List of accidents and disasters by death toll

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of accidents and disasters by death toll. It shows the number of fatalities associated with various explosions, structural fires, flood disasters, coal mine disasters, and other notable accidents. This list does not include deaths by natural disasters, war, or violent acts

Aviation

This list does not include incidents, such as terrorist attacks, where the loss of life is widely agreed to have been the deliberate consequence of a criminal act.

Deaths Incident Location Date
583 Pan Am Flight 1736 and
KLM Flight 4805
Spain-Canary Islands-TenerifeTenerife, Spain 27 Mar 1977
520 Japan Airlines Flight 123 Japan-UenoUeno, Japan 12 Aug 1985
349 Saudi Arabian Flight 763 and
Kazakhstan Airlines Flight 1907
India-Charkhi DadriCharkhi Dadri, India 12 Nov 1996
346 Turkish Airlines Flight 981 France-Fontaine-ChaalisFontaine-Chaalis, France 3 Mar 1974
301 Saudia Flight 163 Saudi Arabia-RiyadhRiyadh, Saudi Arabia 19 Aug 1980
290 Iran Air Flight 655 Iran-Strait of HormuzStrait of Hormuz, Iran 3 Jul 1988
275 Iranian Air Force (15-2280) Iran-KermanKerman, Iran 19 Feb 2003
273 American Airlines Flight 191 US-Des PlainesDes Plaines, US 25 May 1979

Explosions

This list does not include bombings, aviation incidents, or mining disasters

Deaths Date Incident
6,000 November 1948 Boiler and ammunition explosion aboard an unidentified merchant ship evacuating troops of the Republic of China Army from Yingkou, China for Taiwan in early November 19481
1,950 December 6, 1917 Halifax Explosion in Nova Scotia, Canada2
1,500 June 8, 1941 Ammunition plant with facilities explode at Smederevo, outskirt of Belgrade, Serbia
1,200 October 16, 1926 Explosion of ammunition on the Chinese troopship Kuang Yuang, near Kiukiang, China3
1,200 August 7, 1956 Ammunition trucks explode near a railway station in Cali, Colombia
1,121 September 1, 1943 Japanese battleship Mutsu, at Hashirajima harbor, 1943 due to magazine explosion
1,100 January 27, 2002 Lagos Armoury Explosion, in Lagos, Nigeria; many deaths were from drowning during the resulting panic
1,007 November 18, 1918 Ammunition transporter explosion in Hamont, Belgium
1,000+ August 31, 1794 Explosion of a gunpowder factory in Grenelle, France
843 July 9, 1917 Propellant explosion of the British dreadnought battleship HMS Vanguard
800 April 14, 1944 Bombay Docks Explosion in Bombay, India
738 November 26, 1914 British pre-dreadnought battleship HMS Bulwark destroyed due to a magazine explosion,
700 August 17, 1988 Iraqi military plant with facilities explode at Al Hillah, Babil, Iraq
621 February 27, 1925 Explosion of a dynamite depot in Brazil4
600+ March 28, 1943 Explosion of the Caterina Costa, at port of Naples; over 3000 were also injured
590 November 3, 1893 Explosion of the Cabo Machichaco, at the port of Santander, Cantabria, Spain, with over 2000 injured5
575 June 4, 1989 Ufa train disaster in Ufa, Soviet Union
568+ April 16, 1947 Texas City disaster
565 September 21, 1921 Oppau explosion at a BASF plant in Germany; possibly as many as 1,500 were killed
500+ November 19, 1984 San Juanico Disaster, in Mexico City, Mexico
372 December 11, 1944 Ammunition ship USS Mount Hood exploded at Seeadler Harbor, killing 372 and injuring 371
339 September 11, 1905 Japanese battleship Mikasa explosion of magazine (artillery) while at port
322 July 17, 1944 Port Chicago disaster at Port Chicago, California
around 300 September 25, 1911 An explosion occurred on the French battleship Liberté
296+ March 18, 1937 New London School explosion at New London, Texas
246+ March 4, 2012 Brazzaville arms dump blasts at Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo
234 December 23, 2003 PetroChina Chuandongbei natural gas field explosion, Guoqiao, Chongqing, China
233 October 20, 1916 Russian battleship Imperatritsa Mariya magazine explosion
230+ July 2, 2010 South Kivu tank truck explosion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
226+ July 18, 1806 Gunpowder explosion near Valletta, Malta
217 July 11, 1978 Los Alfaques disaster, in Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain
207 July 28, 1948 Tank car explosion at BASF, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany; 3,818 were also injured6
206 April 22, 1992 Gas explosions in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
200+ June 6, 1991 Gotera ammunition dump explosion in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
200 December 2, 1984 Gas explosion in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
200 May 1, 1900 Scofield Mine disaster in Scofield, Utah, U.S., caused by a dust explosion
200 February 27, 1908 Mina Rosita Vieja disaster, San Juan de Sabinas, Coahuila, Mexico
180 August 26, 1990 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Dobrnja-Jug mine disaster
177 1941 Mitsubishi Bibai, Bibai, Hokkaidō, Japan
171 February 15, 1991 A trailer truck carrying dynamite exploded after a crash at Thung Maphrao, Phang Nga, Thailand
166 November 28, 2004 Chenjiashan, Tongchuan, Shaanxi, China
163 May 21, 1944 West Loch Disaster, where the tank landing ship LST-353 exploded at West Loch while handling ammunition
160 April 20, 1944 Vågen explosion in Norway
159 September 26, 2000 Muchonggou, Shuicheng, Guizhou, China
154 April 22, 2004 Ryongchon disaster in North Korea
153 1982 Tacoa Disaster (Tacoa Power Plant, Arrecife, Venezuela)
151 1807 Gunpowdership disaster in Leiden, the Netherlands
151 July 9, 1930 Hausdorf, Germany (currently Jugów, Poland)
150 November 2, 1773 Gunpowder explosion in Abbeville, France
150 March 28, 2011 Jaʿār munitions factory explosion in Abyan Governorate, Yemen7
147 August 18, 1947 Spanish Naval torpedo and landmine factory exploded at Cadiz, Andalusia, Spain
140 January 31, 2009 Sachangwan Molo tanker explosion in Kenya
134 July 1, 1918 Chilwell Munitions factory explosion in Nottingham, England
133 1917 Munitions plant in Pennsylvania, U.S
130 October 20, 1944 Cleveland East Ohio Gas explosion in Cleveland, Ohio, U.S
126 March 11, 1597 Dublin Gunpowder Disaster in Dublin, Ireland
121 July 12, 2012 Road tanker explosion in Okobie, Nigeria
118 March 12, 1907 Explosion on the French battleship Iéna
117 March 22, 2007 2007 Maputo arms depot explosion at Mozambican Armed Forces ammunition in Laulane, Mozambique.citation needed
117 June 3, 2010 Electrical transformer explosion in Dhaka, Bangladesh
116 1916 Munitions factory, Faversham, Kent, England
110 March 12, 1995 A tanker truck carrying petrol exploded at Chennai, India
105 November 24, 1980 24 houses of liquefied petroleum gas exploded at Danaciobasi, Kırıkkale, Turkey
103 May 26, 1954 USS Bennington, off Quonset Point, Rhode Island, Catapult_Explosion
103 April 28, 1995 Gas explosions by subway construction in Daegu, South Korea
100 October 12, 1654 Delft Explosion in the Netherlands, 1654)
100 February 12, 1693 Gunpowder explosion in Limerick, Ireland
100 June 21, 1749 Gunpowder explosion in Wrocław, Poland
100 1918 Chemical plant in Pittsburgh, U.S
100 October 4, 1918 T. A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Plant explosion in Sayreville, New Jersey, U.S.8
100 June 10, 1930 Explosion of an ammunitions dump in Chuchow, China9
100 April 10, 1988 Pakistani Army ammunitions dump explodes at Islamabad, Pakistan
100 May 15, 2008 NNPC oil pipeline explosion, which blasted a primary school at Ijegun, Nigeria
98 March 28, 2007 A truck carrying 8,800 gallons of fuel exploded and caught fire at Kagarko, Kaduna, Nigeria
94 March 1, 1939 Japanese Imperial Army ammunitions dump exploded at Hirakata, outskirt of Osaka, Japan
94 December 27, 1924 Temiya railroad station and Otaru harbor facilities destroyed by an exploding standing freight train carrying dynamite at Otaru, Hokkaidō, Japan
92 October 24, 1960 Nedelin catastrophe, at a spacecenter in Baikonur, Kazakhstan
90 January 31, 1996 Explosion of a large store of dynamite in the basement of a five-story apartment building in Shaoyang, Hunan, China
90 June 20, 2004 A truck carrying 3,800 gallons of gasoline with six vehicles crashed and exploded at Nosratabad, Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran
79 April 8, 1970 Gas explosions by subway construction in Osaka, Japan
78 October 12, 1978 Greek tanker Spyros exploded at Jurong shipyard, Singapore
75 November 27, 1944 Underground ammunition store explosion at Fauld, Staffordshire, England
74 October 31, 1963 Propane explosion at the Indiana State Fairgrounds Coliseum during a Holiday On Ice show at the Indiana State Fair in Indianapolis
73 January 19, 1917 Silvertown explosion in London, England
73 June 4, 1988 Arzamas train disaster, where a railroad station exploded in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia
70 August 18, 1946 Vergarolla explosion at Pula, Italy
70 August 6, 1993 Shenzhen factory explosions in Shenzhen, China. A chain reaction of explosions rippled through factory district originating from an army-owned factory.10
63 September 25, 1990 A tank truck carrying liquefied petroleum gas crashed and exploded in downtown Bangkok, Thailand
63 August 31, 1987 St. Helena Gold Mine explosion by methane gas in Welkom, Free State, South Africa
60 1936 Army laboratory (near Tallinn, Estonia)
60 September 9, 2000 Truck explosion in Urumqi, Xinjiang Uygur, China
60 November 11, 1994 Tank truck explosion, while carrying fuel oil at outskirt of Onitscha, Nigeria
57 November 11, 1977 Freight train with dynamite exploded at Iri railroad station, Iksan, Jeollabukdo, South Korea
57 May 18, 1980 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens
51 September 12, 1940 297,000 pounds of gunpowder blew up killing 51 people at Hercules Powder Factory of Kenvil, New Jersey, U.S.11
50 July 2, 1918 Explosion at TNT factory at Split Rock, New York, U.S
50 January 8, 1979 Oil tanker explosion, known as the Betelgeuse incident at Whiddy Island, West Cork, Ireland
50 July 28, 1987 Three cars of passenger train from Aleppo, that exploded at Al Jazira, northern Syria
49 February 15, 1979 Gas explosion in PKO Rotunda Bank, Warsaw Poland
49 October 23, 1980 Gas explosion at Colegio Marcelino Ugalde, Vizcaya, Ortuella, Spain
49 July 12, 1646 Explosion in Powder Tower of the castle of Bredevoort, the Netherlands
48 1980 Vostok rocket explosion (Plesetsk Cosmodrome, Russi)
48 August 25, 2012 Paraguana Refinery Complex explosion, Falcon State, Venezuela
47 April 19, 1989 USS Iowa turret explosion
47 July 6, 2013 Lac-Megantic, Quebec, freight train derailment, explosion and fire
45 June 11, 1996 Gas explosion in Osasco Plaza Shopping Mall in Osasco, Brazil. Another 482 were injured
41 April 6, 1968 Richmond, Indiana explosion; more than 150 were injured
41 January 7, 1993 Uam apartment complex collapsed by gas explosion at Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea
40 July 12, 1646 Gunpowder Tower Disaster, lightning struck the gunpowder tower of the castle, Bredevoort, the Netherlands
40 April 13, 1976 Lapua ammo factory in Finland
39 April 29, 1993 Hekimbasi gabage dump with twelve slum houses explosion at Umraniye, Istanbul, Turkey
36 August 16, 1984 Petrobras Campos Basin exploded, off eastern Rio state, Brazil
35 1916 Ammunition factory near Leeds, England
35 September 19, 1999 A potassium chloride explosion in a dried-longan factory, San Pa Tong, Chiang Mai, Thailand
33+ April 30, 1931 Explosion at a naval laboratory in Brazil12
33 November 21, 1996 Humberto Vidal explosion in San Juan, Puerto Rico
32 June 29, 2009 2009 Viareggio derailment, a gas train explosion in Italy
29 September 21, 2001 AZF chemical factory explosion in Toulouse, France
29 2008 Blast in ammunition depot in Albania
28 June 1, 1974 Flixborough chemical plant explosion near Scunthorpe, England
28 August 11, 1871 Explosion in gun cotton factory in Stowmarket, Suffolk, England
27 January 19, 2004 LNG liquefaction plant explosion, Skikda, Algeria
26 May 7, 2013 2013 Ecatepec de Morelos gas tanker explosion, Ecatepec de Morelos, Mexico
25 September 5, 2012 2012 Afyonkarahisar arsenal explosion, Turkey
25 July 16, 1992 Tarata bombing, Lima, Peru
24 July 30, 2004 Gas explosion in Ghislenghien, Belgium
23 January 10, 1976 Pathfinder Hotel, Fremont, Nebraska, U.S
23 October 23, 1989 Phillips Disaster in Pasadena, Texas, U.S
22 1995 Gas explosion in tower block, (Gdańsk, Poland)
23 May 13, 2000 Fireworks factory (Enschede, the Netherlands), Enschede fireworks disaster
21 January 15, 1919 Boston Molasses Disaster in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S
21 June 25, 1985 Fireworks explosion in Hallet, Oklahoma, U.S
21 1926 Arsenal dump in New Jersey
21 August 22, 2003 Brazilian rocket explosion
19 July 29, 1956 McKee refinery fire in Sunray, Texas, U.S
19 October 29, 1951 Morania Fire, Buffalo, New York. Destroyed Morania, Penobscot, and Dauntless
18 January 4, 1966 Propane Sphere Explosion and Fire, Feyzin, France
18 May 24, 2004 Mihăileşti explosion in Romania
16 May 23, 1984 Pump House Explosion, Lune/Wyre Transfer Scheme, Abbeystead, England
15 March 23, 2005 Texas City Refinery explosion, Texas City, Texas, U.S
15 August 16, 1980 Gas explosions from an underground shopping mall in Shizuoka, Japan, Shizuoka, Shizuoka#Post-war Shizuoka
15 April 17, 2013 West Fertilizer Company explosion, West, Texas, U.S
14 February 7, 2008 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion (Port Wentworth, Georgia, U.S.)
14 February 2, 1973 Gas explosion in downtown Eagle Grove, Iowa, U.S
13 July 11, 2011 Evangelos Florakis Naval Base explosion (Mari, Cyprus
15 October 4, 1960 Kingsport, TN Chemical Plant Explosion, October 1960#October 4.2C 1960 .28Tuesday.29
11 April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, near the Missipippi River Delta
10 October 25, 1960 Metropolitan Store explosion, Windsor, Ontario, Canada
10 August 19, 2000 El Paso Pipeline explosion, two families camping 20 miles North of Carlsbad, NM off the Pecos River.13
8 December 7, 1983 Gas explosion in Łódź, Poland
8 November 20, 2002 Amunitions factory explosion in Riobamba, Ecuador14
8 July 22, 2011 A car bomb exploded in Oslo, Norway. It was a part of the 2011 Norway attacks where a total of 77 people were killed by the Norwegian terrorist Anders Behring Breivik.
7 December 27, 1983 North Division Street explosion, Buffalo, New York, U.S
7 September 7, 1984 Illegal fireworks that were being disposed by the Maltese patrol boat C23 exploded killing seven and injuring another

