|Part of a series on|
|Asian Ethnic Enclaves|
Koreatowns represent a Overseas Korean diaspora and culture from the Koreas
|Hangul||코리아타운 or 한인타운 or 한인촌 or 한인마을 or 한인동네 or 한인거리|
|Hanja||코리아타운 or 韓人타운 or 韓人村 or 韓人마을 or 韓人洞네 or 韓人거리|
|Revised Romanization||Koriataun or Hanintaun or Haninchon or Hanin Ma-eul or Hanin Dongne or Hanin Geori|
|McCune–Reischauer||K'oriat'aun or Hanint'aun or Haninch'on or Hanin Maŭl or Hanin Tongne or Hanin Kŏri|
- 1 History
- 2 Characteristics
- 3 Locations
- 3.1 Korean demographics
- 3.2 Asia
- 3.3 North America
- 3.3.1 Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- 3.3.2 Mexico City, Mexico
- 3.3.3 United States
- 126.96.36.199 Atlanta, Georgia
- 188.8.131.52 Boston, Massachusetts
- 184.108.40.206 Chicago, Illinois
- 220.127.116.11 Dallas, Texas
- 18.104.22.168 Houston, Texas
- 22.214.171.124 Denver, Colorado
- 126.96.36.199 Los Angeles, California
- 188.8.131.52 New York metropolitan area
- 184.108.40.206 Oakland, California
- 220.127.116.11 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- 18.104.22.168 Washington, District of Columbia
- 3.4 South America
- 3.5 Australia
- 3.6 London, United Kingdom=
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Koreatowns as an Asian ethnic enclave have only been in existence since the mid 1860s as Korea had been a territorially stable polity for centuries; as Jaeeun Kim describe it, "The congruence of territory, polity, and population was taken for granted".1 Large-scale emigration from Korea were only mainly into the Russian Far East and Northeast China; these emigrants became the ancestors of the 2 million Koreans in China and several hundred thousand ethnic Koreans in Central Asia.23
Koreatowns in the western countries such as the United States, Canada have only been in place much later with the Los Angeles Chinatown receiving official recognition in 2008. Also many Koreatowns are not officially sanctioned where the only evidence of such enclaves exist as clusters of Korean stores with Korean signage existing only on the storefronts. In the 1992 Los Angeles riots, many Korean businesses were targeted where the signage only served to point out targets for rioters. In Philadelphia's Koreatown, anti-Korean sentiment was so strong that official signage was often vandalized as residents protested the "official recognition" of such areas, making many Koreatowns across the western countries never having official statuses that many Chinatowns receive today. Many Koreatowns today exist in a suburban setting as opposed to the urban settings of Chinatown mainly because many ethnic Koreans, especially in the western countries, fear crime that is often associated with the city dwellings and the higher quality of schools as education is often a top priority, which is why the Philadelphia Koreatowns exist in suburban settings such as Cheltenham, Pennsylvania instead of its original location in the Olney section of Philadelphia.4
The features described below are characteristic of many modern Koreatowns.
Many modern Koreatowns will exhibit the usage of the Korean language and Hangul on storefront signs as sometimes on official highway signage. Officially sanctioned Koreatowns may also exhibit signs in the local language. In English, the word "Koreatown", "Little Korea", and "Korea Way" can sometimes be seen, as in the case with the Los Angeles Koreatown. As Korean is the official language of South Korea and North Korea as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, there are approximately 80 million people speak Korean worldwide. For over a millennium, Korean was written with adapted Chinese characters called hanja, complemented by phonetic systems like hyangchal, gugyeol, and idu. In the 15th century, a national writing system called hangul was commissioned by Sejong the Great, but it only came into widespread use in the 20th century, because of the yangban aristocracy's preference for hanja.
Most historical linguists classify Korean as a language isolate5 while a few consider it to be in the controversial Altaic language family.6 The Korean language is agglutinative in its morphology and SOV in its syntax.
