Languages of Poland
|Languages of Poland|
|Regional languages||Ukrainian (25,000); Romani (14,000); Armenian (2,000), Hungarian (1,000)|
|Main immigrant languages||Russian (20,000), Vietnamese (3,000), Arabic (2,000), Greek (2,000), Chinese (1,000), Bulgarian (1,000), Turkish (1,000), Hindi (1,000) and others 1|
|Main foreign languages||English (29%)
|Sign languages||Polish Sign Language|
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According to the Act of 6 January 2005 on national and ethnic minorities and on the regional languages,2 16 other languages have officially recognized status of minority languages: 1 regional language, 10 languages of 9 national minorities (the minorities that have their own independent state elsewhere) and 5 languages of 4 ethnic minorities spoken by the members of minorities not having a separate state elsewhere). Jewish and Romani minorities, each has 2 minority languages recognized.
The following languages are spoken in Poland as well:
- Jewish languages: Yiddish and Hebrew
- Rusyn, called Lemko in Poland - in Polish: "łemkowski"
- Romani languages: official recognition is granted to the languages of two groups: Polska Roma and Bergitka Roma.3
- Tatar, called Tartar by the Act
The official recognition gives to the representatives of the minority certain rights (under certain conditions prescribed by the laws): of education in their language, of having the language established as the secondary administrative language or help language in their municipalities, of financial support of the state to the promotion of their language and culture etc.
- Wymysorys a.k.a. Vilamovian - seemingly moribund language with very few speakers, but contrary to Karaim language having a similar situation, it was practically unknown of in the time of preparation of the forementioned Act.
- Silesian - status severely disputed, question whether a dialect of Polish or separate language considered a political issue. Ethnologue distinguishes two Silesian languages, Silesian and Upper Silesian, which fact is unknown to the participants of the debate about the status of Silesian in Poland, and is never even mentioned in disputes.
These languages are not recognized as minority languages, as the Act of 2005 defines minority as "a group of Polish citizens (...) striving to preserve its language, culture or tradition, (...) whose ancestors have been living on the present territory of the Republic of Poland for at least 100 years":
- Greek - language of the big Greek diaspora in Poland of 1950-ies.
- Vietnamese - the biggest immigrant community in Poland, since 1960-ies, having their own newspapers, schools, churches etc.
Among languages used in Poland, Ethnologue.4 mentions also:
- one constructed language - the International Auxiliary Language Esperanto (created in Poland),
- one dead language - Prussian,
but does not mention two other known defunct languages:
- Slovincian language - dialects of the Pomeranian language, dead about the beginning of the 20th century, closely related to Kashubian,
- Yatvingian, dead about mid-16th (or maybe end of 19th century).
- Ludność. Stan i struktura demograficzno=społeczna. Retrieved on 2013-04-14.
-  Ministry of Interior of Poland
- According to Ethnologue the following Romani languages are spoken in Poland: Romani Vlax, Romani Carpathian, Romani Sinte, Baltic Romani. See: Ethnologue. Languages of the World, Ethnologue report for Poland
- Ethnologue. Languages of the World, Ethnologue report for Poland
- Ministry of Interior of Poland website all the acts, dispositions and bylaws related to the issue of minorities and their languages
- Policy on Minority and Regional Languages in Poland