Industrial disasters

Deaths Incident
3,787 to 19,000+ Bhopal disaster (India, 1984)
1,549 Benxihu Colliery explosion, China, 1942
1,129 Collapse of the Rana Plaza (Savar Upazila, Dhaka District, Bangladesh, April 24, 2013)15
1,099 Courrières mine disaster, Courrières, France, March 10, 1906
687 Mitsubishi Hōjō, Kyūshū, Japan, December 15, 1914
682 Laobaidong colliery coal dust explosion Datong, China, May 9, 1960
568+ Texas City Disaster (Texas City, Texas, April 16 & 17, 1947)
512 Sumitomo Besshi bronze mine area, landslide with debris flow disaster, Niihama, Shikoku, Japan, 1899
500+ San Juanico Disaster (Mexico City, November 19, 1984)16
458 Mitsui Miike Coal Mine disaster Mitsui Miike, Ōmuta, Fukuoka, Japan, November 9, 196317
439 Senghenydd Colliery Disaster, Senghenydd, Wales, 1913
437 Coalbrook, South Africa, 1960
426 Wankie coal mine disaster Wankie, Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, 1972
422 New Yubari, Yūbari, Hokkaidō, Japan, November 28, 1914
405 Bergkamen mining disaster, West Germany, 1946
388 Oaks Colliery, Barnsley, England, 1866
376 Onoura, Kirino, Kyūshū, Japan, December 21, 1917
375 Bihar, India, 1965
372 Chasnala mining disaster, Sudamdih Colliery Dhanbad, India, 1975
365 Hokoku, Itoda, Kyūshū, Japan, July 20, 1907
362 Monongah Mining disaster, Monongah, West Virginia, U.S., 1907
344 Pretoria Pit Disaster, Westhoughton, England, 1910
319 Marie iron mine fire, Příbram, Czech Republic, May 31, 1892
300+ 2012 Pakistan garment factory fires, Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan, September 11, 2012
300+ Nambija mine disaster, landslide destroying several mines and buildings, Ecuador, May 9, 1993
298 Saarland, West Germany, 1962
277 2008 Shanxi mudslide caused by collapse of a mine landfill in Xiangfen, Linfen, Shanxi, China, September 8, 200818
266 Gresford Disaster Gresford, Wales, 1934
263 Dawson, New Mexico, U.S., 1913
263 Incirharmani, Kozlu, Zonguldak, Turkey, March 3, 1992
262 Marcinelle, Belgium, 1956
259 1909 Cherry Mine disaster, Cherry, Illinois, U.S., 1909
254 Kogushi sulfur mine collapse, western Gunma, Japan, 1937
243 Onoura, Kirino, Kyūshū, Japan, August 5, 1909
243 PetroChina Chuandongbei natural gas field explosion, Guoqiao, Kai County, Chongqing, China, 200319
239 Darr Mine Disaster, Jacobs Creek, Pennsylvania, U.S., 1907
236 Chikuho Yamano, Kyūshū, Japan, June 1, 1965
235 Larisch's mines (Jan and Františka), Karviná, Czech Republic, June 14, 1894
220 El Cobre tailing dam and copper mine failure by earthquake in Chile on March 28, 1965
216 Fraterville, Tennessee, U.S., May 19, 1902
214 2005 Sunjiawan mine disaster, Sunjiawan, Fuxin, Liaoning, China, February 15, 2005
210 Hokoku, Itoda, Kyūshū, Japan, June 15, 1899
202 Bolevec ammunition factory explosion, Plzeň, Czech Republic, May 25, 1917
200+ Vila Socó oil spill fire (Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil, February 25, 1984)
200+ Scofield Mine disaster, Scofield, Utah, U.S., 1900
200+ Mina Rosita Vieja disaster, San Juan de Sabinas, Coahuila, Mexico, February 27, 1908
189 Hillcrest mine disaster, Hillcrest, Alberta, Canada, 1914
183 Chosei, Ube, Japan, February 3, 1942
181 Mine disaster with flooding, Huayuan, Xintai, Shandong, China, August 17, 2007
180 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1990
177 Kinross gold mine fire, Transvaal, South Africa, on September 16, 198620
177 Mitsubishi Bibai, Bibai, Hokkaidō, Japan, 1941
169 Hanna Mine Disaster, Hanna, Wyoming, U.S., 1903
168 Speculator Mine disaster, (Butte, Montana, June 8, 1917)
167 Piper Alpha oil rig disaster (North Sea, July 6, 1988)
166 Chenjiashan, Tongchuan, Shaanxi, China, November 28, 2004
160+ Tacoa powerplant fire, Vargas State, Venezuela, December 19, 1982.citation needed
159 Muchonggou, Shuicheng, Guizhou, China, September 26, 2000
155 Minnie Pit, Podmore Hall, Halmer End, Staffordshire, UK, January 12, 1918
153 Mina de Barroteran, Coahuila, Mexico, March 31, 1969
151 Hausdorf, Germany, currently Jugów, Poland, July 9, 1930
150 Nanaimo mine explosion, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada, 1887
148 Dapingdisambiguation needed, Tongchuan, Henan, China, October 20, 2004
147 Sanjiaohe, Hongdong, Shanxi, China, April 21, 1991
146 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, (New York City, 1911)
144 Aberfan landslide disaster (Wales, 1966)
142 Nelson, Osek, Czech Republic, January 3, 1934
134 Uchigo, Iwaki, Japan, March 27, 1927
134 Dongfeng, Qitaihe, Heilongjiang, China, November 27, 2005
125 Buffalo Creek Flood / Pittston Coal Company dam failure, (West Virginia, United States, 1972)
125 Springhill mining disaster, Canada, February 21, 1891
125 Amaga, Angelopolis, Antioquia, Colombia, July 15, 1977
124 Chengzihe, Jixi, Heilongjiang, China, June 20, 2002
123 Alexander Kielland wreck, oil platform destroyed by high wind, Ekofisk oil field, Norway, 1980
123 Daxing, Xingning, Guangdong, China, August 6, 2005
121 Victor American Hastings Mine Disaster, near Ludlow, Colorado, April 27, 1917
119 Orient #2 Mine, West Frankfort, Illinois, U.S., December 25, 1951
111 1947 Centralia mine disaster, Centralia, Illinois, U.S., March 25, 1947
110 Avondale Mine Disaster, Plymouth, Pennsylvania, U.S., September 6, 1869
109 Everettville, West Virginia, U.S., April 30, 1927
108 Ulyanovskaya, Novokuznetsk, Kuzbass Region, Siberia, Russia, March 19, 2007
108 Dukla, Dolná Súča, Slovakia, July 7, 1961
108 Jan, Karviná, Czech Republic, March 5, 1885
105 Vaal Reef gold mine elevator failure, Orkney, Klerksdorp, South Africa, May 11, 1995
105 Ruizhiyuan, Linfen, Shanxi, China, December 5, 2007
104 William pit disaster, Whitehaven, Cumberland, United Kingdom, August 15, 1947
101 (methane explosion) Zasyadko, Donetsk, Ukraine, November 18, 2007
100 Armutçuk, Ereğli, Zonguldak, Turkey, March 8, 1983
94 Haishan, Taipei, Taiwan, December 5, 1984
93 Hokutan Yubari, Yubari, Hokkaidō, Japan, October 16, 1981
92 Nová Jáma, Orlová, Czech Republic, May 20, 1919
92 Rudnici, Aleksinac, Nisava District, Serbia, November 18, 1989
92 Gangzi, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China, July 22, 2001
92 Baltimore Colliery explosion, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, U.S., June 5, 1919
91 Dongcun, Datong, Shanxi, China, November 27, 1996
91 Bartley, West Virginia, U.S., January 10, 1940
91 Hard rock mine fire (Sunshine mine, Kellogg, Idaho, May 2, 1972)
89 Xingsheng, Pingdingshan, Henan, China, March 11, 1997
86 Luling coal mine, Hefei, Anhui, China, May 13, 2003
84 Ocean Ranger oil platform sinking, Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada, February 15, 1982
84 Cross Mountain Mine disaster, Briceville, Tennessee, U.S., December 9, 1911
83 Mitsui Miike coal mine, Ōmuta, Fukuoka, Japan, January 18, 1984
83 Shenlong, Fukang, Xinjiang Uygur, China, July 13, 2005
82 Barakova, Krasnodon, Ukraine, March 11, 2000
82 Millfield Mine disaster, Dover Township, Athens County, Ohio, U.S., November 5, 1930
78 Farmington Mine disaster, Farmington, West Virginia, U.S., November 20, 1968
76 Spyros disaster, Singapore, October 12 1978
74 Springhill mining disaster, Springhill, Nova Scotia, Canada, October 23, 1958
74 Smith Mine disaster, Bearcreek, Montana, U.S., February 27, 1943
73 San Fernando, Amaga, Antioquia, Colombia, June 17, 2010.citation needed
72 Willow Grove #10 explosion, Neffs, Ohio, U.S., March 16, 194021
72 Price-Pancoast Colliery fire, Throop, Pennsylvania, April 7, 1911
71 Ueda Kamikiyo, Kawara, Kyūshū, Japan, March 9, 1961
71 Trimdon Grange, County Durham, England, February 16, 188222
68 Kukje Rubber Manufacturing plant No.2 fire at Busan, South Korea, March 2, 1960
68 Zyryanouskaya, Novokuznetsk, Kuzbass Siberia, Russia, December 2, 1997
66 Mossfield, Longton, Staffordshire, U.K., October 16, 1889
65 KTS Composite Textile factory fire, at Chittagong, Bangladesh on February 24, 2006
65 Brunner Mine disaster, West Coast, New Zealand, March 26, 1896
65 Pluto, Záluží, Czech Republic, September 4, 198123 Hlobane, Vryheid, Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, September 3, 1983
64 Sverdlovsk anthrax leak (Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, April 2, 1979)
63 St. Helena gold mine explosion by methane gas, Welkom, Free State, South Africa on August 31, 1987
63 Skochynsky, Donetsk, Ukraine, April 4, 1998
63 Sonman Mine explosion, Portage, Pennsylvania, U.S., July 15, 1940
62 Hlubina, Ostrava, Czech Republic, July 29, 1867
61 Trojice, Ostrava, Czech Republic, January 3, 1891
60 Shahe iron mine caught fire, Hebei, China, November 22, 2004
60 Beilongfeng, Fushun, Liaoning, China, May 28, 1997
59 Xishui mine, Shanxi province, China, March 20, 2005
59 Bettina, Orlová, Czech Republic, March 26, 1885
58 Twin Shaft Disaster, Pittston, Pennsylvania, U.S., June 28, 1896
56 Bright Sparkler fireworks factory explosion at Sungai Buloh, Malaysia, 1991
55 Four-story Rosamor Furniture ameublements plant fire, Lissasfa, Casablanca, Morocco on April 25, 2008
54 Hlubina, Ostrava, Czech Republic, May 22, 1960
54 Františka, Záluží, Czech Republic, 1860
54 1932 Moweaqua Coal Mine disaster, Moweaqua, Illinois, December 24, 1932
53 Secunda, Mpumalanga, East Transvaal, South Africa, May 13, 1993
52 Zasyadka, Donetsk, Ukraine, August 19, 2001
47 Auchinloch, North Lanarkshire, Scotland, September 18, 1959
45 Surran range, Quetta, Pakistan, March 21, 2011
45 Abertillery, Blaenau Gwent, Wales, June 28, 1960
43 Staříč, Czech Republic, December 30, 1976
43 Muchonggou, Shuicheng, Guizhou, China, February 24, 2003
40 Lapua ammunition factory explosion (Finland, 1976)
39 Springhill, Nova Scotia, Canada, November 1, 1956
38 Hurricane Creek mine disaster, Hyden, Kentucky, U.S., December 30, 1970
37 Czechowice-Dziedzice Refinery fire, Poland, June 26–27, 1971
36 Michálka, Ostrava, Czech Republic, October 4, 1950
36 Donbass, Donetsk, Ukraine, July 19, 2004
36 Lancashire Mine, Shanktown, Pennsylvania, U.S., January 26, 1924
35 West Gate Bridge collapse (during construction), Melbourne, Australia. October 15, 1970
34 Naomi Mine explosion, Fayette City, Pennsylvania, U.S., December 1, 1907
34 Dukla, Šardice, Czech Republic, June 9, 1970
33 Anna, Souš, Czech Republic, 1890
31 Industria Mirafe Toy Factory blast, Ibi, Alicante, Spain on August 16, 1968.citation needed
31 ČSA, Karviná, Czech Republic, March 22, 1977
30 Osceola Mine fire, copper mine fire in Osceola Township, Houghton County, Michigan, on September 7, 189524
30 Holditch Colliery, Chesterton, Staffordshire, UK, July 2, 1937
30 Barbora, Karviná, Czech Republic, October 18, 1990
30 Abaiskaya, Abai, Karaganda Oblast, Kazakhstan, January 11, 2008
29 AZF factory explosion (chemical), Toulouse, France, September 21, 2001
29 Pike River Mine disaster, Greymouth, New Zealand, November 19, 2010
29 Upper Big Branch mine explosion, Montcoal, West Virginia, April 5, 2010
29 Nordegg, Alberta, Canada, October 31, 1941
28 Flixborough disaster, (England, June 1, 1974)
26 Paskov, Paskov, Czech Republic, April 4, 1970
26 Westray Mine, Nova Scotia, Canada, May 9, 1992
25 Doubrava, Czech Republic, May 7, 1985
25 Chatterley Whitfield, Staffordshire, February 7, 1881
24 Nanshan Colliery disaster, Shanxi Province, China, November 13, 2006
24 Doubrava, Czech Republic, February 12, 1949
23 Phillips Disaster (Pasadena, Texas, USA, October 23, 1989)
23 Methane explosion in Halemba coal mine, Ruda Śląska, Poland, November 21, 2006
22 Hindustan Petroleum Refinery fire – 14 September 1997, Vishakapatnam, Andhra pradesh, India25
21 Boston Molasses Disaster (Boston, 1919)
21 Kings Bay, Svalbard, Norway, November 5, 196226
20 2009 Handlová mine blast, Handlová, Slovakia, August 10, 2009
19 (with 20 injured) methane explosion in Halemba coal mine, Ruda Śląska Poland January 10, 1990
17 Ganglu Iron and Steel Co Ltd., gas leak (Hebei, China, December 24, 2008)
17 Merriespruit tailings dam disaster, Virginia, Free State, South Africa, February 22, 1994
17 Mine No. 9, Sturgis, Union County, Kentucky, U.S., June 8, 1925
16 Ningxia, China, October 16, 2008
15 West Fertilizer Company explosion, West, Texas, USA, April 17, 2013
15 BP Americas Texas City isomerization unit explosion (Texas City, Texas, USA, March 23, 2005)
11 Kingsport, TN Chemical Plant Explosion, Oct 1960
11 Robin Hood Flour Company grain storage elevator explosion (Davenport, Iowa, USA, 1975)
11 Webb Farm disaster, illegal fireworks operation in Benton, Tennessee (May 27, 1983)27
11 BP Deepwater Horizon explosion (Gulf of Mexico, April 20, 2010)
7 Tesoro Refinery [Anacortes, Washington] (April 2, 2010)
5 Xcel Energy Cabin Creek Hydroelectric Plant Fire (Georgetown, Colorado October 2, 2007)