Many Koreatowns will have stores that serve Korean cuisine, usually serving as the major differentiator between other Asian ethnic enclaves such as Chinatown and Little Saigons. The Korean national cuisine known today has evolved through centuries of social and political change. Originating from ancient agricultural and nomadic traditions in southern Manchuria and the Korean peninsula, Korean cuisine has evolved through a complex interaction of the natural environment and different cultural trends.78
Korean cuisine is largely based upon rice, vegetables, and meats. Traditional Korean meals are noted for the number of side dishes (banchan) that accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Kimchi is served often, sometimes at every meal. Commonly used ingredients include sesame oil, doenjang (fermented bean paste), soy sauce, salt, garlic, ginger, pepper flakes and gochujang (fermented red chili paste).
Ingredients and dishes vary by province. Many regional dishes have become national, and dishes that were once regional have proliferated in different variations across the country. The Korean royal court cuisine once brought all of the unique regional specialties together for the royal family. Meals are regulated by Korean cultural etiquette.
Many Koreatowns are actual ethnic enclaves where nearly four-fifths of expatriate Koreans live in just three countries: China, the United States, and Japan.9 Other countries with greater than 0.5% Korean minorities include Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan, New Zealand, and Uzbekistan. All these figures include both permanent migrants and sojourners.10 If one focuses on long-term residents, there were about 5.3 million Korean emigrants as of 2010.
|Regions with significant populations|
|United Arab Emirates||9,7289|
|Korean, various local languages|
|Related ethnic groups|
There are roughly 200,000 Koreans living in Beijing, including 120,000 Joseonjok (ethnic Korean citizens of China) and about 80,000 South Korean expatriates.13 Prominent areas include Wudaokou and Wangjing. There are two Koreatowns in Beijing, the bigger Korean enclave is located in Wangjing in the Chaoyang district. There are many Korean companies who have established their businesses in Wangjing. Primarily a family-oriented area, Wangjing also has an all-Korean international school(all grade levels) located in the Wangjing vicinity. Many of the Korean businesses in Wangjing cater towards families, businessmen, students and tourists with restaurants, bath houses/spas, bookstores, clubs/bars, golfing and Korean banks all in the area. Although Wangjing is known as a Korean district, there is also a great number of third- and fourth-generation Korean Chinese ethnic minorities also live and coexist with South Korean nationals. The second Koreatown, Wudaokou, is located in the Haidian district which is where most of the city's universities are located. Because of the vibrant university scene in Wudaokou, there are many Korean college students who live and attend universities in this area. Although the Korean districts are on different ends of the city, Wangjing and Wudaokou is connected by subway line 13.14
A 31,000 m2 Koreatown block is being constructed on north Jakarta Pulomas. Upon its completion, it will be the first artificially-made Koreatown in the world with 7 blocks and 9 buildings.17
Koreans in Indonesia number approximately 40,000, which makes Indonesia the 12th largest country with Koreans living outside of Korea.18
During the Korea under Japanese rule, approximately 2.4 million ethnic Koreans emigrated to Japan. Some for economic reasons, and some were forced to move during the Second World War to work as laborers. While most departed after the war, still many chose to remain, and were joined in the 1950s by a wave of refugees from Jeju Island. Today, Koreans, known as Zainichi Koreans (Korean: 재일 조선인, who on paper retain the nationality of the old Korea) or Zainichi Koreans (Korean: 재일 한국인, who have adopted South Korean nationality), are the largest ethnic minority in Japan, amounting to 620,000 in 2002. Those with North Korean ties are a key source of remittances to North Korea. There is a separate group of more recent migrants from South Korea with strong links to their home country, and there is a considerable cultural gap between these so-called "newcomers" and the Zainichi Koreans.
The Korean enclave in the city of Osaka, numbering over 90,000, is the largest in Japan, concentrated in the Ikuno Ward, where 25% of the inhabitants are of Korean origin. Tsuruhashi in the Ward is the most famous Koreatown in Japan and is dominated by Jeju Islanders. Imazato-Shinchi is an area increasingly dominated by recent South Korean "new-comers". The total Korean population in Osaka prefecture amounted to 150,000 in 2002.
According to official statistics in 2002, the Korean population in Tokyo amounted to 80,000, which was the second largest following that of Osaka.
Tokyo's Korean-oriented commercial centre is located in the district of Okubo around the area of Shin-Okubo Station and Okubo Station in Shinjuku Ward. Shinjuku Ward itself has over 14,201 registered Korean residents19 this is over 20% of the registered Korean residents in Tokyo; Unlike other Japanese Koreatowns, the Okudo Koreatown developed after World War II and is dominated by "new-comers" - recent immigrants from South Korea who have retained their ethnic and cultural identity, as can be seen from the ubiquitous signs written in hangul.
