly covers South Africa and Antarctica, although portions extend further into southern Africa and into South America, India, Australia and New Zealand.1 It formed just prior to the breakup of Gondwana in the Lower Jurassic epoch, about 183 million years ago; this timing corresponds to the early Toarcian anoxic event and the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction. The total original volume of the flow, which extends over a distance in excess of 6000 km (4000 km in Antarctica alone), was in excess of 2.5 x 106 km³.2


  1. ^ See Figure 5, p 176 in A. Segev (2002) Flood basalts and the dispersal of Gondwana: periodic migration of plumes, EGU Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series, 2, 171–191. European Geosciences Union. Accessed 2008-03-25.
  2. ^ Sur l'âge des trapps basaltiques (On the ages of flood basalt events); Vincent E. Courtillota & Paul R. Renneb; Comptes Rendus Geoscience; Vol: 335 Issue: 1, January, 2003; pp: 113-140

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