Maritime

Deaths Incident
1,565–4,400 MV Doña Paz (Tablas Strait, Philippines, 1987). Casualty estimates vary because of overloading and unmanifested passengers
2,750–3,920 SS Kiangya (off Shanghai, 1948). Estimates of casualties vary due to large number of stowaways on board
1,863 MV Joola (Senegal, 2002)
1,547 SS Sultana (Mississippi River, 1865)
1,517 RMS Titanic (North Atlantic, 1912)
1,500 Steamer Hai Chu (Bocca Tigris, 1945)28
1,500 Taiping, (East China Sea, 1949)
1,198 RMS Lusitania (North Atlantic, 1915)
1,159 Toya Maru (Tsugaru Strait, 1954)
1,021 SS General Slocum (New York, 1904)
1,018 MS al-Salam Boccaccio 98 (Red Sea, 2006)
1,012 RMS Empress of Ireland, (Saint Lawrence River, 1914)
1,000 SS Kiche Maru (off Honshu, Japan, 1912)
1,000 SS Hsin-Yu (Zhoushan, 1916)
~1,000 SS Hong Moh (South China Sea, 1921)
894 MV Bukoba (Lake Victoria, Tanzania, 1996)
852 MS Estonia (Baltic Sea, 1994)
844 SS Eastland (Chicago, 1915)
832 MV Princess of Stars capsized by Typhoon Fengshen off Sibuyan Island, Philippines, June 21, 2008
737 SS Camorta (Irrawaddy Delta, 1902)
702 Slave trade ship Leusden, (Marowijne Suriname, January 18, 1738)
673 HMS Queen Charlotte (Cabrera, 1800)
~640 SS Princess Alice and SS Bywell Castle (River Thames, 1878)
627 SS Norge (Rockall, 1904)
625 1947 Ramdas Ship Disaster, SS Ramdas (Bombay, 1947)
608 Novorossiysk (Sevastopol, 1955)
600 Shamia (Meghna River, southern Barisa, Bangladesh, May 1986)
587 Ertuğrul (off Kushimoto, Japan, 1890)
580 Indonesian passenger ship Tampomas 2 (caught fire and sank in Java Sea, January 1981)
570 HMS Minotaur (off Texel, Netherlands, December 22, 1810)
558 SS Principe de Asturias (off Brazil, 1916)
550 Cahaya Bahari (off Sulawesi, Indonesia, 2000)
546 RMS Atlantic (Nova Scotia, 1873)
528 MV Nazreen 1 (Chandpur, Bangladesh, July 2003)
500 Atlas Star (Dhaleswar River, Munshiganj, Bangladesh, 1986)
497 Ebisu Maru (off Tokushima, Japan, 1946)
496 Saint-Philibert (off Île de Noirmoutier, France, 1931)
464 Salem Express (off Safaga, Egypt, 1991)
461 MV Senopati Nusantara (off Mandalika Island, Indonesia, 2006)
438 Baccha Singh (Manihari Ghat, Bihar, River Ganges, August 6, 1988)
423 SS Admiral Nakhimov (Black Sea, 1986)
400 Reina Regenta (off Gibraltar, March 11, 1895)
400 PS Lady Elgin (Chicago, 1860)
400 Cataraqui (King Island, Australia, 1865)
397 Toyo Maru 10 (near Kurushima, Japan, 1945)
392 SS Himera (off Athens, Greece, January 19, 1947)
361 KM Bismas Raya 2 (off Merauke, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, October 1999)
358 Drummond Castle, (off Ouessant, France, June 16, 1896)
358 HMS Victoria (near Tripoli, Lebanon, 1893)
357 10th of Ramadan (Lake Nasser, Egypt, 1983)
353 SIEV-X (off Indonesia, 2001)
350 Annie James (off Vatersay, Outer Hebrides, United Kingdom, 1853)
340 Shalahuddin 2 (Meghna River, Bangladesh, 2002)
338 Gurita (off Sabang, Aceh, Indonesia, January 1996)
325 Harta Limba (off Kalimantan, Indonesia, 1999)
314 Principessa Mafalda (off Porto Seguro, Bahia, Brazil, October 25, 1927)
308 Namyong-Ho (Korean Strait, 1970)
304 Japanese passenger boat Sekirei Maru capsized with crush by windy conditions (off northwestern Awaji Island, Japan, December 9, 1945.)
304 An unnamed immigrant vessel sinks off Lampedusa (October 3, 2013)
300 Steamer "Hsinwah" sinks off Waglan Island, Hongkong, China (January 15, 1929)29
300 Brazilian river boat Sobral Santos capsized (Amazon River, Óbidos, Brazil, September 20, 1981)
300 Filipino motor vessel Dumagnete capsized off Zamboanga, Mindanao, Philippines, October 11, 1968
297 RMS Tayleur, (Lambay, Ireland, 1854)
292 A Seohae, South Korean ferry, West Sea, overloaded with 362 people, capsized off Puan county October 10, 199330
289 A boat of clandestine immigrants sank near Portopalo, Italy, 1996
288 SS Heraklion (Souda, Crete, Greece, 1966)
280 Chinese ferry Dashun caught fire and capsized in rough seas off Yellow Sea, Yantai, Shandong, China, November 24, 1999
280 Nigerian passenger boat capsized at Ibaka, Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, April 1998
280 Myanmarese passenger ferry U Hla Myist sunk by colliding with Japanese vessel Bombei Maru at Yangon Bay, Myanmar, February 1973
279 Filipino floating pagoda capsized in Bocaue river, northern Manila, Philippines, July 2, 1993
274 USS Maine (Havana, Cuba, 1898) it is disputed whether this was accidental or an act of terrorism
272 Turkish ferry SS Üsküdar capsized and sank at Bay of İzmit, Kocaeli, Turkey, March 1, 1958
272 Kenyan ferry MV Mtongwe sank at Mtongwe, Mombasa, Kenya, 1994
260 Earl of Abergavenny (off Portland Bill, 1805)
260 Nuestra Señora de Atocha (Florida Keys, 1622)
259 Portuguese passenger ship Save ran aground off Mozambique, July 8, 1961
254 Vietnamese refugee boat capsized off Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, November 22, 1978
250 Powhattan sunk off New Jersey, April 16, 185431
250 Great Lakes Storm of 1913 (Great Lakes Basin, 1913)
250 Russian liner Ogoza sank in the Black Sea, 192832
250 Filipino ferry Dona Marylin capsized by Typhoon Ruby off Maripipi Island, Philippines, October 1988
250 Bangladeshi ferry MV Dinar gone down in strong whirlpool at Meghna River, Chandpul, Bangladesh, August 20, 1994
250 Chinese steamer Lee Cheong sank in a storm off Swabue (December 21, 1929)33
249 Chang Tyong-Ho (Busan, South Korea, 1953)
240+ MV Teratai Prima sinking (near Sulawesi, Indonesia, January 11, 2009)
230 Brazilian double-decker boat Novo Amapá capsized (Amazon River, Pará, Brazil, 1981)
230 Bangladeshi ferry Rushi capsized by stormy condition at Padma River, Bangladesh, April 1980
226 Ville du Havre (North Atlantic, 1873)
224 Neva sunk off (King Island, Tasmania Australia) May 13, 1835
220 Nigerian passenger boat capsized by stormy sea off Uyo, Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, January 24, 1996
215 Myanmarese double-decker ferry sank during storm at Gyaing River, 1990
211 SS Waratah, disappeared without trace off Durban, South Africa, July 1909
210 Illegal African immigrants boat sank off Sfax, Tunisia, 2003
209 Naval transport ship Angamos sank during a storm in the Bay of Arauco, Chile, July 7, 19283435
209 Seven Japanese fishing boats sunk by Super typhoon Carmen (off Agrihan, 1965)
206 Egyptian ferry boat Adel capsized at Upper Nile, Maghagha, Governorate, Egypt, May 1963
205 HMS Iolaire (off Stornoway, 1919)
205 SS Hungarian Wrecked off Cape Sable, Shelburne County, Nova Scotia, Canada February 20, 1860
200 Explosion on the Chinese passenger steamer Pa Shi, 193136
200 Victoria (London, Ontario, 1881)
200 Indonesian passenger ferry KMP Digul capsized in rough sea off Merakuke, Papua, Indonesia, July 2005
200 Bangladeshi passenger ferry Haisal rammed by collide with cargo vessel at Dhaleswari river, Bangladesh, December 1988
200 SS Xi'an passenger ferry fire in Hong Kong (February 4, 194737
193 Herald of Free Enterprise (English Channel, 1987)
192 Two illegal immigrants boats sank off Gulf of Aden, Yemen, 2007
189 MV Maharaj (Buriganga River, Bangladesh, 2005)
189 HMS Orpheus, (Auckland, 1863)
185 Batavia (off Australia, 1629) includes both drowned and murdered
182 Congo ferry Dieu Merci capsized at Mai-Ndombe Lake, Bandunu, Democratic Republic of Congo, November 27, 2003
180 Somali refugee boat capsized off Gulf of Aden, Yemen, March 31, 1998
177 Russian cruise ship Alexander Suvorov crashed into a railroad bridge at Volga River, Ulyanovsk, southwestern Russia, June 5, 1983
171 Chinese sightseeing boat sank at Songhua River, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China, August 1985