One of the contributing factors in the development of Okubo into a Korean area is the low rents and a reputation as a seedy area with many Love Hotels south of Okubo station. The low rents and willingness of landlords to accept foreign tenants has attached Korean and other Asian migrants to the area.20 These Businesses cater of the migrant community and increasingly Japanese who come to experience ethnic cuisine. Other immigrants from China, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and various other nationalities makes this one of the most colourful and multicultural areas in Tokyo.
Also noteworthy is a smaller-scale Zainichi Korean quarter to the southeast of Ueno station, and to the southwest, a community of South Korean "new-comers".
In 2011, there were 13,288 individuals of Korean descent in Hong Kong.21 Kimberley Street in Tsim Sha Tsui has Korean cuisine restaurants and Korean grocery stores. Kimberley Street is nicknamed mini Koreatown (小韓國; lit. Little Korea).
Koreans in Malaysia numbered 14,580 individuals as of 2009, nearly triple the total of 5,920 individuals in 2005, according to South Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. This made them the 20th-largest community of overseas Koreans, and the 5th-largest in Southeast Asia. The number of retirees coming under the Malaysia My Second Home immigration programme has also been increasing.
There are more than 20,000 Koreans living in the capital of Malaysia. Sri Hartamas is an affluent residential township in the city which houses many expatriate families, particularly from Korea. There are two Korean supermarkets in the area - Seoul Mart and Lotte Mart, various Korean restaurants and many Korean hair saloons. Malaysia's first officially-registered school for Korean nationals, the Malaysia Korean School, was established on 7 December 1974; it had 26 teachers and enrolled 148 students as of 2006. It is located on Jalan Ampang.
About 1,800 to 2,000 Koreans reside in Sabah, most of them in the state's capital of Kota Kinabalu. Sabah Oil and Gas Terminal project in Kimanis, Papar has brought South Korean employees of Samsung Engineering to work and live there until the terminal completion in December 2013. Around 200,000 South Korean tourists came to Malaysia in 2006; Kota Kinabalu was their most popular destination.
The most well-known Koreatown in the Metro Manila area is located in Makati's Barangay Poblacion. Most of the Korean businesses can be found in the area bounded north-south by JP Rizal Avenue and Jupiter, and east-west by Makati Avenue and Rockwell Drive, with P. Burgos running roughly through the middle of the area. In Quezon City, the Kalayaan Plaza Building has various Korean businesses, apartments, and a church (one of seven or eight Korean churches in QC that existed in 2005). Increasingly, students are billeted in rented houses in expensive gated communities such as Barangay Ayala Alabang, Muntinlupa City.
There are Koreatowns in the Upper Bukit Timah area and the Tanjong Pagar area due to the large number of Koreans living in these two areas. Koreans in Singapore formed a population of 16,650 individuals as of 2010, according to the South Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.22239
Toronto, Ontario, Canada's Korean Business Area, is composed of the retail businesses along Bloor Street between Christie and Bathurst Streets in the Seaton Village section of The Annex.24 The adoption of a more liberal immigration policy by the Canadian government in 1967 led to an influx of Korean immigrants, many of whom settled in the Toronto area. Indeed, Toronto has the largest single concentration of Koreans in Canada with almost 50,000 living in the city, according to the 2001 Census.25 Many of them settled in the Bloor and Bathurst area, and before long, a small Korean business neighbourhood emerged along Bloor Street, centred around the intersection of Bloor and Manning Avenue. Restaurants, bakeries, gift shops, grocery stores, and travel agencies began to open up, most of which catered to the Korean-Canadian community. Today, although many Koreans work in the region, very few Koreans actually live there. An influx of Latino immigrants is changing the demographics of the area today.
Most of Mexico City’s Korean population lives in and around Zona Rosa. According to the newspaper Reforma, there are at least 1,000 Koreans living in Zona Rosa and about 3,000 total in Colonia Juárez, the larger official neighborhood of which Zona Rosa is a part.26 The area around Hamburgo, Praga, Florencia, and Biarritz streets converted into “Pequeño Seul,” or Little Seoul in the 1990s before receding since then.
