Красноярский край (Russian)
|— Krai —|
|Economic region||East Siberian3|
|Established||July 12, 19344|
|Government (as of August 2010)|
|- Governor6||Lev Kuznetsov5|
|- Legislature||Legislative Assembly6|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)7|
|- Total||2,339,700 km2 (903,400 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)8|
|- Density9||1.21 /km2 (3.1 /sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||KRAT (UTC+08:00)10|
Krasnoyarsk Krai (Russian: Красноя́рский край, tr. Krasnoyarsky kray, IPA: [krəsnɐˈjærskʲɪj kraj]) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai). It is the second largest federal subject after the Sakha Republic, Russia's largest krai and the third largest subnational governing body by area in the world, occupying an area of 2,339,700 square kilometers (903,400 sq mi), which is 13% of the country's total territory. The administrative center of the krai is the city of Krasnoyarsk. Population: 2,828,187 (2010 Census).8
The krai lies in the middle of Siberia, and occupies nearly half of the Siberian Federal District, almost splitting it in half, stretching 3,000 km from the Sayan Mountains in the south along the Yenisei River to the Taymyr Peninsula in the north. It borders Tyumen, Tomsk, Irkutsk, and Kemerovo Oblasts, the Republic of Khakassia, the Tuva Republic, and the Sakha Republic, and the Kara Sea and Laptev Sea of the Arctic Ocean in the north.
The krai is located in the basin of the Arctic Ocean; a great number of rivers that flow through the krai all drain into it eventually. The main rivers of the krai are the Yenisei, and its tributaries (from south to north): the Kan, the Angara, the Podkamennaya Tunguska, and the Nizhnyaya Tunguska.
There are also several thousand lakes in the krai. The largest lakes include Beloye, Belyo, Glubokoye, Itat, Khantayskoye, Labas, Lama, Pyasina, Taymyr, and Yessey. The rivers and lakes are rich with fish.
The climate is strongly continental with large temperature variations during the year. For the central and southern regions where most of the krai's population lives, long winters and short, hot summers are characteristic. The territory of Krasnoyarsk krai experiences conditions of three climate belts: Arctic, Subarctic, and moderate. While in the north there are less than 40 days with temperature higher than 10 °C (50 °F), in the south there are 110–120 such days.
The average temperature in January is −36 °C (−33 °F) in the north and −18 °C (0 °F) in the south. The average temperature in July is +10 °C (50 °F) in the north and +20 °C (68 °F) in the south. The annual precipitation is 316 millimeters (12.4 in) (up to 1,200 millimeters (47 in) in foothills of the Sayan Mountains). Snow covers the central regions of the krai from early November until late March. The peaks of the Sayans higher than 2,400–2,600 m and those of the Putorana Plateau higher than 1,000–1,300 m are covered with permanent snow. Permafrost is widespread, especially in the north.
The highest point of the krai is Grandiozny Peak in the East Sayan Mountains at an elevation of 2,922 meters (9,587 ft).
According to archeologists the territory of Siberia was settled around 40,000 BCE12citation needed The grave-mounds and monuments of the Scythian culture in Krasnoyarsk Krai belong to the 7th century BCE and are ones of the oldest in Eurasia. Among other things a prince's grave Kurgan Arshan exposed in 2001 is known.
The Russian settlement of the area (by Cossacks mostly) began in the 17th century. After the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad the Russian colonization of the area strongly increased.
During both the Tsarist and the Bolsheviks' regimes the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai was used as a place of exile of political enemies of current government. The first leaders of the Soviet state Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin were in exile on the territory of the nowadays krai in 1897–1900 and in 1903 respectively. In Stalin's era numerous Gulag camps were in the region.
In 1822, Yenisei Governorate was created with Krasnoyarsk as its administrative center that covered the territory very close to the one of the current krai.
On June 30, 1908, in the basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska River, there occurred a powerful explosion most likely to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5–10 kilometers (3–6 miles) above Earth's surface. The force of the explosion is estimated to be about 10–15 megatons. It flattened more than 2,000 square kilometers (500,000 acres) of pine forest and killed thousands of reindeer.
Krasnoyarsk Krai was created in 1934 after disaggregation of West Siberian and East Siberian Krais and then included Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Okrugs and Khakas Autonomous Oblast. In 1991, Khakassia separated from the krai and became a republic within the Russian Federation.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Krasnoyarsk CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Krasnoyarsk Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Krasnoyarsk Krai is the province's regional standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The legislative assembly consists of 52 deputies. 22 of them are elected in 22 one-mandate electoral districts by plurality system, 2 in Taymyr, 2 in Evenkia, and 26 are elected by proportional system from the lists offered by political parties. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the krai Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
In December 1991, president Boris Yeltsin appointed Arkady Veprev the first governor of Krasnoyarsk Krai. In January 1993 Boris Yeltsin appointed Valery Zubov the second governor of Krasnoyarsk Krai. In the Krasnoyarsk Territory governor elections were called. Zubov was elected in a universal election for a five-year term. The Legislative Assembly of Krasnoyarsk Krai was created as well.
In 1998, Zubov lost in the gubernatorial election to General Aleksandr Lebed, a politician well known in all Russia. But in 2002 Lebed died in a helicopter accident.