170 Staffordshire (Cape Sable, 1853)
168 Shiun Maru (Takamatsu, Japan, 1955)
167 Japanese ferry Nankai Maru capsized off southern Awaji Island, Japan, January 26, 1958
167 Dona Cassandra sunk by typhoon Orchid (off Mindanao, 1983)
165 Tamil refugees boat capsized off Nanchchikuddah, Sri Lanka, February 20, 1997
161 Romanian passenger boat Mogosoaia sunk by collision with Bulgarian barge Peter Karaminchev at Danube River, Galaţi, Romania, September 10, 1989
158 Scandinavian Star (Skagerrak, 1990)
158 Sierra Leone boat Amunafa capsized off coast Bailor, Sierra Leone, August 3, 2007
150 Peruvian ferry La Chachita capsized at Marañón River, central Peru, May 7, 1991
150 Overloaded motorized canoe capsized off Tasso Island, Sierra Leone, March 25, 1999
150 A pontoon ferry sink by overturned on Shire River, Malawi, May 23, 1965
150 Colombian excursion ship Vencedor capsized off Buenaventura, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, September 1961
148 French frigate Méduse (off Senegal, 1816)
147 Chinese passenger ferry Red Star 312 capsized at Shanshui, Guangdong, China on March 2, 1983
140 SS Koombana (off Port Hedland, Western Australia, 1912)
140 Danish passenger ship Kjoebenhavn capsized after striking mine off coast of Jutland, Denmark, June 1948
140 Italian ferry Moby Prince collide with oil tanker, dense fog off Livorno, Tuscany, Italy, 1991
140 Two African immigrants boat sank off Seferihisar, Turkey, 2007
140 Filipino ferry MV Cebu City capsized and collision with freighter Kota Suria off Manila Bay, Philippines, December 2, 1994
136 SS Valencia wrecked off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, in late January 1906
136 Finnish steamer SS Kuru capsized in autumnal storms at Lake Näsijärvi, near city of Tampere, September 7, 1929
134 SS Morro Castle (off Asbury Park, New Jersey, 1934)
134 Peruvian passenger boat Adresito capsized at Amazon River, Iquitos, Loreto Maynas, Peru, March 6, 1990
134 RMS Quetta struck a rock in the Adophus Channel of Cape York, Queensland on February 28, 1890
131 Chinese passenger boat Rong Jian capsized at Hejiang River, Rongshan, Sichuan, China, June 2000
131 Tararua (off Waipapa Point, New Zealand, 1881)
130 SS Hankow fire (Hong Kong, October 14, 1906)3839
130 SS Volturno (Burned and sank in the North Atlantic, 1913)
130 MV Princess Victoria (Scotland, 1953)
130 Nigerian ferry Olodiama collided with a tugboat off Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, September 1997
130 Thai ferry boat Sathit collided with chemical tanker at Gulf of Thailand, Si Racha, Thailand, March 1992
129 USS Thresher (N. Atlantic, 1963)
128 SS City of Rio de Janeiro (San Francisco Bay, 1901)
128 Ferry SS Berlin struck the pier near Hook of Holland (the Netherlands), February 21, 1907
128 HMS Gladiator (Isle of Wight, 1908)
128 Greek cruise ship TSMS Lakonia sunk after fire on board off Madeira, Portugal, December 28, 1962
125 SS Bokhara (Formosa, 1892)
124 SS Yongala (Townsville, Australia, 1911)
124 Djibouti ferry Al Baraqua 2 capsized off Tadjoura, Djibouti, April 6, 2006
122+ Russian river cruise ship Bulgaria capsized on the Kuybyshev Reservoir of the Volga River in Tatarstan, Russia, July 10, 2011
120 Ghanan motorboat capsized at Lake Volta, Jasikan, Ghana, April 10, 2006
118 Kursk (Barents Sea, 2000)
117 Kinka Maru (Onagawa, northeastern Miyagi, Japan, 1946)
113 Japanese wooden passenger boat Kitagawa Maru 5 capsized at Onomichi, Japan, April 1957
111 SS Vestris (North Atlantic, 1928)
105 Iranian motor vessel Viaqtar capsized off Abu Dhabi, UAE, on March 14, 1970
104 Yugoslav river boat Niš, capsized on the Danube River near Belgrade, Serbia, September 9, 1952
102 SS Gothenburg. (Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, February 24, 1875)
100 Brazilian cruise boat Bateau Mouche capsized at Copacabana beach, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, January 1, 1989
99 USS Scorpion (near Azores, 1968)
92 Japanese passenger boat Koun Maru sunk by rough sea off Misumi, Amakusa, western Kyūshū, Japan, October 1, 1933
89 SS Admella wrecked off South Australia, Australia, August 6, 1859
85 Illegal African immigrants boat sank Mareg, Puntland, Yemen, 2003
84 Paisley Canal Disaster, canal pleasure boat capsized, Paisley November 10, 1810
82 STV Royston Grange (off Montevideo, Uruguay, 1972)
81 MS Express Samina (near Paros, Greece, 2000)
81 Turkish submarine TCG Dumlupınar collided with the Swedish freighter Naboland and sunk at Dardanelles Turkey, April 4, 1953
80 Pamir (1957)
80 Hong Kong ferry Fatshan plunged by torrential typhoon Rose, August 17, 1971
78 Greek tanker Spyros exploded at Jurong shipyard, Singapore, October 12, 1978
78 MV George Prince ferry sank after colliding with the Norwegian tanker SS Frosta on the Mississippi River, October 20, 1976
74 MV Princess Ashika sunk while on a regular ferry service in Tonga due to the combined effects of the boats age and lack of maintenance leading to its unseaworthiness, August 5, 2009.
70 Ming 361 (2003)
61 Turkish fishing boat carrying illegal migrants sank after hitting rocks (2012)
58 Bahrain wooden plesure boat al-Dana capsized off Gulf of Bahrain, 2006
57 Danish passenger boat Turisten Killing 57 pass. after fire on board on Haderslev Dam, July 8, 1959
54 MS Jan Heweliusz (Baltic Sea, 1993)
53 Finnish torpedo boat S2, in autumnal storms at Outoori, near Pori, 1925
53 TEV Wahine (Wellington, NZ, 1968)
51 SS Andrea Doria (off Nantucket, Massachusetts 1956)
51 Marchioness ( River Thames, London 1989). 131 people on board leisure craft for a birthday party when accidentally rammed and sunk by Thames dredger Bowbelle
48 Brazilian river boat Comandante Sales capsized at Solimoes River, on the outskirts of Manacapura, Amazonas, Brazil, May 4, 2008
46 PCC-772 Cheonan Pohang class corvette (Baengnyeong-do island, South Korea, March 26, 2010)
45 SS Elingamite (Three Kings Islands, NZ, 1902)
44 British bulk carrier MV Derbyshire capsized by structural failure and Typhoon Orchid off Ryukyu Island, September 9, 1980
42 Masbate, Philippines (including 11 children) crowded Don Dexter Cathlyn, inter-island ferry was hit by a squall and overturned; 76 of 119 passengers were rescued, but 10 were still missing, on November 4, 2008.4041
39 Lamma IV, collision by Sea Smooth (Hong Kong, October 1, 2012)
36 FV Gaul (Barents Sea, 1974)
36 Ellan Vannin (Liverpool, United Kingdom en route from the Isle of Man), December 1909
35 HMS Pandora (Torres Strait, 1791)
32 River Dee Ferry Boat Disaster (Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 1876)
32 Costa Concordia (cruise ship capsized off the coast of Isola del Giglio, Italy, January 13, 2012)
31 SS Carnatic (Red Sea, 1869)
29 SS Edmund Fitzgerald (Lake Superior, 1975)
28 Soviet sdubmarine K-19 (to fire, February 24, 1972)
23 Pajtás passenger boat (Hungary, Lake Balaton, May 30, 1954, capsized by design flaws, when all passengers gathered on one side of the ship to watch a sailing competition to start)42
22 Shek Kong Vietnamese refugee detention centre fire (Hong Kong, February 3, 1992)37
20 Ethan Allen (Lake George (New York), October 2, 2005)
18 Migrant boat sank off Lesbos, Greece (2012)
17 1979 Fastnet race (Fastnet Rock, 1979)
16 MS Sleipner (Norway, 1999)
14 Danish passenger ship SS Agda sank after striking mine near by the coast of Horsens, Denmark, January 15, 1944
13 Essex (South Pacific, 1819)
6 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race (Bass Strait, 1998)07)