The first large group of Korean Immigrants settled in America between 1901 and 1905. Between those years 7,226 immigrants, including 6,048 men, 637 women, and 541 children, came on 65 trips. Most of the early immigrants of that period had some contract with American missionaries in Korea. For some Western-oriented Korean intellectuals, immigrating to the United States was considered useful, in part, to help them in the modernization of their homeland. Consequently, the recruiter for labourers for the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association (HSPA), David Deshler, had no trouble finding Koreans from a wide range of social classes willing to sail to Hawaii.27
Atlanta has a population of approximately 50,000 individuals of Korean descent. Atlanta's Koreatown is mostly centered around the I-85 corridor extending from Duluth, Georgia to Buford Highway in Northeast Atlanta.28 KoreanBeacon named Atlanta #5 in its list of Top Korean-American cities, citing the Korean population in Gwinnett County, GA doubling over the past decade, in addition to large stretches of Buford Highway being populated with retail and services with many signs in Korean.29 Atlanta also has four Korean-language television stations broadcast in the Atlanta area, in addition to a local daily Korean newspaper, the Atlanta ChoSun.30
Chicago's Albany Park neighborhood has been referred to as Chicago's "Koreatown" since the 1980s.citation needed The majority of Korean shops in Albany Park can be found along Lawrence Avenue (4800 North) between Kedzie (3200 West) and Pulaski (4000 West). This particular section of Lawrence Avenue has been officially designated by the city of Chicago as "Seoul Drive" because of the multitude of Korean-owned enterprises on the street. Although many of the Korean Americans in the neighborhood have been moving to the north suburbs in recent years, it still retains its Korean flavor. Every year there is a Korean festival, and the neighborhood is home to a Korean television station (WOCH-CA Ch. 41) and radio station (1330 AM) as well as two Korean-language newspapers. There are still many Korean businesses interspersed among the newer Mexican bakeries and Middle Eastern grocery stores. Approximately 45% of the businesses on this particular stretch of Lawrence Avenue are owned by Korean-Americans.33
A sizable Koreatown can be found in Dallas, though this mostly commercial area of the city has not been officially designated as such.34 Dallas has the largest Korean American community in Texas and second (to Atlanta) in the southern United States. Instead, large signs situated at the intersection of Harry Hines Boulevard and Royal Lane proclaim the area as the Asian Trade District. The signs also feature depictions of a red and blue "taeguk," a symbol that is prominently featured on the national flag of South Korea, thereby acknowledging the specifically Korean affiliation of the district. This area in the northwest part of the city is characterized by a large number of Korean-owned businesses serving the city's sizable Korean American community. Although, Korean business is undoubtedly the most dominant in the area, there are isolated Chinese and Vietnamese businesses as well.
Spring Branch in Houston is considered to have the largest Koreatown in the Houston area.
Metro Denver’s most distinct, though not officially designated, Korean neighborhood lies in Aurora, immediately east of Denver. The stretch of Parker Road roughly between I-225 and East Jewell Avenue is largely commercial in nature and is dotted with Korean supermarkets, restaurants, and shops. Much of the business signage displays both English and Korean, though some businesses exclusively display Korean characters. Though many Koreans and Korean Americans live in the vicinity, the district also serves as a regional center of Korean products and culture for the entire Front Range and is home to several Korean-language newspapers.
The Greater Los Angeles Area is home to the largest number of ethnic Koreans outside of Korea. Koreatown is an officially recognized district of the city and contains probably the heaviest concentration of Korean residents and businesses. However, when the term "Koreatown" is used it usually refers to a larger area that includes the adjacent neighborhoods of Wilshire Center, Harvard Heights and Pico Heights. Koreans began to move into the area in the late 1960s after changes in US immigration laws, establishing numerous businesses, although never outnumbering Latino residents. In the aftermath of the 1992 riots, Koreatown entered into a period of development, especially during the 1994 Asian Market Crisis as South Korean investors sought to invest in the then-profitable California real-estate market. More recently, L.A.'s Koreatown has been perceived to have experienced declining political power secondary to re-districting35 and an increased crime rate,36 prompting an exodus of Koreans from the area.
