|This article does not cite any references or sources. (March 2008)|
|Subdivisions||3 provinces and 38 districts|
|• President||Nery Enni Saldarriaga de Kroll (2008-)|
|• Total||14,231.3 km2 (5,494.7 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,078 m (10,098 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||0 m (0 ft)|
|Population (2005 Census)|
|• Density||77/km2 (200/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||PE-LAM|
|Principal resources||Rice, sugarcane and fruit|
|Percentage of Peru's GDP||3.89%|
Lambayeque is a coastal region in northwestern Peru known for its rich Moche and Chimú historical past and related archeological sites and museums. The region's name originates from the ancient pre-Inca civilization of the Lambayeque, also called Sican culture.
The name Lambayeque is a Spanish derivation of the god Yampellec, said to have been worshipped by the first Lambayeque king, Naymlap. The Spanish colonists gave the name to the early people, also known as the Sicán, whose culture lasted from about AD 750 to 1375. They preceded the Inca Empire.
The territory of the Lambayeque Region is made up of wide plains irrigated by rivers from the Andes; in most of the arid area, irrigation is needed to support any farming. The fertile river valleys produce half of the sugar cane crop of Peru. In addition, Lambayeque and the Piura Region provide most of the rice crops consumed in Peru.
Increased agricultural harvest is expected with completion of the Olmos Transandino Project. The water supply project will transfer up to 2 billion m3 annually of water from the Huancabamba River in the Cajamarca Region east of Lambayeque.
In the smaller scale farming of earlier centuries, the Olmos Carob Tree Forest supported goat herds that fed on carobs. The fine goatskins were tanned to create the fine, pale, leather known as "cordoban" or "cordovan", from the Spanish town of Córdoba, where the process was developed. Goat fat was used to make soap.
There are two small islands off the Pacific coast of the Lambayeque Region: Lobos de Afuera, and Lobos de Tierra; there was a dispute with the Piura Region over control of the latter island.
The region is bordered by the Piura Region on the north, the Cajamarca Region on the southeast, the La Libertad Region on the south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.
Legend tells that in ancient times, a great float of balsa rafts arrived at the beaches of the existing San José cove. Formed by a brilliant cortège of nine foreign warriors, this float was led by a man of great talent and courage, named Naymlap, the mythical founder of the first northwest civilization.
The Wari dominated much of the coastal and highland area. Their Cerro Pátapo ruins, an important archeological site discovered in 2008 near Chiclayo, show that they had important centers in what is now Northern Peru. Formerly their territory was believed to be concentrated in the central and south regions.
The Chimú also developed a great civilization in Lambayeque before being conquered in the 15th century by the later Inca Empire. The Chimú grew to acquire a notable state parallel to the Inca. The Chimú moved their capital to the northern area, establishing great urban centers there. They were skilled farmers, textile experts and wonderful goldsmiths, producing extraordinary works in gold.
In the 16th century, the Spanish leader Francisco Pizarro took his conquistadors across the region on the way to Cajamarca, where he captured the Inca leader, massacred thousands of Inca with the aid of Indian allies, and concluded the defeat of the Inca empire. He was amazed by the gold seen in vases and utensils.
During Colonial times, a rivalry started between the people of the towns of Lambayeque and Santiago de Miraflores de Saña. The latter people lived in opulence and provoked the greed of pirates, who repeatedly raided and looted the city in the 17th century. A flood in 1720, however, destroyed Saña and marked the end of the flourishing city. It was not rebuilt.
The people of Lambayeque followed Juan Manuel Iturregui as their leader in the struggles for emancipation and independence from Spain. He spread libertarian ideas and helped get arms for the cause.
- Sugar Production in Peru (Spanish)
- Rice Production in Peru (Spanish)
- Olmos Project Information
- Chiclayo map
- Museo Sipan (Spanish)