Nuclear and radiation accidents

Deaths Incident
200 Mayak nuclear waste storage tank explosion, (Chelyabinsk, Soviet Union, September 29, 1957), 270,000 people were exposed to dangerous radiation levels.43
31 to 4,000+4445 Chernobyl disaster, Ukraine, April 26, 1986. The official report is 31 immediate deaths, 64 recorded cancer deaths by 2008, and potentially up to, but no more than 4,000 total cancer deaths. Doctors Alexey V. Yablokov, Vassily B. Nesterenko and Alexey V.Nesterenko dispute the total number of cancer deaths.46

47

17 Instituto Oncologico Nacional of Panama, August 2000 – March 2001; patients receiving treatment for cancer receive lethal doses of radiation.4849
13 Radiotherapy accident in Costa Rica, 1996 (114 patients received an overdose of radiation)50
11 Radiotherapy accident in Zaragoza, Spain, December 1990 (27 patients were injured)51
10 Soviet submarine K-431 accident, August 10, 1985 (49 people suffered radiation injuries)52
10 Columbus radiotherapy accident, 1974–1976, 88 injuries4953
9 Soviet submarine K-27 accident, May 24, 1968. (83 people were injured)49
8 Soviet submarine K-19 accident, July 4, 1961. (More than 30 people were over-exposed to radiation)54
8 Radiation accident in Morocco, March 198455
7 Houston radiotherapy accident, 19804953
5 Mihama Nuclear Power Plant accident, August 9, 2004. Hot water and steam leaked from a broken pipe56
5 Lost radiation source, Baku, Azerbaidjan, USSR, October 5, 1982. 13 injuries49
4 Goiânia accident, September 13, 1987 (249 people received serious radiation contamination)57
4 Radiation accident in Mexico City, 1962
3 SL-1 accident (US Army) 1961
3 Samut Prakan radiation accident: Three deaths and ten injuries resulted when a radiation-therapy unit was dismantled, February 200058
2 Tokaimura nuclear accident, nuclear fuel reprocessing plant (Japan, September 30, 1999)56

Road

Smog

Deaths Incident
12,000 The Great Smog (London, December 5–9, 1952)
2,200 Coal smog (London, 1880)59
160 Smog (London, December 12–15, 1991)60
60 Meuse Valley smog (Belgium, 1930)59
50 The 1948 Donora smog (Donora, Pennsylvania, October 27–31, 1948)59

Space exploration

Deaths Incident
7 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster (over Texas/Louisiana, 2003)
7 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster (over Florida, 1986)
3 Soyuz 11 (space, 1971)
3 Apollo 1 (Kennedy Space Center, 1967) – occurred on ground before launch
1 Soyuz 1 (SE of Orenburg, Russia, 1967)
1 X-15 Flight 191 (suborbital, crashed ~50 miles NE of Edwards AFB, 1967)

Sporting events

Deaths Incident
590 Happy Valley Racecourse fire, (Happy Valley, Hong Kong, February 26, 1918)
328 1964 Lima football riot tragedy, (Lima, Peru, May 24, 1964)61
~200 Collapse of wooden bleachers at Corralejas bullring/stadium, Sincelejo, Sucre, Colombia, January 20, 198062
96 Hillsborough stadium crush (Sheffield, England, 1989)
93 Hailstorm & Stadium crush (Kathmandu, Nepal, 1988)63
84 1955 Le Mans disaster (motor racing accident) (Le Mans, France, 1955)
79 Port Said Stadium disaster (Port Said, Egypt, February 1, 2012)
71 Puerta 12 crush (Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 23, 1968)64
66 Second Ibrox stadium disaster, stairway crowd crush (Glasgow, Scotland, 1971)
66 Luzhniki disaster, stairway crowd crush on a stadium in Moscow, USSR (October 20, 1982)65
56 Bradford City stadium fire (Bradford, England, 1985)
43 Ellis Park Stadium disaster, football match crush (Johannesburg, South Africa, April 11, 2001)
40 Kayseri Atatürk Stadium disaster football stadium hooliganism (Kayseri, Central Anatolia, Turkey, September 17, 1967)
39 Heysel Stadium disaster football stadium hooliganism (Brussels, Belgium, 1985)
33 Burnden Park disaster (Bolton, England, 1946)
28 Italian Grand Prix, Emilio Materassi and 27 spectators was killed when Materassi's car crashed into a grandstand, (Monza, Italy, 1928)
26 First Ibrox stadium disaster, terracing collapse (Glasgow, Scotland, 1902)
24 Drunken football fan provoked a stampede at game Deportivo Cali and América de Cali, Estadio Olímpico Pascual Guerrero, Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, November 18, 198266
21 Gate 7 stampede at the old Karaiskakis Stadium at the end of a football game between Olympiacos and AEK Athens (Piraeus, Greece, February 8, 1981)67
18 Temporary grand stand collapsed, before French Cup semifinal match SC Bastia and Olympique Marseille, Bastia, Corsica, France, May 5, 1992.)68
17 1979 Fastnet yachting race storms (Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 1979)
15 1961 Italian Grand Prix, Autodromo Nazionale Monza (Formula 1 race): Wolfgang Von Trips and 14 spectators were killed when Von Trips' car was thrown amidst the audience (Monza, Italy, 1961)
13 Mille Miglia road race: driver Alfonso de Portago, his co-driver/navigator, Ed Nelson and nine spectators was killed when Portago and Nelson ploughed into spectators.(Guidizzolo, Mantua; Italy, May 12, 1957). Also includes 2 separate deaths earlier in the race. (Reggio Emilia and Florence)6970
13 1953 Argentine Grand Prix: driver Nino Farina ploughed into the crowds on lap 31, killing 13 spectators, Autódromo Juan y Oscar Gálvez, Buenos Aires, Argentina, January 18, 1953
13 Democratic Republic of Congo football league second division of Socozaki and Nyuki System match riot at Matokeo stadium, Butembo, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, September 14, 2008
13 Grenzlandring, 13 killed and 42 injured including the driver himself when his car went out of control and plunged into spectators, Wegberg, Mönchengladbach, Germany; August 31, 1952
12 Yellow River Dragstrip, an out of control dragster crashed through a chain-link fence into a spectator area, killing 11 instantly. The twelfth person died later in hospital. (Covington, Georgia, 1969)
12 Baker Bowl bleachers collapse, Philadelphia, August 8, 1903
11 Egyptian Premier League cross ryval Koroum and Al-Ittihad football match stampede at Alexandria Stadium, northern Egypt, January 11, 1999
11 Auto race at New York State Fairgrounds, when a car went through a rail fence into the crowd, (Syracuse, New York, 1911)
11 2011 Reno Air Races crash, 11 killed including the pilot Jimmy Leeward when his aircraft plunged into VIP booths in front of the grandstands (Reno Stead Airport, Reno, Nevada; September 16, 2011)
9 The Racetrack Disaster of Berlin: 9 killed, 52 injured in a cycling event when a motorcycle pacemaker crashed into spectators at a newly built velodrome (Berlin Botanical Garden, Berlin, Germany; July 18, 1909)7172
8 1903 Paris-Madrid race, a chain of accidents occurred causing deaths to drivers and spectators and destruction to properties. The race which was called to a halt at Bordeaux.7374
8 2010 California 200 Off Road race, eight spectators killed when an off road truck rolled into the gallery7576
6 1998 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, in which six sailors died and many other yachts had to retire after been caught in a large storm
6 Saloon car race at the 1977 Malaysian Grand Prix, six children killed when a car struck into a fence, following a tire blowout; Batu Tiga Circuit, Selangor, Shah Alam.77

Stampedes and panics

Deaths Incident
6,000 Ponte das Barcas disaster in Porto, 1809. A multitude of civilians fleeing from an advancing French army tried to cross the Douro river passing over a fragile pontoon bridge, which collapsed
4,000 mass panic at air raid shelter, during Japanese bombing of Chongqing, most deaths caused by suffocation (Chongqing, China, 1941)
1,426 stampede by pilgrims inside a pedestrian tunnel (Mecca, 1990)
1,389 Khodynka Tragedy at coronation of Nicholas II, (Moscow, 1896)
953 Baghdad bridge stampede, (Baghdad, Iraq, 2005) (note: because the stampede was triggered by reports of a bombing, this figure is also included in the higher estimate for casualties of the War in Iraq)
800 1954 Kumbh Mela stampede, crowd crush at religious festival (Allahabad, India, 1954)
357 Phnom Penh stampede (Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2010)
362 stampede at the stoning of the devil ritual (Mecca, 2006)
270 stampede at the stoning of the devil ritual (Mecca, 1994)
258 crowd crush at religious festival (Wai, Maharashtra, India, 2005)
251 stampede at the stoning of the devil ritual (Mecca, 2004)
224 2008 Jodhpur stampede disaster in Chamunda Devi temple (Rajasthan, India, September 30, 2008)
200 stampede in the central place of Nagpur (Maharashtra, India, 1992)
183 Victoria Hall theatre stairway crush (Sunderland, 1883)
173 Bethnal Green tube station panic (London, 1943)
162 Naina Devi Temple stampede disaster (Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India, August 3, 2008)
130 1994 Gowari stampede in Maharashtra State Legislature building (Nagpur, India, November 23, 1994)
124 New Year event stampede at Yahiko Shrine (Yahiko, central Niigata, Japan, January 1, 1956)
123 Hearts of Oak vs. Kumasi Ashanti Kotoko football match crush (Accra, Ghana, 2001)
118 pilgrims trampled to death (Mecca, 1998)
105 Yingze Park lantern festival stampede disaster in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, (October 10, 1991)
102 2011 Sabarimala stampede, broken out during an annual pilgrimage (Sabarimala, Kerala, India, January 14, 2011)
96 Hillsborough disaster crush (Sheffield, England, 1989)
84 Guatemala and Costa Rica football match crush (Guatemala City, October 16, 1996)
78 PhilSports Arena stampede, (Manila, Philippines, February 4, 2006)78
77 stampede and panics at Kyoto railroad station (Japan, January 8, 1934)
73 Italian Hall disaster (Calumet, Michigan, 1913)79
72 River Plate vs Boca Juniors football match, stampede at gate 12 (Buenos Aires, Argentina, June 23, 1968)
70 Glen Cinema Disaster, panic caused by smouldering cinema film, Glen Cinema, (Paisley, Scotland, December 31, 1929)
67 1959 Busan stadium stampede disaster, (Busan, South Korea, July 17, 1959)citation needed
66 Second Ibrox disaster crush (Glasgow, Scotland, 1971)
66 Luzhniki disaster, football match crush (Moscow, USSR. October 20, 1982)65
61 Abidjan stampede disaster, (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, January 1, 2013)
60 Jean Monthe Institute secondary school panic disaster, (Yaoundé, Cameroon, December 6, 1988)
60 A tent fire after stampede, during local festival parade (Jamshedpur, Bihar, India on March 3, 1989)
56 Los Angeles de San Rafael square stampede disaster, during contest event (Segovia, Castile-León, Spain, June 15, 1969)
53 Niamiha metro station stampede (Minsk, Belarus, May 31, 1999)
52 Hengyang railroad station stampede disaster, during Lunar New Year holidays of final day, Hengyang, Hunan, China (February 14, 1994)
51 Yemeni presidential candidate Ali Abdullah Saleh election rally stampede disaster (Zunjubar, Ibb Governorate, Yemen, September 13, 2006)
50 Mahamaham Stampede disaster (Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India on February 18, 1992)80
45 Qutab Minar Tower stampede disaster by electric power failure (Delhi, India, December 4, 1981)
44 Kayseri Atatürk Stadium disaster (Kayseri, Central Anatolia, Turkey, September 17, 1968)
42 Ellis Park Stadium Disaster (Johannesburg, South Africa, April 11, 2001)
39 Heysel Stadium disaster (Brussels, May 29, 1985)
37 Mihong Park Lantern Festival stampede disaster (Miyun, Beijing, China, February 5, 2004)
36 Modibo Keita Stadium stampede disaster (Bamako, Mali on February 21, 2011)citation needed, 2013 Kumbh Mela stampede at train station in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
33 Kumbh Mela bathing festival stampede disaster (Nasik, Maharashtra, India, August 26, 2003)
29 Mosque stampede (Karachi, 2006) 81
27 Granadilla Civil Governor Office stapede disaster, during waiting to apply for local identify card (Granadilla, Tenerife Island, Spain, February 2, 1963)citation needed
26 Djinuereber Mosque stampede disaster (Timbuktu, Mali, February 2010)citation needed
25 a stampede by building collapse, during Shiuratri festival (Patna, Bihar, India, March 6, 1989)
24 Estadio Olímpico Pascual Guerrero Stampede Disaster (Cali, Colombia, November 18, 1982)
23 al-Mureikh Stadium stampede disaster, during graduation ceremony (Omdurman, Sudan July 13, 2008)
21 Lan Kwai Fong stampede disaster (Hong Kong, December 31, 1992)
21 Love Parade stampede (Duisburg, Germany, July 24, 2010)
20 Steve Kekana concert stampede disaster (Maseru, Lesotho, August 29, 1980)
20 Mexican singar Martinez Gil and twist singer Pily Gaos concert stampede disaster (Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, January 31, 1965)
19 Synagogue stampede during the fast of Yom Kippur (Ostrowo, Germany, October 10, 1872)
19 Stampede disaster after Christina Nilsson's appearance at a window of Grand Hôtel (Stockholm, Sweden, September 23, 1885)
13 News Divine nightclub stampede disaster (Nueva Atzacoalco, Mexico City, June 20, 2008)
13 Throb Nightclub stampede disaster (Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, March 24, 2000)
12 Crush on Brooklyn Bridge, four days after opening (New York, May 30, 1883)82
11 Crowd crush at The Who concert at the Riverfront Coliseum (Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America, December 3, 1979)
11 Eleven killed and 247 injured in a pedestrian crush after a fireworks festival (Akashi, Hyōgo, Japan, July 21, 2001)83
11 Alexandria Stadium football match stampede disaster (Northern Egypt, January 1999)
10 All Africa Arts Hall concert stampede disaster (Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, February 10, 2008)
9 Pearl Jam performance at Roskilde Festival (Denmark, June 30, 2000)