In the New York City borough of Manhattan, Koreatown is bordered by 31st and 33rd Streets, Fifth Avenue, and the Avenue of the Americas. Its location in Midtown Manhattan is close to the Empire State Building and Macy's at Herald Square. The heart of Koreatown is the segment of 32nd Street between Fifth Avenue and Broadway, officially nicknamed "Korea Way", featuring stores on multiple stories, with small, independently-run establishments reaching up to the third or fourth floors, including restaurants, exuding an ambience of Seoul itself.37 The New York City Korean Chamber of Commerce estimates there to be more than 100 small businesses on Korea Way.38 Korea Way is home to numerous restaurants394041 that serve both traditional and/or regional Korean cuisine and Korean fusion fare (including Korean Chinese cuisine42), several bakeries, grocery stores, supermarkets, bookstores, consumer electronics outlets, video rental shops, tchotchke and stationery shops, hair and nail salons, noraebang bars, nightclubs, as well as cell phone service providers, internet cafés, doctors' offices, banks, and hotels. Approximately twelve 24/7 restaurants conduct business on Korea Way.43
Per the 2010 United States Census, the rapidly growing Korean population of Manhattan (co-extensive with New York County) had nearly doubled to approximately 20,000 over one decade since the 2000 Census.44 As of the 2011 American Community Survey, there were approximately 100,000 Korean Americans in New York City, with two-thirds living in Queens.45 On the other hand, along with the Koreatowns in nearby Bergen County, New Jersey (in Palisades Park and Fort Lee) and Long Island in New York, Manhattan's Koreatown serves as the nexus for an overall Korean American population of 218,764 individuals in the Greater New York Combined Statistical Area,46 the second largest population of ethnic Koreans outside of Korea. According to the 2000 Census, a slightly larger area including Koreatown was 46 percent Asian.47 Korean Air and Asiana Airlines provide non-stop flights from Seoul to nearby JFK Airport4849 in the adjacent New York City borough of Queens, which also is home to a large and growing Korean community. In particular, the Fresh Meadows neighborhood of Queens is now home to the most Korean immigrants of any neighborhood in New York City.50
The Long Island Koreatown, on Long Island in the New York City Metropolitan Area,51535455 is one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic Korean enclaves outside of Korea. The core of this Koreatown515354 originated in the Flushing neighborhood of the New York City borough of Queens. However, this Koreatown has continued to expand rapidly eastward through the Queens neighborhoods of Murray Hill,55 Bayside, Douglaston, and Little Neck,51 and eventually into adjacent suburban Nassau County.5253 In the 1980s, a continuous stream of Korean immigrants emerged into the Long Island Koreatown, many of whom began as workers in the medical field or Korean international students who had moved to New York City to find or initiate professional or entrepreneurial positions.51 They established a foothold on Union Street in Flushing between 35th and 41st Avenues,51 featuring restaurants and karaoke (noraebang) bars, grocery markets, education centers and bookstores, banking institutions, offices, electronics vendors, apparel boutiques, and other commercial enterprises. As the community grew more affluent and rose in socioeconomic status, Koreans expanded their presence eastward along Northern Boulevard, buying homes55 in more affluent and less crowded Queens neighborhoods and more recently into Nassau County, bringing their businesses with them, and thereby expanding the Koreatown itself. This expansion has led to the creation of an American Meokjagolmok, or Korean Restaurant Street, around the Long Island Railroad station in Murray Hill, Queens, exuding the ambience of Seoul itself.52 The eastward pressure was also created by the inability to move westward, inhibited by the formidable presence of the enormous Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠) centered on Main Street.51
The two most prominent Koreatowns in Bergen County60 are centered along Broad Avenue in Palisades Park6162 and Ridgefield and around the intersection of Main Street and Lemoine Avenue in Fort Lee, both close to the George Washington Bridge connecting Bergen County's growing Korean population636465 of 56,773,66 the highest per capita population of Koreans of any United States county according to the 2010 Census,67 at 6.3%,6667 (increased to 63,247, or 6.9%, by the 2011 American Community Survey),68 across the Hudson River to New York City. Koreans additionally thrive throughout North Jersey, especially around Middlesex County, Passaic County, Morris County and the waterfront areas of Jersey City. The Chusok Korean Thanksgiving harvest festival has become an annual tradition in Leonia and Ridgefield Park, attended by several tens of thousands.69 Broad Avenue in Palisades Park's Koreatown has evolved into a dessert destination as well.70
