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Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the scientific study of human movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, mechanical, and psychological mechanisms. Applications of kinesiology to human health include: biomechanics and orthopedics; strength and conditioning; sport psychology; methods of rehabilitation, such as physical and occupational therapy; and sport and exercise.1 Individuals who have earned degrees in kinesiology can work in research, the fitness industry, clinical settings, and in industrial environments.2 Studies of human and animal motion include measures from motion tracking systems, electrophysiology of muscle and brain activity, various methods for monitoring physiological function, and other behavioral and cognitive research techniques.34
The word comes from the Greek word kinein, to move.
Kinesiology is the study of human and animal movement, performance, and function by applying the sciences of biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, psychology, and neuroscience. Applications of kinesiology in human health include physical education teacher, the rehabilitation professions, such as physical and occupational therapy, as well as applications in the sport and exercise industries. Kinesiology is a field of scientific study, and does not prepare individuals for clinical practice. A bachelor's degree in kinesiology can provide strong preparation for graduate study in biomedical research, as well as in professional programs, such as allied health and medicine.
Whereas the term "kinesiologist" is neither a licensed nor professional designation in the United States nor most countries (with the exception of Canada), individuals with training in this area can teach physical education, provide consulting services, conduct research and develop policies related to rehabilitation, human motor performance, ergonomics, and occupational health and safety. In North America, kinesiologists may study to earn a Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, or Doctorate of Philosophy degree in Kinesiology or a Bachelor of Kinesiology degree, while in Australia or New Zealand, they are often conferred an Applied Science (Human Movement) degree (or higher). Many doctoral level faculty in North American kinesiology programs received their doctoral training in related disciplines, such as neuroscience, mechanical engineering, psychology, and physiology.
Adaptation through exercise is a key principle of kinesiology that relates to improved fitness in athletes as well as health and wellness in clinical populations. Exercise is a simple and established intervention for many movement disorders and musculoskeletal conditions due to the neuroplasticity of the brain22 and the adaptability of the musculoskeletal system.171819 Therapeutic exercise has been shown to improve neuromotor control and motor capabilities in both normal23 and pathological populations.1124
There are many different types of exercise interventions that can be applied in kinesiology to athletic, normal, and clinical populations. Aerobic exercise interventions help to improve cardiovascular endurance.25 Anaerobic strength training programs can increase muscular strength,18 power,26 and lean body mass.27 Decreased risk of falls and increased neuromuscular control can be attributed to balance intervention programs.28 Flexibility programs can increase functional range of motion and reduce the risk of injury.29
As a whole, exercise programs can reduce symptoms of depression30 and risk of cardiovascular31 and metabolic diseases.32 Additionally, they can help to improve quality of life,33 sleeping habits,30 immune system function,34 and body composition.27
Finally, the study of the physiologic responses to physical exercise and their therapeutic applications is known as exercise physiology, which is a major research focus within kinesiology.
Neuroplasticity is also a key scientific principle used in kinesiology to describe how movement and changes in the brain are related. The human brain adapts and acquires new motor skills based on this principle, which includes both adaptive and maladaptive brain changes.
Recent empirical evidence indicates the significant impact of physical activity on brain function; for example, greater amounts of physical activity are associated with enhanced cognitive function in older adults.46 The effects of physical activity can be distributed throughout the whole brain, such as higher gray matter density and white matter integrity after exercise training,4748 and/or on specific brain areas, such as greater activation in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.49 Neuroplasticity is also the underlying mechanism of skill acquisition. For example, after long-term training, pianists showed greater gray matter density in sensorimotor cortex and white matter integrity in the internal capsule compared to non-musicians.5051
Maladaptive plasticity is defined as the neuroplasticity with negative effects or detrimental consequences in behavior.5253 Movement abnormalities may occur among individuals with and without brain injuries due to abnormal remodeling in central nervous system.4054 Learned non-use is an example commonly seen among patients with brain damage, such as stroke. Patients with stroke learned to suppress paretic limb movement after unsuccessful experience in paretic hand use; this may cause decreased neuronal activation at adjacent areas of the infarcted motor cortex.5556
There are many types of therapies that are designed to overcome maladaptive plasticity in clinic and research, such as constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT) and virtual reality therapy. These interventions are shown to enhance motor function in paretic limbs 575859 and stimulate cortical reorganization606162 in patients with brain damage.
