Хамаг Монгол ханлиг
Khamag Mongol and their neighbours at 1200.
|Capital||centered camp near Kherlen river|
|-||1120–1148||Khabul Khan (1st recorded khan)|
|-||1148–1156||Ambaghai Khan (2nd)|
|-||1156–1160||Hotula Khan (3rd)|
|-||1189–1206||Genghis Khan (last)|
|Historical era||High Middle Ages|
|-||First Khan recorded in history is Khabul Khan.||1120|
|-||Temujin become Khan of Khamag Mongol and he was given the honorary name of Genghis Khan.||1189|
|-||Genghis Khan unified the tribes in Mongolia and established the Great Mongol State.||1206|
|Today part of||Mongolia|
Khamag Mongol (Mongolian: Хамаг монгол, lit. "Whole Mongol") was a major tribal confederation (khanlig) in Mongolian plateau in the 12th century. It is sometimes also considered a predecessor state1 to the Mongol Empire.2
After the fall of Khitan Liao Dynasty in North China and eastern Mongolia in 1125, the Khamag Mongols began to play an important role in the Mongolian plains.3 They occupied one of the most fertile lands of the country—the basins of the river Onon, Kherlen and Tuul in the Khentii mountains. Khamag Mongol consisted of the four core clans Khiyad, Taichuud, Jalayir and Jirukhen.
The first Khan of Khamag Mongol recorded in history is Khabul Khan from Borjigin clan. Khabul Khan successfully repelled the invasions of Jin Dynasty. Khabul Khan was succeeded by Ambaghai Khan from Taichuud clan. Ambagai was captured by the Tatars while he came to deliver his daughter as a bride to the Tatar confederacy and was given to the Jurchens of Jin Dynasty who cruelly executed him. Ambaghai was succeeded by Hotula Khan, a son of Khabul Khan. Hotula Khan was engaged in 13 battles with the Tatars endeavouring to revenge for Ambagai Khan.
Khamag Mongol was unable to elect a Khan after Hotula died, however Khabul's grandson Yesukhei who was a chief of the Khiyad tribe, was an effective and foremost leader of Khamag Mongol. Temujin, the future Genghis Khan, was born into Yesukhei's family as the first son in Deluun Boldog on the upper reaches of the Onon river in 1162.
When young Toghoril asked help from Yesukhei, the ruler of the Khamag Mongol,4 to dethrone his brothers of the Kereit tribe, the Mongols helped him defeat the Kereit leaders and put him on the throne in early 12th century.
Yesukhei was poisoned by the Tatars in 1170 and shortly after Yesukhei died. However, the Khamag Mongol began to disintegrate after Yesugei's death in 1171. Political anarchy and vacuum of power had lasted until 1189 when Temujin became the Khan of the Khamag Mongol and the war broke out between other Mongol tribes soon. Temujin's friend Jamukha was recognized by the rival tribes as Gur-Khan (the universal ruler) in 1201 but he was defeated by the alliance of Khamag Mongol and Kereit.
When Wang Khan refused to cement the alliance with the Khamag Mongols, Temujin's wars with the clans nearly destroyed him. Temujin united all clans on the Mongolian plateau at last in 1206 when he was regarded as Genghis Khan.
- Bat-Ocher Bold (2001), Mongolian nomadic society: a reconstruction of the "medieval" history of Mongolia, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, p. 176, ISBN 0-7007-1158-9
- History of the Mongolian People's Republic By Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR, p.99
- Histoire de la Mongolie By László Lőrincz, p.43
- He never assumed the title the Khan of the Khamag Mongol but baghatur (hero)
- Akademiiya nauk SSSR - History of the Mongolian People's Republic, Nauka Pub. House, Central Dept. of Oriental Literature, 1973
- Bat-Ochir Bold - Mongolian Nomadic Society, St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-22827-9
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1974: Macropaedia Me-Ne ISBN 0-85229-290-2
- László Lőrincz - Histoire de la Mongolie, Akadémiai Kiadó,the University of Michigan, 1984. ISBN 963-05-3381-2