The largest concentration of Korean businesses and community services in the San Francisco Bay Area is centered on Oakland's Telegraph Avenue between 20th and 35th Streets between Downtown Oakland and the Temescal district. Roughly 150 Korean-owned businesses are located in the neighborhood, including a shopping center and Korean American community centers. This segment of Telegraph Avenue is lined with bright banners proclaiming the district as "Koreatown-Northgate" with the slogan "Oakland's got Seoul," and accompanied by an annual cultural festival. Officially named "Koreatown-Northgate", the area was characterized by urban decay before Korean Americans began opening businesses and reviving the area in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Before 1991, the area was characterized by homelessness and crime and was known as the Northgate district. The aftermath of the Los Angeles Riots of 1992 also saw a large number of Koreans from Southern California moving to the Bay Area and opening businesses and buying property in the district on a large scale.71 There has been criticism from the non-Korean residents about the city officially naming the district Koreatown, mostly from the African American population who form the majority in the area. Despite Korean Americans owning much of the property in the neighborhood, the largest group of residents still remains African American.72 Tensions remain between African Americans and Koreans in the neighborhood, which has witnessed declines in both populations. Despite some Koreans continuing to move into the neighborhood, the majority of the Bay Area's Korean population is concentrated in the suburbs surrounding Oakland and in the South Bay.
There are at least two areas known as "Koreatown" in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The original Koreatown was located in the Olney section of the city around North 5th Street and subsequently migrated to the Logan section of the city. However, Koreans are generally dispersed with pockets also existing in Upper Darby, West Philadelphia (52nd Street), and Cheltenham.73
Koreatown in Annandale, Virginia747576 starts at the intersection of Little River Turnpike and Hummer Road, runs for 1.5 miles to the turnpike's intersection with Evergreen Lane, and provides a hub for the 93,787 individuals of Korean descent residing in the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV Combined Statistical Area, as estimated by the 2009 American Community Survey.77 According to the Boston Globe, over 1,000 Korean-owned businesses are in Annandale. They cater to Koreans as well as non-Koreans. Businesses and establishments include accountants, banks, bakeries, billiards, bookstores, churches, college preparatory classrooms, cybercafés, department stores, newspapers, optometrists, real estate offices, restaurants and salons.78
Buenos Aires's 'Barrio Coreano' is in the neighborhood of Flores, specifically in the south of this neighborhood. The primary artery of the district is Carabobo Avenue, which houses various Korean businesses and organizations, including restaurants, beauty salons, a Korean school (Instituto Coreano Argentino) and churches, among others. In recent years, there has been a huge move from the Bajo Flores towards the Avellaneda Avenue, the reason being the increasing theft and insecurity around the slums close to Av. Castanares. What some might call these days "The New Koreatown" has been increasing in size at a faster rate while the shops in Av. Carabobo have been closing.79 There are over 22,000 Koreans in Argentina, most of them in Buenos Aires, where the Asian population is around 2.5%.9
The Korean consulate in Brazil said that the municipal government in São Paulo has designated Bom Retiro as 'Koreatown' and has passed an ordinance that will see the city provide administrative and financial support to the new community.
The Korean consul general in São Paulo said that the town will be turned into a special Korean economic and cultural district which will help attract tourists from around the world and will further promote Korean culture in Brazil. A more recent return migration has been noted from Brazil back to South Korea.
The Korean population of Santiago is mostly concentrated in Patronato. Currently, approximately 3000 Koreans live in Chile. The Korean community is well organized and united. Colonia Coreana organizes several events annually. Among these events are: soccer tournaments, Korean festivals, and the annual Mr. and Ms. Patronato.80
Sydney's primary Koreatown is located in the heavily immigrant populated neighbourhood areas of Strathfield, Eastwood and Campsie, which is home to The Sydney Korean Society. These suburbs and surrounding areas are famous for their Korean population which have created a strong cultural identity for the community. These areas are home to a number of Korean speaking businesses and retail stores which include Korean restaurants, DVD stores, supermarkets, hairdressers and cafes.
