- This article is about the Hindu sage Kashyapa or Kasyapa. See also for information on the ancient and Mahakasyapa information on the disciple of the. For King Kashyapa of Sri Lanka, see Kashyapa I
|Consort||see "wives of Kashyap" below|
Kashyapa (Sanskrit कश्यप kaśyapa) was an ancient sage (rishis), who is one of the Saptarshis in the present Manvantara: others being Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja.1 According to the Vedic Knowledge, he is the son of Marichi, one of the ten sons (Manasa-putras) of the Creator Brahma.
The Rishi are seers who know and by their knowledge are the makers of shastra and "see" all mantras. The word comes from the root rish Rishati-prapnoti sarvvang mantrang jnanena pashyati sangsaraparangva, etc. The seven great Rishi or saptarshi of the first manvantara are Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Vashishtha. In other manvantara there are other sapta-rshi. In the present manvantara the seven are Kashyap, Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvaj. To the Rishi the Vedas were revealed. Vyasa taught the Rigveda so revealed to Paila, the Yajurveda to Vaishampayana, the Samaveda to Jaimini, Atharvaveda to Samantu, and Itihasa and Purana to Suta. The three chief classes of Rishi are the Brah-marshi, born of the mind of Brahma, the Devarshi of lower rank, and Rajarshi or Kings who became Rishis through their knowledge and austerities, such as Janaka, Ritaparna, etc. Thc Shrutarshi are makers of Shastras, as Sushruta. The Kandarshi are of the Karmakanda, such as Jaimini.
He was also the author of the treatise Kashyap Samhita, or Jivakiya Tantra, which is considered a classical reference book on Ayurveda especially in the fields of Ayurvedic pediatrics, gynecology and obstetrics.2
It can be safely assumed that there were many Kashyaps and the name indicates a status and not just one individual.
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He was the father of the Devas, Asuras, Nagas and all of humanity. He married Aditi, with whom he fathered Agni, the Adityas, and most importantly Lord Vishnu took his fifth Avatar as Vamana, the son of Aditi, in the seventh Manvantara.5 With his second wife, Diti, he begot the Daityas. Diti and Aditi were daughters of King Daksha Prajapati and sisters to Sati, Shiva's consort. Kashyap received the earth, obtained by Parashurama's conquest of King Kartavirya Arjuna and henceforth, earth came to be known as "Kashyapi".
- His sons from Aditi or Adityas were Aṃśa, Aryaman, Bhaga, Dhatr, Mitra, Pūṣan, a daughter Bhumidevi, Śakra, Savitṛ, Tvaṣṭṛ, Varuṇa, Viṣṇu, and Vivasvat or Vivasvan,3 who went on to start the Solar Dynasty (Suryavansha), which later came to be known as Ikshvaku dynasty, after his great grandson, King Ikshvaku, whose subsequent kings were, Kukshi, Vikukshi, Bana, Anaranya, Prithu, Trishanku, and finally King Raghu, who gave it the name, Raghuvansh (Dynasty of Raghu), and then further leading up to Lord Ram, the son of Dashrath.6
- His sons from Diti were Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha and a daughter Sinhika, who later became the wife of Viprachitti. Hiranyakashipu had four sons, Anuhlada, Hlada, Prahlada, and Sanhlada, who further extended the Daityas.3
- Garuda and Aruna are the sons of Kashyap from his wife Vinata.7
- The Nāgas (serpents) are his sons from Kadru.
- The Danavas are his sons from Danu.
- The Bhagavata Purana states that the Apsaras were born from Kashyap and Muni.
- Uttar Ramayana says Diti had a son named Maya who was the lord of Daityas.8
In the family line of Kashyap, along with him there are two more discoverers of Mantras: his sons Avatsara and Asita. Two sons of Avatsara, Nidhruva and Rebha, are also Mantra-seers. In the Manvantara period named 'Svarochisha', Kashyap was one of the seven sages (saptarishi) for that manvantara.
In Brahm Avtar composition present in Dasam Granth, Second Scripture of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh mentioned Rishi Kashyap, as second avtar of Brahma.9 According to him, Rishi Kashyap had great knowledge of Vedas and interpreted it very thoughtfully to whole world which bring them internal relief.10 He married with four wives, Banita, Kadru, Diti and Aditi and have many children out of them some remain religious (Deities) and other became irreligious (Demons).11
The Valley of Kashmir got its name from Kashyap Rishi.12 According to the Vedic Knowledge, the Kashmir valley was a vast lake called Satisaras, named after Sati or Parvati the consort of Shiva. The lake was inhabited by the demon Jalodbhav. The Nilamat Puran of the 7th century mentions the region being inhabited by two tribes — the Nagas and the Pisachas. The lake was drained off by leader of the Nagas called Ananta (Anantnag region of Kashmir is named after him) to capture and kill the demon. Ananta later names the valley as Kashyap-mira after his father Kashyap. Kalhana in Rajatarangini (The River of Kings) also mentions Prajapati Kashyap killing Jalodbhava with the help of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The lake was then drained and comes to be known as Kash-mira after the Rishi Kashyap.13
- Inhabitants of the Worlds Mahanirvana Tantra, translated by Arthur Avalon, (Sir John Woodroffe), 1913, Introduction and Preface.
- Q7 indianmedicine.nic.in. Q 7. The main classical texts for reference of Ayurvedic principles include Charak Samhita, Susrut Samhita, Astang Hridaya, Sharangdhar Samhita, Madhav Nidan, Kashyap Samhita, Bhavprakash, and Bhaisajya Ratnavali, etc.
- Vishnu Purana: Book I, Chapter XV The Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840. p. 112. The daughters of Daksha who were married to Kaśyap were Aditi, Diti, Danu, Arisjht́á, Surasá, Surabhi, Vinatá, Támrá, Krodhavaśá, Id́á, Khasá, Kadru, and Muni 19; whose progeny I will describe to you...Vishńu, Śakra, Áryaman, Dhútí, Twáshtri, Púshan, Vivaswat, Savitri, Mitra, Varuńa, Anśa, and Bhaga
- Saklani, Dinesh Prasad (1998). Ancient Communities of Himalayas. Indus Publishing Co, New Delhi. p. 74. ISBN 8173870901 Check
- Account of the several Manus and Manwantaras Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840, Book III: Chapter I. 265:22, Vishńu, at the request of the deities, was born as a dwarf, Vámana, the son of Adití by Kaśyap; who, applying to Bali for alms, was promised by the prince whatever he might demand, notwithstanding Śukra, the preceptor of the Daityas, apprised him whom he had to deal with. The dwarf demanded as much space as he could step over at three steps; and upon the assent of Bali, enlarged himself to such dimensions as to stride over the three worlds. Being worshipped however by Bali and his ancestor Prahláda, he conceded to them the sovereignty of Pátála.
- Lineage of Kashyapa Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda in Prose Sarga 110.
- Birth of Garuda The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883-1896], Book 1: Adi Parva: Astika Parva: Section XXXI. p. 110.
- Valmiki Ramayan 7.12
- Dasam Granth, Dr. SS Kapoor
- Line 8, Description of Kashyap the second incarnation of Brahma, in Bachittar Natak.
- Line 7, Description of Kashyap the second incarnation of Brahma, in Bachittar Natak.
- Valentine, Simon Ross (2008). Islam and Ahmediyya Jamat: History, belief, Practice. Hurst Publishers Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 9781850659167.
- Kaw, M.K. (2004). Kashmir and its People: Studies in evolution of Kashmiri Society. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. p. 6. ISBN 8176485373.