Motor redundancy is a widely-used concept in kinesiology and motor control which states that, for any task the human body can perform, there are effectively an unlimited number of ways the nervous system could achieve that task.63 This redundancy appears at multiple levels in the chain of motor execution:
- Kinematic redundancy means that for a desired location of the endpoint (e.g. the hand or finger), there are many configurations of the joints that would produce the same endpoint location in space.
- Muscle redundancy means that the same net joint torque could be generated by many different relative contributions of individual muscles.
- Motor unit redundancy means that for the same net muscle force could be generated by many different relative contributions of motor units within that muscle.
The concept of motor redundancy is explored in numerous studies,646566 usually with the goal of describing the relative contribution of a set of motor elements (e.g. muscles) in various human movements, and how these contributions can be predicted from a comprehensive theory. Two distinct (but not incompatible) theories have emerged for how the nervous system coordinates redundant elements: simplification and optimization. In the simplification theory, complex movements and muscle actions are constructed from simpler ones, often known as primitives or synergies, resulting in a simpler system for the brain to control.6768 In the optimization theory, motor actions arise from the minimization of a control parameter,66 such as the energetic cost of movement or errors in movement performance.69
In most countries, kinesiology refers to an area of study and is not associated with a professional designation.citation needed In Canada, kinesiology is a professional designation associated with the assessment of movement, performance, and function; and the rehabilitation, prevention, and management of disorders to maintain, rehabilitate, and enhance movement, performance, and function in the areas of sport, recreation, work, exercise, and general activities of daily living.70
Kinesiology is applied in areas of health and fitness for all levels of athletes, but more often found with training of elite athletes. All too often biomechanical analysis focuses on the kinetic energy or the working numbers in execution of technique. More emphasis should be placed on muscle and joints as they are involved in the action and the role they play in execution of the technique is critical.71
In Canada, Kinesiology has been designated a regulated health profession 72 Kinesiology was made a regulated health profession in the province of Ontario in the summer of 2007 73 and similar proposals have been made for other Canadian provinces. The Canadian Kinesiology Alliance-Alliance Canadienne de Kinésiologie is a not-for-profit corporation that promotes the professions of kinesiology in Canada http://www.cka.ca.
In the United States, the American Kinesiology Association is the national kinesiology organization of university departments providing professional information about kinesiology degree programs.74
- Health Promotion
- Kinesiologists working in the health promotion industry focus on working with individuals to enhance the health, fitness, and well-being of the individual. Kinesiologists can be found working in fitness facilities, personal training/corporate wellness facilities, and industry.
- Kinesiologists work with individuals with disabling conditions to assist in regaining their optimal physical function. They work with individuals in their home, fitness facilities, rehabilitation clinics, and at the worksite. They also work alongside physiotherapists and occupational therapists.
- Kinesiologists work in industry to assess suitability of design of workstations and provide suggestions for modifications and assistive devices.
- Health and Safety
- Kinesiologists are involved in consulting with industry to identify hazards and provide recommendations and solutions to optimize the health and safety of workers.
- Disability Management/Case Coordination
- Kinesiologists recommend and provide a plan of action to return an injured individual to their optimal function in all aspects of life.
- Management/Research/Administration/Health and Safety
- Kinesiologists frequently fulfill roles in all above areas, perform research, and manage businesses.75
- Anatomical terms of motion
- Exercise physiology
- Kinesiotherapy (USA)
- Mental Practice of Action
- Motor imagery
- Sports science
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- Carroll, Robert Todd "These are empirical claims and have been tested and shown to be false". "Applied Kinesiology". The Skeptics Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
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