Other important Korean commercial areas are located in the northern Sydney suburbs of Epping and Chatswood. The intersection of Bathurst Street and Pitt Street in Sydney's Central Business District is also becoming a popular area for Korean commercial activity which once again include restaurants, karaoke, supermarkets and hairdressers.
Australia's Korean population is estimated to be around 150,000.
- List of Korea-related topics
- Korean American
- Little Saigon
- Little Manila
- Little Taipei
- Little India
- List of named ethnic enclaves in North American cities
- New Malden Koreatown (London)
- Europe Street
- Brubaker & Kim 2010, p. 27
- Lee Kwang-kyu (2000). Overseas Koreans. Seoul: Jimoondang. ISBN 89-88095-18-9.
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Lyle Campbell & Mauricio Mixco. 2007. A Glossary of Historical Linguistics. University of Utah Press. ("Korean, A language isolate", p. 90; "Korean is often said to belong with the Altaic hypothesis, often also with Japanese, though this is not widely supported", pp. 90–91; "...most specialists...no longer believe that the...Altaic groups...are related", p. 7)
David Dalby. 1999/2000. The Linguasphere Register of the World's Languages and Speech Communities. Linguasphere Press.
Nam-Kil Kim. 1992. "Korean", International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Volume 2, pp. 282–86. ("...scholars have tried to establish genetic relationships between Korean and other languages and major language families, but with little success", p. 282)
András Róna-Tas. 1998. "The Reconstruction of Proto-Turkic and the Genetic Question", The Turkic Languages. Routledge. pp. 67–80. ("[Ramstedt's comparisons of Korean and Altaic] have been heavily criticised in more recent studies, though the idea of a genetic relationship has not been totally abandoned", p. 77.)
Claus Schönig. 2003. "Turko-Mongolic Relations", The Mongolic Languages. Routledge. pp. 403–19. ("...the 'Altaic' languages do not seem to share a common basic vocabulary of the type normally present in cases of genetic relationship", p. 403)
- Stratification in the peopling of China: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics and archaeology? In; Sanchez-Mazas, Blench, Ross, Lin & Pejros eds. Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan: genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence. 2008. Taylor & Francis
- "Korean Food in History (역사 속 한식이야기)" (in Korean). Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of Republic of Korea. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
- "Korean Cuisine (한국요리 韓國料理)" (in Korean). Naver / Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- 재외동포현황/Current Status of Overseas Compatriots. South Korea: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- Schwekendiek, Daniel (2012). Korean Migration to the Wealthy West. New York: Nova Publishers.
- Note that the 2006 American Community Survey gave a much smaller figure of 1,520,703. See S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- "Thematic Report: Ethnic Minorities" (PDF), Publications and Products of the 2006 Population By-census (Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong) (xvi), 2007-12-28, retrieved 2008-01-23
- MOFAT 2011, p. 51
- Kim, Kiho. "Koreatown Grows in District of Beijing. the area code is 504.". Arirang News. Arirang News.
- MOFAT 2011, p. 58
- MOFAT 2011, p. 53
- "Tempointeraktif.com - Investors to Advance Funds at Korea Town in Jakarta". Tempointeractive.com. 2008-09-13. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
- Rumah123.com - Berita seputar Rumah123.com
- Shinjuku Ward Office. "Shinjuku City Data – Population of Registered Foreign Residents by Branch Offices". Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- Khan, Shahed; Jake Schapper (2010). "Ethnic Clusters and the Urban Planning System: The Japanese Experience". The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities & Nations 10 (3): 91–110.
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- Manuel Duran (May 23, 2001). "Crece el comercio de coreanos en DF" [Korean businesses grow in the Federal District]. Reforma (in Spanish) (Mexico City). p. 7.
- Chang and Patterson 2003
- "Georgia: Home to America's Newest Koreatown". 2006-11-20. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- "Top 5 Most Korean-American Cities: Atlanta". Korean Beacon. August 9, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- "애틀랜타 조선닷컴". 2013-04-07. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- "Albany Park Real Estate - Albany Park Homes". Falconliving.com. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
- "About KAC - Korean American Coalition Dallas/Fort Worth Chapter (한미연합회)". Kacdfw.org. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
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