In 2002, Alexander Khloponin, the governor of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug and an influential businessman was elected a governor of Krasnoyarsk Krai. In 2007, he was nominated by president Vladimir Putin for re-election, and Khloponin was elected by the legislative assembly for the second term.
In 2010, after Khloponin was promoted to the office of the president's envoy in the North Caucasian Federal District, Lev Kuznetsov, a businessman and politician from Khloponin's circle, became new governor of the region.
Krasnoyarsk Krai is represented in the Federation Council of Russia, the upper house of the Russian parliament by two senators. In 2007, eight deputies were elected to the State Duma from Krasnoyarsk regional lists of different political parties.
Over 95% of the cities, a majority of the industrial enterprises, and all of the agriculture are concentrated in the south of the krai.
The krai is among the richest of Russia's regions in natural resources. Eighty percent of the country's nickel, 75% of its cobalt, 70% of its copper, 16% of its coal, and 10% of its gold are extracted here. Krasnoyarsk also produces 20% of the country's timber. More than 95% of Russian resources of platinum and platinoids are concentrated in the krai.
The krai's major industries are: non-ferrous metallurgy, energy, forestry, chemicals, and oil refining. The major financial industrial groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai are:
- Basic Element (Krasnoyarsk Aluminium Plant, Achinsk Alumina Complex, Krasnoyarsk Pulp and Paper Plant)
- Interros, (Norilsk Nickel)
- Evraz Group (iron mines, timber)
- MDM Group (SUEK, Siberian Coal and Energy Company)
- RusHydro (generation of electric power)
- RZhD (railroads)
The two most powerful hydroelectric plants in Russia are built on the Yenisei River, one is being built on the Angara, and several are being planned. It makes Krasnoyarsk Krai one of the most important producers of electric energy in Russia, and a desirable location for energy-intensive industries, such as aluminium plants.citation needed
- Trans-Siberian Railroad (650 km (400 mi) within Krasnoyarsk Krai), Norilsk Railroad (the most northern railroad in the world); North Siberian Railroad is planned.
- Highways: M53 Baikal (Novosibirsk-Krasnoyarsk-Irkutsk), M54 Yenisei (Krasnoyarsk-Kyzyl-Mongolia) R409 Eniseiskiy trakt (Krasnoyarsk-Lesosibirsk-Eniseisk).
- Northern Sea Route and shipping on Yenisei. The main ports are: Dudinka, Igarka, Turukhansk, Yeniseysk, Maklakovo, Strelka, Krasnoyarsk
- 26 airports, including large international one (Yemelyanovo near Krasnoyarsk).
- Two pipes of Irkutsk-Anzhero-Sudzhensk petroleum pipeline.
- Major power transmission lines.
The 2010 Census reported the following ethnic composition:8
- Russians: 91.3%
- Ukrainians: 1.4%
- Tatars: 1.3%
- Germans: 0.8%
- Azeri: 0.6%
- Belarusians: 0.4%
- Chuvash: 0.4%
- others: 2.5%
- 100,621 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.15
- Births (Jan-Aug 2009): 25,520 (13.3 per 1000) 16
- Deaths (Jan-Aug 2009): 25,183 (13.1 per 1000)
As of August 2009, Krasnoyarsk Krai recorded a natural growth of population for the first time in 16 years.17
- Vital statistics for 2012
- Births: 41 098 (14.5 per 1000)
- Deaths: 36 726 (12.9 per 1000) 20
- Total fertility rate: 1.75
As of a 2012 official survey22 29.6% of the population of Krasnoyarsk Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% declares to be generically Christian (excluding Catholic and Protestant), 2% follows other Orthodox Churches, 1.5% is Muslim, 1% follows Rodnovery (Slavic Paganism), 10.9% did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 35% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 15% to be atheist.22
Krasnoyarsk is the site of the Siberian Federal University, one of the four largest educational institutions of Russia.
- "Krasnoyarsk Kray symbols on the website of the Legislative Assembly". Sobranie.info. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Всероссийский Центральный Исполнительный Комитет. Постановление от 7 декабря 1934 г. «О разукрупнении Западносибирского и Восточносибирского краёв и образовании новых областей в Сибири». (All-Russian Central Executive Committee. Resolution of December 7, 1934 On the Subdivision of West Siberian and East Siberian Krais and on the Establishment of New Oblasts in Siberia. ).
- Official website of Krasnoyarsk krai. Lev Vladimirovich Kuznetsov (Russian)
- Charter, Article 46.3
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- "Arctic Social Sciences - Arctic Studies Center". Mnh.si.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
- "Новости Красноярска и Красноярского края — ИА "Пресс-Лайн"". Press-line.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
- Население ::Красноярскстат. Krasstat.gks.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
- Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации. Gks.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
- "Территориальный орган Федеральной службы государственной статистики по Красноярскому краю - Население". Statis.krs.ru. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Законодательное Собрание Красноярского края. №5-1777 5 июня 2008 г. «Устав Красноярского края». (Legislative Assembly of Krasnoyarsk Krai. #5-1777 June 5, 2008 Charter of Krasnoyarsk Krai. ).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Krasnoyarsk Krai.|
- Putorana Plateau at Natural Heritage Protection Fund
- Пантелеев В. НА ПЕРЕЛОМЕ: Аркадий Вепрев у руля. Победа Валерия Зубова на губернаторских выборах//Красноярский рабочий.- 2011. - №145.- 19 августа.