Structural collapses

Deaths Incident
1,129 Collapse of the Rana Plaza (Savar Upazila, Dhaka District, Bangladesh, April 24, 2013)
502 Sampoong Department Store collapse (Seoul, South Korea, June 29, 1995)
~200 Collapse of wooden bleachers at Corralejas bullring/stadium, Sincelejo, Sucre, Colombia, January 20, 198062
140 Makahali River bridge collapsed, Baitadi, Makahali, Nepal, on November 19, 1974
139 a six-story apartment collapsed at Karachi, Pakistan on September 13, 1976
135 Collapse of the Royal Plaza Hotel (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, August 13, 1993)
125 a wire rope style bridge collapsed over a swollen stream at Munnar, Kerala, India, November 8, 1984
120 a nuns' school chapel collapsed at Biblian, Canar, Ecuador on February 1, 1963
114 Hyatt Regency walkway collapse, (Kansas City, Missouri, 1981)
112 Yeotmal Shia Imami Ismaili mosque situated in choti gujri, Yavatmal collapsed disaster, present day of Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India on August 20, 1963.citation needed
100 Saque Comprehensive College collapsed at Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, June 16, 1990
94 Eleven-story apartment building collapsed at Konya, central Turkey, on February 2, 2004
94 Pétionville school collapse, (Pétionville, Haiti, November 7, 2008)
84 Shigotani dormitory site of under construction Kurobe hydro power-plant station hit avalanche by heavy snow at Kurobe, Toyama, Japan, on December 27, 1938
82 Church tower Geldrop, Netherlands, during storm on December 27, 1627
75 Quebec Bridge, (Canada, 1907)
74 Cinema theatre roof collapse (Tokamachi, Japan, January 1, 1938)
73 Six dormitories of Abe coal mine company collapse with heavy rain at Sasebo, northwestern Kyūshū, Japan, on April 16, 1955
71 Dhaka University assembly hall collapsed, Dhaka, Bangladesh, October 16, 1985
70 116 year-old Hintze-Ribeiro Bridge collapse, with a bus and three cars plunged into Douro River at Castelo de Paiva, Aveiro, Portugal on March 4, 2001
70 A three-story house collapsed at Lal Bazzar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kasjhhimir, India on May 4, 1992
69 Gameleira Exhibition Pavilion collapse (Belo Horizonte, Brazil, February 4, 1971)
67 Six-story apartment building collapsed at Foggia, Apulia, Italy, on November 13, 1999
65 Katowice Trade Hall roof collapse (Chorzów, Poland, January 28, 2006)
64 Twelve-story upmarket building collapsed at Heliopolis, outskirt of Cairo, Egypt, October 27, 1996
60 Under construction Hau River bridge collapsed at Cần Thơ, Vĩnh Long, Vietnam, on September 26, 2007
60 Run Pathani bridge collapsed by flood swept in Mardan, Pashtunkhwa, Pakistan on August 2006
60 Under-construction Tuojiang bridge collapsed in Fenghuang, Hunan, China on August 13, 2007
58 Via Canosa in Barletta building collapse a five-story apartment building collapsed, Barletta, Apulia, Italy on September 15, 195984
56 Market roof collapse (Moscow, Russia, February 21, 2006)
54 2013 Riga Maxima superstore collapse (Riga, Latvia, November 21, 2013)
51 Moqattam Hill rockslide disaster in Manshiyet Nasser erea, Cairo, Egypt, September 6, 2008
50 Ordzhonokidze Machine Tool factory roof collapsed by heavy snow at Moscow, Russia, January 17, 1982
49 Cais do Sodré railroad station collapsed at Lisbon, Portugal, May 1963
48 Hulu Kelang Highland Towers collapsed at Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 11, 1993
48 Paulo de Frontin Elevated Expressway collapse (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, November 20, 1971)
47 Miles City, Montana bridge collapse (United States, 1938)
46 Silver Bridge Collapse (United States, 1967)
45 Under-construction Kota Chambal River Bridge collapse in Kota, Rajasthan, India on December 2009.citation needed
42 Cavalese cable-car disaster, (Italy, 1976)
42 Interstate 880 (Oakland, California, Collapsed due to earthquake, October 17, 1989.)
35 West Gate Bridge collapse, (Australia, 1970)
35 Illegally built seven-story building collapse at Alexandria, Egypt, December 24, 2007
34 Six-story apartment building collapsed at Castellaneta, Puglia, Taranto, Italy, February 7, 1985
33 Hotel New World disaster, six-story building collapsed at Serangoon Road, Singapore, March 1986
32 Sultan Abdul Halim ferry terminal bridge collapsed at Butterworth, Penang, Malaysia, July 31, 1988
32 Seongsu Bridge collapsed in Han River, Seoul, South Korea on October 1994
29 Under-construction Baikong bridge collapsed, Ruyuan, Shaoguan, Guangdong, China, on December 20, 1996
28 L'Ambiance Plaza collapsed during construction, Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA, April 23, 1987
28 Transvaal Park roof collapsed, Moscow, Russia, February 14, 2014
27 The Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Crossing collapsed during construction in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 17, 1958
26 Shojuso elderly house with sixty apartment building destroyed by landslide (Nagano, Japan, July 26, 1985)
24 Unlicenced construct four-story apartment buildings collapsed at Cairo, Egypt, May 3, 1984
23 Versailles wedding hall, Jerusalem, Israel. Large portion of the third floor of the four-story building collapsed during a wedding, May 24, 2001
20 Cavalese cable car disaster, (Italy, 1998) cable severed by United States Marine Corps military aircraft
20 Toyohama road tunnel collapse, Furubira, Hokkaidō, Japan, February 1996
20 Chunchu suspension bridge collapse, Napalgunj, Birendranagar, Nepal, December 25, 2007. another 15 missing
19 a seven-story apartment building collapsed at Saadatabad, Teheran, Iran on July 1, 2008
17 Sete Quedas foot bridge collapsed at Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, January 17, 1982
14 Cave Creek disaster A scenic Viewing Platform in Paparoa National Park, on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand collapses. April 28, 1995
14 I-40 bridge disaster collapse, (Webbers Falls, Oklahoma, 2002)
13 I-35W Mississippi River bridge collapse, (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2007)
11 Petrobras 36 Oil Platform explosions (Brazil, 2001)
3 Turia disco lights collapse (Roppongi, Tokyo, Japan; January 5, 1988)85

