List of heads of state of Sudan

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President of the Republic of Sudan
جمهورية السودان
Standard of the President of Sudan.svg
Omar al-Bashir, 12th AU Summit, 090202-N-0506A-137.jpg
Incumbent
Omar al-Bashir

since 30 June 1989
Residence Republican Palace
Khartoum, Sudan
Term length 5 years (no term limits)
Inaugural holder Five-member Sovereignty Council (joint control)
Formation 1 January 1956
Deputy Vice President of Sudan
Website www.presidency.gov.sd
Emblem of Sudan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Sudan
Constitution

Since the country's independence on 1 January 1956, six individuals (and three multi-member sovereignty councils) have served as head of state of Sudan, currently under the title President of the Republic of Sudan. Prior to independence, Sudan was governed as a condominium by Egypt and the United Kingdom, under the name Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. As such, executive power was vested in a dyarchy consisting of both countries' heads of state – at the time of independence, the Queen of the United Kingdom (Elizabeth II) and the Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council (headed by Gamal Abdel Nasser). Immediately following independence, the role of head of state was filled by a five-member Sovereignty Council, with rival nationalist factions unable to agree on a single candidate. In November 1958, General Ibrahim Abboud led a military coup d'état, assuming the role of head of state as Chairman of the Supreme Council. Assuming the title of president in 1964, he resigned later that year due to general discontent around the rule of the military regime. Abboud was succeeded by a senior civil servant, Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa, who served as acting president for 18 days before transferring executive authority to a Committee of Sovereignty.

Ismail al-Azhari, the leader of the National Unionist Party, was made president in July 1965, and ruled with limited power until he was deposed in 1969. The military officers responsible for the coup established the National Revolutionary Command Council, chaired by Gaafar Nimeiry. Nimeiry, the leader of the newly formed Sudanese Socialist Union, assumed the position of president in 1971, and subsequently established a single-party state, which existed until 1985, when a group of military officers overthrew his government and established the Transitional Military Council, led by Lieutenant-General Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab. Ahmed al-Mirghani succeeded to the relatively powerless position of Chairman of the Supreme Council in 1986, after multi-party elections held that year. He was deposed in a 1989 military coup led by Lieutenant-General Omar al-Bashir. Al-Bashir has served as head of state since the coup, under the title of Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation to 1993 and as president from 1993 onwards (and from 1996 as the leader of the National Congress Party).

Titles of the head of state

Although currently accorded the title of president, Sudan's heads of state have been given a number of titles throughout the country's history, often relating to the chairmanship of various executive councils:

  • 1956–1958: Chairman of the Sovereignty Council
  • 1958–1964: Chairman of the Supreme Council
  • 1964: President of the Republic of Sudan
  • 1964–1965: Chairman of the Committee of Sovereignty
  • 1965–1969: Chairman of the Sovereignty Council
  • 1969–1971: Chairman of the National Revolutionary Command Council
  • 1971–1985: President of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan
  • 1985–1986: Chairman of the Transitional Military Council
  • 1986–1989: Chairman of the Supreme Council
  • 1989–1993: Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation
  • 1993–: President of the Republic of Sudan

List of heads of state of Sudan

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

Tenure Portrait Incumbent Affiliation Notes
Republic of Sudan
جمهورية السودان (Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān)
1 January 1956 to 17 November 1958 Sovereignty Council
Abdel Fattah Muhammad al-Maghrabi
Muhammad Ahmad Yasin
Ahmad Muhammad Salih
Muhammad Othman al-Dardiri
Siricio Iro Wani
18 November 1958 to 31 October 1964 AABOUD.jpg Ibrahim Abboud, Chairman of the Supreme Council Mil
31 October 1964 to 16 November 1964 Ibrahim Abboud, President Resigned after mass protests
16 November 1964 to 3 December 1964 Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa, Acting President UNF
3 December 1964 to 10 June 1965 First Committee of Sovereignty
Abdel Halim Muhammad 1st Term
Tijani al-Mahi
Mubarak Shaddad
Ibrahim Yusuf Sulayman
Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho
10 June 1965 to 8 July 1965 Second Committee of Sovereignty
Ismail al-Azahri.jpg Ismail al-Azhari NUP
Abdullah al-Fadil al-Mahdi
Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho
Abdel Halim Muhammad 2nd Term
Khidr Hamad
8 July 1965 to 1967 Ismail al-Azahri.jpg Ismail al-Azhari, Chairman of the Sovereignty Council NUP
1967 to 25 May 1969 DUP Deposed in a coup d'état
Democratic Republic of the Sudan
جمهورية السودان الديمُقراطية (Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah)
25 May 1969 to 12 October 1971 Gaafar Nimeiry exhib.jpg Gaafar Nimeiry, Chairman of the National Revolutionary Command Council Mil Briefly interrupted during the 19-22 July 1971 coup d'état
12 October 1971 to 6 April 1985 Gaafar Nimeiry, President SSU Deposed in a coup d'état
6 April 1985 to 9 April 1985 Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab, Commander-in-Chief Mil
9 April 1985 to 15 December 1985 Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab, Chairman of the Transitional Military Council
Republic of the Sudan
جمهورية السودان (Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān)
15 December 1985 to 6 May 1986 Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab, Chairman of the Transitional Military Council Mil
6 May 1986 to 30 June 1989 Mirghani.gif Ahmed al-Mirghani, Chairman of the Supreme Council DUP Deposed in a coup d'état
30 June 1989 to 16 October 1993 Omar al-Bashir, 12th AU Summit, 090202-N-0506A-137.jpg Omar al-Bashir, Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation Mil
16 October 1993 to 1996 Omar al-Bashir, President
1996 to Present NC

Affiliations

Latest election

e • d Summary of the 11–15 April 2010 Sudanese presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Omar Hassan al-Bashir National Congress 6,901,694 68.24%
Yasir Arman SPLM 2,193,82 21.69%
Abdullah Deng Nhial Popular Congress Party 396,139 3.92%
Hatim Al-Sir Democratic Unionist Party 195,668 1.93%
Al-Sadiq Al-Mahdi Umma Party 96,868 0.96%
Kamil Idriss Independent 77,132 0.76%
Mahmood Ahmed Jeha Independent 71,708 0.71%
Mubarak al-Fadil Umma Reform and Renewal Party 49,402 0.49%
Munir Sheikh El-din Jallab New National Democratic Party 40,277 0.40%
Abdel-Aziz Khalid Sudanese National Alliance 34,592 0.34%
Fatima Abdel-Mahmood Sudanese Socialist Democratic Union 30,562 0.30%
Mohamed Ibrahim Nugud Sudanese Communist Party 26,442 0.26%
Total 10,114,310 100.00%
Sources: Sudan Tribune

See also

External links








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