Structural fires

Deaths Incident
2000+ Church of the Company Fire (Santiago, Chile, December 8, 1863)
1995 Theater fire (Kamli, China, 1893)86
1670 Theater fire (Canton, China, May 25, 1845)
900 Theater fire (Shanghai, China, June 1871)
800 Lehman Theater fire (St. Petersburg, Russia, 1836)
667 Cinema fire (Xinjiang, China, 1977)
658 Antoung Movie Theater fire (China, February 13, 1937)
602 Iroquois Theater Fire (Chicago, Illinois, December 30, 1903)
600 Theater fire (Tientsin, China, May 20, 1872)
540 Dabwali tent fire (Haryana, India, December 23, 1995)
538 Dayananda Anglo Vedic private school fire (Mandi Dabwali, India, December 23, 1995)
530 Kanungu church fire (Kanungu, Uganda, March 17, 2000)
500 Gran Circus Norte-Americano – Niterói circus fire (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, December 17, 1961)
492 Cocoanut Grove fire (Boston, Massachusetts, November 28, 1942)
448 Ringtheater Fire (Vienna, Austria-Hungary, December 8, 1881)
430 Circus Ferroni fire (Berdichev, Russia, January 13, 1883)
422 Cinema Rex fire (Abadan, Iran, August 20, 1978)
400 Coliseo theater fire (Saragossa, Spain, December 17, 1778)
396 Paraguay supermarket fire (Asunción, Paraguay, August 1, 2004)
360 Comayagua prison fire (Comayagua, Honduras, February 14, 2012)
324 1994 Karamay fire (Karamay, China, December 10, 1994)
322 Ohio Penitentiary fire (Columbus, Ohio, United States, April 21, 1930)
322 L'Innovation Department Store Fire (Brussels, Belgium, 1967)
309 Dongdu Commercial shopping center fire (Luoyang, China, December 25, 2000)
278+ Brooklyn Theater Fire (Brooklyn, United States, December 5, 1876)
250 Flores Theater fire (Acapulco, Mexico, February 15, 1909)
241 Kiss nightclub fire in Santa Maria (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, January 27, 2013)
225 Mental hospital fire (Guatemala City, Guatemala, July 14, 1960)
209 Rhythm Night Club fire (Natchez, Mississippi, April 23, 1940)
208 Hoteiza theater fire (Kucchan, Japan, March 6, 1943)
200 Carslruhe theater fire (St. Petersburg, Russia, 1847)
200 Banquet theater fire (Porto, Portugal, March 21, 1888)
198 Daegu Subway Fire (Daegu, South Korea, 2003)
194 República Cromagnon nightclub fire (Buenos Aires, Argentina, December 30, 2004)
188 Joelma Building fire (São Paulo, Brazil, February 1, 1974)
188 Kader Toy Factory fire (Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, May 10, 1993)
186 Theatre Royal, Exeter, England, September 5, 1887
175 Collinwood school fire (Collinwood, Ohio, United States, March 4, 1908)
171 Rhoads Opera House Fire (Boyertown, Pennsylvania, 1908)
168 Hartford circus fire, (Hartford, Connecticut, July 6, 1944)
167 Piper Alpha oil platform explosions (North Sea, 1988)
165 Beverly Hills Supper Club fire (Southgate, Kentucky, May 28, 1977)
163 Cinema fire (Amude, Syria, November 13, 1960)
162 1971 Seoul hotel fire (South Korea)87
162 Ozone Disco Club fire (Quezon City, Philippines, 1996)
153 Perm Lame Horse club fire, (Perm, Russia, December 4, 2009)88
146 1970 Saint-Laurent-du-Pont fire (France)87
146 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, (New York City, 1911)
144 Church fire in Costeşti, Romania, April 18, 193089
139 Wing On godown fire, Sai Wan, Hong Kong, 139 killed379091
130 Cinema fire in Kirin, China, March 18, 193092
124 2010 Nimtoli Fire, Nimtoli, Old Dhaka, June 3, 201093
124 2012 Dhaka fire, Tazreen Fashion factory (Dhaka, Bangladesh, November 24, 2012)94
119 Winecoff Hotel fire, (Downtown Atlanta, Georgia, December 7, 1946)
118 Sennichi department store fire, (Osaka, Japan, May 13, 1972)
109 1961 Elbarusovo school fire (Elbarusovo, Soviet Union, November 5, 1961)
108 Fire at San Pedro Sula's prison (San Pedro Sula, Honduras, May 17, 2004)
104 Cinema fire at the Chinkai Guard District, March 10, 193095
104 Taiyo department store fire, (Kumamoto, Japan, November 29, 1973)
100 The Station nightclub fire, (West Warwick, Rhode Island, 2003)
99 Seibo-no-Sono nursery home fire, (Yokohama, Japan, February 17, 1955)
97 Dupont Plaza Hotel arson, (San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1986)
95 Our Lady of the Angels School Fire, (Chicago, Illinois, December 1, 1958)
89 AMRI hospital fire, India, December 9, 2011
87 Happyland Fire, (Bronx, New York City, 1990)
87 MGM Grand fire, (Paradise, Nevada, November 21, 1980)
82 Alcalá 20 nightclub fire, (Madrid, Spain, December 17, 1983)
80–88 Karlslust dance hall fire, (Berlin, Germany, February 8, 1947)
78 Laurier Palace Theatre fire, (Montreal, Canada, January 9, 1927)
77 Cleveland school fire, (Camden, South Carolina, May 16, 1923)
64 Restaurant fire in Taichung City, Taiwan, R.O.C., (February 15, 1995)
64 Cinema Statuto fire, (Turin,Italy, February 13, 1983)
63 Gothenburg nightclub fire in (Gothenburg, Sweden, 1998)
61 La Salle Hotel fire, Chicago, Illinois, June 5, 1946
59 (to 61) Santika 2009 Bangkok nightclub fire (Bangkok, Thailand, January 1, 2009)96
59 Uphaar Cinema fire, India on Friday, June 13, 1997
56 Bradford City Football Club stadium fire, Bradford, West Yorkshire, May 11, 1985
49 2009 Hermosillo daycare center fire, (Hermosillo, Mexico, June 5, 2009)
48 Stardust fire, (Artane, Dublin, Ireland, February 14, 1981)
44 Myojo 56 building fire, (Tokyo, Japan, September 1, 2001)
42 Dromcolliher Cinema Fire, (County Limerick, Ireland, September 5, 1926)
41 Ballantynes Fire, Christchurch, New Zealand, November 18, 1947
40 The Garley Building fire, (Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong, November 20, 1996)
38 Seacliff Lunatic Asylum Fire. near Dunedin, New Zealand, December 8, 1942
37 Blue Bird Café fire, Montreal, Canada, September 1, 1970
37 Karen refugee camp fire (Mae Hong Son, Thailand, March 22, 2013)
35 Hotel Hafnia Fire after an arson fire on the hotel, in Copenhagen, Denmark, September 1, 1973
34 Under construction Jumbo Kingdom industrial fire in Aberdeen Harbour, Hong Kong, killing up to 34 workers on October 30, 19719798
33 Hotel Polen fire, possibly after a burglary below the hotel, in Amsterdam, Netherlands, May 9, 1977
33 Hotel New Japan Fire, (Tokyo, Japan, February 8, 1982)
31 King's Cross Fire underground Tube Train station fire, London UK. November 18, 1987
29 Pioneer Hotel fire, after an arson fire on the hotel in Tucson, Arizona (December 20, 1970)99
24 Gulliver's nightclub fire (Port Chester, New York, United States, June 30, 1974)
24 2009 Nakumatt supermarket fire, Nairobi, Kenya, January 2009
22 Lobohombo, Mexico City, Mexico, October 20, 2000100
21 Hostel for homeless fire, Kamień Pomorski, Poland, April 13, 2009
21 Andorinha Building fire (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, February 17, 1986)
21 St. Johns School Fire, Peabody, Massachusetts, October 28, 1915
20 Hotel fire, Borås, Sweden, June 10, 1978101
19 Calderón Guardia Hospital fire, San José, Costa Rica, July 12, 2005
19 Dorothy Mae Apartment arson fire, Los Angeles, California, September 4, 1982102
19 Knitting factory fire in Hong Kong, spread to apartment above the factory, on 1968103
17 A cinefilm fire in an elementary school in Kilingi-Nõmme, Estonia, on April 20, 1937
17 Top One Karaoke Fire (fire after an arson attack in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong, January 25, 1997)104

Rail accidents and disasters

Rail accidents and incidents with 90+ deaths:

Deaths Incident
1,700+ Sri Lanka tsunami-rail disaster (Sri Lanka, 2004)Note 1105
800–1000 Saint-Michel-de-Maurienne derailment (France, 1917)
600–1000 Ciurea rail disaster (Romania, 1917)
500–800 Bihar train disaster (Bihar, India, 1981)106
600+ Guadalajara train disaster (Mexico, 1915)107
575 Ufa train disaster (Russia, 1989)
521–600+ Balvano train disaster (Italy, 1944)
200–500+ Torre del Bierzo rail disaster (Spain, 1944)
428 Awash rail disaster (Awash, Afar, Ethiopia, 1985)
383 Al Ayatt train disaster (Egypt, 2002)
358 Firozabad rail disaster (India, 1995)
320 Nishapur train disaster (Iran, 2004)
307 Sukkur rail disaster (Sindh, Pakistan, 1990)
~300 Montemorelas, (Mexico, 1915)108
300 Tolunda (Angola, 1994)109
289 Baku Metro fire (Azerbaijan, 1995)
285 Gaisal train disaster (India, 1999)
281 Igandu train disaster (Tanzania, 2002)
278 Genthin train disaster (Genthin, Germany, December 22, 1939)
250 Montgomery oil train disaster, (Pakistan, 1957)110
248 El Virilla train accident, (Costa Rica, March 14, 1926)111
230 Lagny-Pomponne Railroad Disaster, (France, 1933)
226 Quintinshill rail crash (Scotland, 1915)
226 Estrella del Norte (Argentina, 1978)
212 Khanna rail disaster (India, 1998)
208 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico, 1972)
200 Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki train disaster (Poland, 1949). Not confirmed by any official source, cf. Katastrofy kolejowe w Polsce (Polish)
192 Muamba rail disaster (Mozambique, 2002)
185 Aracaju train crash, (Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, March 20, 1946)
184 Komagawa train disaster (Komagawa, Saitama, Japan, 1947)
181 Ajikawaguchi train disaster (Osaka, Japan, 1940)
162 Mikawashima train crash (Tokyo, Japan, 1962)
161 Tsurumi rail accident (Japan, 1963)
156 Bintaro train crash killing at least 156 people, injuring at least 300. Indonesia's worst rail accident in history. (Indonesia, 1987)
155 Kaprun disaster (Austria, 2000)
154 Ryongchon disaster (North Korea, 2004)
154 Mardaiyar river bridge derail disaster, (Tamil-Nadu, India, 1956)
153 Zagreb express train crash (Croatia, 1974)
151 Tangiwai train disaster (New Zealand, 1953)
150 1965 Durban commuter train disaster, (KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, 1965)
148 Gyaneshwari Express train derailment, (India, 2010)
142–236 Benavidez rail disaster (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1970)112
100–140 Pontecagnano train disaster, Pontecagnano, Italy,1944
135 Maizdi Khan trains disaster (Bangladesh, 1989)
132 Ghotki rail crash (Sindh, Pakistan, 2005)
131 Bouhalouane train crash, (Algeria, 1982)
130 Rafiganj train disaster (India, 2002)
130 Liziyida bridge destroyed by mud-flow, caused a train disaster. (Sichuan, China, July 9, 1981)
130 Barwald Sredni trains disaster, (Poland, 1944)
128 Mirshah trains disaster, (Punjab, Pakistan, 1997)
128 Mangueira train disaster, (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1958)
126 Rongjiawan trains disaster, (Hunan, China, 1997)
120 Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh (India, 1997)
120 Yaoundé train explosion (Cameroon, 1998)
119 Anchieta rail disaster (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1952)
118 Stéblová train disaster (Czechoslovakia, 1960)
118 Moimenta-Alcafache train crash, (Portugal, 1985)
114 Veligonda train disaster (India, 2005)
114 Ngai Ndethya (Kenya, 1993)
112 Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash (England, 1952)
112 San Rafael River train disaster (Mexico, 1989)
112 Nebukawa, derailment caused by Great Kanto Earthquake, (Japan, 1923)113
110 Tsuchiura triple trains crash (Tsuchiura, Japan, 1943)
108 Tangua train disaster, (Brazil, 1950)
107 Patna train derailed, (Bihar, India, 1937)
107 Vierzy tunnel trains derailed, (Aisne, France, 1972)
107 Amagasaki rail crash (Japan, 2005)
107 Ashtamudi Lake train disaster, (Kerala, India, 1988)
106 Sakuragichō train fire commuter train fire (Yokohama, Japan, 1951)
106 Kamensk-Shakhtinsky rail disaster (Russia, 1987)
106 Yangzhuang station trains disaster, (Henan, China, 1978)
105 Tama river trains disaster, (Hachioji, Japan, 1945)
103 Šakvice train disaster, (Czechoslovakia, 1953)
93–102 Malbone Street Wreck, (Brooklyn, NY, 1918)
102 Aßling train disaster, (Aßling, Germany, July 16, 1945)
102 Wuntho train disaster, (Myanmar, 1994)
101 Markdorf train disaster, (Markdorf, Germany, December 22, 1939)
101 Eschede train disaster (Germany, 1998)
101 The Great Train Wreck of 1918 (Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 1918)
100 Col des Nuages (Pass of the Clouds) derailment, (East Indochina (Vietnam), June 24, 1953)
100 Benaleka train crash, (Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2007)
99 St-Hilaire train disaster, (Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada, June 29, 1864)
97 Eden train wreck, (Colorado, United States, 1904)
96 Great Wellington train disaster, (Sky Valley Washington, United States, March 1, 1910)
93 Harmelen train disaster, (Netherlands, 1962)
92 Ashtabula River Railroad Disaster, (Ashtabula, Ohio, 1876)
91 Lewisham rail crash, (Lewisham, England, 1957)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Part of the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake; listed by some sources as a rail disaster [1] though primarily due to a natural disaster, rather than a failure of the rail system.

References

  1. ^ "Loss of 6000 Chinese troops in explosion of ship disclosed". The Deseret News. December 6, 1948. 
  2. ^ "Halifax Explosion Remembrance Book". Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management. Province of Nova Scotia. 
  3. ^ "1,200 Die as Yangtse Troopship Blows Up". The New York Times. October 17, 1926. 
  4. ^ "621 dead in dynamite blast". The Madison Lake Times. March 5, 1925. 
  5. ^ (Spanish) "Recordando a las víctimas del Cabo Machichaco" [Remembering the victims of Cabo Machichaco]. El Diario Montañés. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 
  6. ^ (German) "Vor 60 Jahren: Explosionsunglück erschüttert BASF". Stuttgarter Nachrichten online. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  7. ^ "Ammo factory blast in Yemen kills at least 121". CNN. March 28, 2011. 
  8. ^ Malone, Bridget; Epstein, Sue (October 4, 1998). "For 3 days, the ground shook in South Amboy". The Star-Ledger (Newark, New Jersey). 
  9. ^ "100 are killed, 300 injured in blast in China". Chicago Daily Tribune. June 16, 1930.  – via Chicago Daily Tribune (subscription required)
  10. ^ Kristof, Nicholas D. (August 6, 1993). "Explosions in Southeastern China Kill Scores, Official Report Says". The New York Times. 
  11. ^ "Hercules Factory Explosion, Kenvil, New Jersey 1940". Retrieved September 18, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Brazil mourns victims of arsenal explosion". The New York Times. May 3, 1931. 
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ "Blast at Ecuador Munitions Dump Kills 8". The New York Times. November 22, 2002. 
  15. ^ "Savar collapse death toll reaches 1,126". The Daily Ittefaq. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
  16. ^ "Recalling the catastrophe of San Juanico". 209.85.135.104. Retrieved April 21, 2008. dead link
  17. ^ Kawabata, Tai, "Film mines rich seams of history", Japan Times, August 14, 2011, p. 8.
  18. ^ "山西襄汾溃坝事故12名涉嫌职务犯罪嫌疑人被判刑" (in Chinese). Xinhua New Agency. 2009-06-27. Retrieved 2013-11-21. 
  19. ^ "开县井喷事故案宣判 6名直接责任人被判刑" (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. 2004-09-04. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  20. ^ Evander, Robert Ricci (September 18, 1986). "Mine disaster toll rises to 177". Glasgow Herald. p. 4. 
  21. ^ To Punish Or Persuade: Enforcement of Coal Mine Safety, by John Braithwaite, p. 78.
  22. ^ Mining Disasters in Great Britain - 1850 - Raleys - Maps, Poems and Searchable Databases for Mining in the UK
  23. ^ "Around the World; 65 Czechs Killed in Mine; Toll Is Worst in 20 Years". The New York Times. September 5, 1981. 
  24. ^ Newett, George A. (1896) (PDF). State of Michigan: Mines and Mineral Statistics (Report). State of Michigan. p. 90. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/GIMDL-MS1896_302587_7.pdf. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
  25. ^ How 14th September 1997 HPCL-Vizag refinery explosion took place? What was the cause? - Yahoo Answers India
  26. ^ Kings Bay Affair
  27. ^ "Fireworks suspect charged with deaths". news.google.com. The Spokesman-Review. May 30, 1983. Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  28. ^ 1,500 Chinese Die on Ship That Hits Mine in River, The New York Times (November 10, 1945)
  29. ^ 300 die on Chinese ship, The New York Times (January 17, 1929)
  30. ^ Xinhua||English
  31. ^ "Cemeteries: OLD MANAHAWKIN CEMETERY: Manahawkin, Ocean Co, NJ". USGenWeb Archives. Retrieved 2014-02-12. 
  32. ^ 250 perish when gale sinks ship, The Deseret News (January 5, 1928)
  33. ^ 250 lose lives when Chinese steamer sinks, Cape Girardeau Southeast Missourian (December 23, 1929)
  34. ^ Four tell how 300 drowned in ship disaster, Lewiston Evening Journal (July 9, 1928)
  35. ^ Two survivors of ship found, Sarasota Herald (July 10, 1928)
  36. ^ Ship blows up; 200 known dead, The Evening Independent (March 12, 1931)
  37. ^ a b c "Weathering the Storm" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-12. 
  38. ^ "SS Hankow gutted by fire after a typhoon. SS Hankow, a Hong Kong paddle steamer, pictured in harbour shortly after a fire gutted her interior, claiming 100 lives. Related photographs suggest the boat may have been one of many vessels affected by a devastating typhoon that struck Hong Kong on 18 September. Hong Kong, China, circa 14 October 1906., Hong Kong, China, People's Republic of, Eastern Asia, Asia". SuperStock. October 14, 1906. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 
  39. ^ Voices from the Past: Hong Kong, 1842–1918 | Solomon Bard. Books.google.com. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 
  40. ^ ap.google.com, 40 die as Philippine ferry overturns; captain held
  41. ^ gmanews.tv/story, Death toll in Masbate sea mishap hits 42||official
  42. ^ Németh Zsolt. "A Pajtás gőzhajó tragédiája". Hajokanno.hu. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 
  43. ^ Samuel Upton Newtan. Nuclear War I and Other Major Nuclear Disasters of the 20th Century 2007, pp. 237–240.
  44. ^ Benjamin K. Sovacool. The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907–2007, Energy Policy 36 (2008), p. 1806.
  45. ^ Benjamin K. Sovacool. A Critical Evaluation of Nuclear Power and Renewable Electricity in Asia, Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 40, No. 3, August 2010, p. 396.
  46. ^ Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment
  47. ^ "IAEA Report". In Focus: Chernobyl. Retrieved May 31, 2008. 
  48. ^ Investigation of an accidental Exposure of radiotherapy patients in Panama - International Atomic Energy Agency
  49. ^ a b c d e Johnston, Robert (September 23, 2007). "Deadliest radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties". Database of Radiological Incidents and Related Events. 
  50. ^ Medical management of radiation accidents pp. 299 & 303.
  51. ^ Strengthening the Safety of Radiation Sources p. 15.
  52. ^ The Worst Nuclear Disasters
  53. ^ a b Ricks, Robert C. et al. (2000). "REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: Update of Accidents in the United States". International Radiation Protection Association. p. 6. 
  54. ^ Strengthening the Safety of Radiation Sources p. 14.
  55. ^ Lost Iridium-192 Source
  56. ^ a b Benjamin K. Sovacool. A Critical Evaluation of Nuclear Power and Renewable Electricity in Asia, Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 40, No. 3, August 2010, p. 399.
  57. ^ The Radiological Accident in Goiania p. 2.
  58. ^ Pallava Bagla. "Radiation Accident a 'Wake-Up Call' For India's Scientific Community" Science, Vol. 328, May 7, 2010, p. 679.
  59. ^ a b c Sanford, Christopher (December 17, 2004). "Urban Medicine: Threats to Health of Travelers to Developing World Cities: Air Pollution". Medscape. Retrieved December 11, 2010. 
  60. ^ Pearce, Fred (December 5, 1992). "Back to the days of deadly smogs". New Scientist. Retrieved December 11, 2010. 
  61. ^ "1964: La tragedia de Lima | Historia del Fútbol Olímpico". Univision.com. February 17, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 
  62. ^ a b Las corralejas: sangrar por la gloria
  63. ^ Kathmandu_stadium_disaster
  64. ^ [3]dead link
  65. ^ a b Зайкин, В. (July 20, 1989). "Трагедия в Лужниках. Факты и вымысел". Известия (in Russian) (202). Retrieved February 6, 2012. 
  66. ^ El fútbol soporta otro golpe
  67. ^ |- Olympiacos Official website for Karaiskaki stadium Gate 7 tragedy of 8/2/1981dead link (and in Greekdead link). Also in the Greek Wikipedia entry for Olympiacos including the names of the dead.
  68. ^ |- Furiani disaster wiki (and in French).
  69. ^ Alfonso de Portago||1957 season profile | F1 Racing | Crash.Netdead link
  70. ^ Motorsport Memorial
  71. ^ "Wir über den Stehersport" (in German). Stayer.com. Retrieved September 29, 2010. 
  72. ^ Mangan, J.A., ed. (2002). Reformers, sport, modernizers: middle-class revolutionaries (European Sports History Review, Volume 4). Psychology Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-7146-5244-3. 
  73. ^ The Last Great Road Race||Paris-Madrid 1903||DLM Journal
  74. ^ Paris||Madrid||1903
  75. ^ "Spectators killed at US California 200 off-road race". BBC News. August 15, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  76. ^ Willon, Phil (November 20, 2010). "Federal agency failed to follow safety rules prior to desert crash, report finds". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 6, 2011. 
  77. ^ "Shah Alam Track info". Silhouet.com. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 
  78. ^ "Manila stadium stampede kills 73". BBC News. February 4, 2006. 
  79. ^ Staff. "Italian Hall Disaster Informational Site". State Historic Preservation Office. Michigan State Housing Development Authority. Retrieved July 12, 2012. 
  80. ^ B.K., Khanna (2005), All You Wanted To Know About Disasters, New Delhi: New India Publishing Agency, ISBN 81-89422-13-8 .)
  81. ^ Content Not Found - Mail & Guardian
  82. ^ "Dead On The New Bridge; Fatal Crush At The Western Approach". The New York Times. May 31, 1883. 
  83. ^ Kyodo News, "Ex-cop pleads not guilty in fatal '01 Akashi crush", Japan Times, January 20, 2012, p. 1.
  84. ^ Barletta, crollo di via Canosa (Italian)
  85. ^ "Newspaper Article - 3 killed as light system in Tokyo disco drops". Newspapers.nl.sg. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 
  86. ^ The terrible disaster in Japan, Ellesmere Guardian (August 2, 1893)
  87. ^ a b Morgan, Eric. "Other Infamous and Deadly Fires". Our Lady of the Angels School Fire. Retrieved January 2, 2008. 
  88. ^ "Количество жертв пожара в "Хромой лошади" достигло 153 человек" [Death toll has increased to 153] (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. January 1, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  89. ^ Church fire dead to rest together, The New York Times (April 20, 1930)
  90. ^ "Building Disaster Series 2 | Garley Fire | ecyY (easy why whY) Blog 意料之外 博客". Hk.myblog.yahoo.com. Retrieved March 18, 2010. 
  91. ^ "Building Disaster Series 2 | accidents triggered new measures | ecyY (easy why whY) Blog 意料之外 博客". Hk.myblog.yahoo.com. Retrieved March 18, 2010. 
  92. ^ Chinese fire deaths 130, The New York Times (March 21, 1930)
  93. ^ "2nd anniversary of Nimtoli tragedy being marked". BanglaNews24. June 3, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2012. 
  94. ^ "At Least 124 Killed in Fire at Bangladesh Garment Factory". Bloomberg. November 25, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  95. ^ 104 Die in Film Fire at Japanese Korean Base, The New York Times (March 11, 1930)
  96. ^ "More than 50 die in fire at new year celebration". January 1, 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-01-01. Retrieved September 19, 2013. 
  97. ^ NFPA.org. "NFPA.org." Key dates in fire history. Retrieved February 21, 2008.
  98. ^ England, Vaudine. [1998] (1998). The Quest of Noel Croucher: Hong Kong's Quiet Philanthropist Hong Kong University Press. Hong Kong (China). ISBN 962-209-473-2. p. 237.
  99. ^ Hotel Fire Case.The worst day in Tucson History
  100. ^ http://mexico.cnn.com/mundo/2013/01/28/la-tragedia-en-el-lobohombo La tragedia en el Lobohombo
  101. ^ sv:Branden på stadshotellet i Borås
  102. ^ Murphy, Kim (23 December 1986). "$2.19-million settlement in fatal blaze". Los Angeles Times. 
  103. ^ NFPA :: Research & Reports :: Fire statistics :: Key dates in fire history
  104. ^ Emerald: Article Request||Fire safety facilities assessment for karaokes
  105. ^ Steele, Jonathan. "One train, more than 1,700 dead.", The Guardian. December 29, 2004.
  106. ^ Spignesi, Stephen J. (2004). Catastrophe!: the 100 greatest disasters of all time. Citadel Press. p. 182. 
  107. ^ Burton, Tony. "Mexico this month | January : Mexico History". Mexconnect.com. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 
  108. ^ Railroad Wrecks by Edgar A. Haine, publ 1993, p. 175.
  109. ^ World's worst rail disasters
  110. ^ "Train Disasters Interactive Timeline". CBS news. Archived from the original on 2012-11-04. 
  111. ^ The Times March 16, 1926, page 16: 'Costa Rican Train Disaster'
  112. ^ Railway Wrecks by Edgar A. Haine, page 144-145, publ 1993, ISBN 0-8453-4844-2.
  113. ^ http://www.jrtr.net/jrtr33/pdf/f04_sai.pdf







Creative Commons License