List of largest hydroelectric power stations
This article provides a list of the largest hydroelectric power stations by generating capacity. Only plants with capacity larger than 2,000 MW are listed.
The Three Gorges Dam in Hubei, China, has the world's largest instantaneous generating capacity (22,500 MW), with the Itaipu Dam in Brazil/Paraguay in second place (14,000 MW). Despite large differences in installed capacity of these two power stations, during the course of an entire year they generate equal amounts of electrical energy - Itaipu 98.2 TWh in 20121 and Three Gorges 98.1 TWh in 2012,2 because the Three Gorges experiences six months per year when there is very little water available to generate power, while the Paraná River that feeds the Itaipu has a much lower seasonal variance in flow. In the same time, due to no-stable of feeds, a power output of The Three Gorges expects up to 125 TWh in some years.
The Three Gorges (22,500 MW - 32 × 700 MW and 2 × 50 MW) is operated jointly with the much smaller Gezhouba Dam (2,715 MW), the total generating capacity of this two-dam complex is 25,215 MW. The Itaipu on the Brazil-Paraguay border has 20 generator units with overall 14,000 MW of installed capacity, however the maximum number of generating units allowed to operate simultaneously cannot exceed 18 (12,600 MW).
The Jinsha River (the upper stream of Yangtze River) complex is the largest hydroelectric generating system currently under construction. It has 3 phases. Phase one includes 4 dams on the downstream of the Jinsha River. They are Wudongde Dam, Baihetan Dam, Xiluodu Dam, and Xiangjiaba Dam, with generating capacity of 8,700 MW, 13,050 MW, 13,860 MW, and 6,400 MW respectively. Phase two includes 8 dams on the middle stream of the Jinsha River. The total generating capacity is 21,150 MW. Phase three includes 8 dams on the upper stream of the Jinsha River. The total generating capacity is 8,980 MW. The total combined capacity of the Jinsha complex with the Three Gorges complex will be 97,355 MW.
Preliminary plans exist for the construction of the next largest hydroelectric power station with an installed capacity of 39,000 MW.3 The Project is called Grand Inga and is planned to be realised on the lower Congo River.4
Another proposal, Penzhin Tidal Power Plant, presumes an installed capacity up to 87,100 MW.
The largest hydroelectric power stations top the list of the largest power stations of any kind, are among the largest hydraulic structures and are some of the largest artificial structures in the world.
This table lists currently operational power stations with an installed capacity of at least 2,000 MW. Some of these may have additional units under construction, but only current installed capacity is listed.
|Rank||Name||Country||River||Installed Capacity (MW)||Annual electricity production (TW-hour)5||Years of completion||Area flooded (km²)|
|1||Three Gorges Dam||People's Republic of China||Yangtze||22,500||98.52||2003/2012 6||632|
|2||Itaipu Dam||Brazil Paraguay||Paraná||14,000||98.31||1984/1991, 20037||1,350|
|5||Grand Coulee||United States||Columbia||6,809||208||1942/1950, 1973, 1975/1980, 1984/19859||324|
|6||Longtan Dam||People's Republic of China||Hongshui||6,426||18.710||2007/2009|
|11||Laxiwa Dam||People's Republic of China||Yellow||4,20014||10.2||2010|
|12||Xiaowan Dam||People's Republic of China||Mekong||4,200 15||19||2010||190|
|16||Ilha Solteira Dam||Brazil||Paraná||3,444||17.9||1973|
|17||Ertan Dam||People's Republic of China||Yalong||3,300||17||1999|
|17||Pubugou Dam||People's Republic of China||Dadu||3,300||14.6||2009/2010|
|20||Xingó Dam||Brazil||São Francisco||3,162||18.718||1994/1997|
|21||Yacyretá||Argentina Paraguay||Paraná||3,100||20.09||1994/1998, 2011||1,600|
|22||Nurek Dam||Tajikistan||Vakhsh||3,015||11.2||1972/1979, 1988||98|
|23||Bath County PSP||United States||-||3,003||3.32||1985, 2004|
|24||Goupitan Dam||People's Republic of China||Wu||3,000 19||9.67||2009/2011||94|
|25||W. A. C. Bennett Dam||Canada||Peace River||2,876||13.1||1968, 2012|
|26||La Grande-4||Canada||La Grande||2,77912||1986||765|
|27||Gezhouba Dam||People's Republic of China||Yangtze||2,715||17.01||1988|
|28||Manic-5 and Manic-5-PA||Canada||Manicouagan||2,65620||1970/1971, 1989/1990||1,950|
|29||Chief Joseph Dam||United States||Columbia||2,620||12.5||1958/73/79||34|
|31||Niagara Falls (US)||United States||Niagara||2,525 22||1961|
|32||Revelstoke Dam||Canada||Columbia||2,480||1984, 2011||115|
|33||Paulo Afonso IV||Brazil||São Francisco||2,462.423||1979/1983|
|34||Chicoasén (Manuel M. Torres) Dam||Mexico||Grijalva||2,430||1980, 2005|
|35||La Grande-3||Canada||La Grande||2,41812||1984|
|36||Jinanqiao Dam||People's Republic of China||Jinsha||2,400||2010|
|36||Sơn La Dam||Vietnam||Black||2,400||10.25||2010/2012|
|36||Liyuan Dam||People's Republic of China||Jinsha||2,400||2012|
|36||Guandi Dam||People's Republic of China||Yalong||2,400||2013|
|44||Karun III Dam||Iran||Karun||2,280||4.17||2005|
|44||Iron Gates-I||Romania Serbia||Danube||2,192||11.3||1970|
|45||John Day Dam||United States||Columbia||2,160||1949|
|47||La Grande-2-A||Canada||La Grande||2,1061224||1992|
|50||Hoover Dam||United States||Colorado River||2,080||4||1936/1939, 1961|
|51||Cleuson-Dixence Complex||Switzerland||-||2,069||4.51||1965, 1998|
|54||Lijiaxia Dam||People's Republic of China||Yellow||2,000||1997/2000|
|54||Karun I (Shahid Abbaspour) Dam||Iran||Karun||2,000||1976, 1995, 2006|
|54||Masjed Soleyman Dam||Iran||Karun||2,000||3.7||2002/2007|
This table lists stations under construction with expected installed capacity at least 2,000 MW.
|Name||Country||River||Expected capacity (MW)||Expected completion||Location|
|Boguchany Dam||Russia||Angara River||3,00025||2013|
|Ethiopian Renaissance||Ethiopia||Blue Nile||6,000||2018|
- List of conventional hydroelectric power stations
- List of pumped-storage hydroelectric power stations
- List of largest power stations in the world
- List of tallest dams in the world
- List of largest dams
- Itaipu Binacional: Energy
- Development of the Grand Inga, retrieved 2010-03-21
- "Africa plans biggest dam project, the Grand Inga", BBC News, 2008-04-21, retrieved 2010-03-21
- Generating capacity is not the only factor determining the amount of electricity generated, as this also depends on consistent utilization of the plant's capacity. Factors enhancing this are the free capacity of the reservoir and the consistency of water supply during and across years.
- first 6 units installed in 2003, last 3 in 2012
- first unit installed in 1984, 18th in 1991; in 2003 2 additional units were installed
- "Generation Records Fall at Grand Coulee Dam". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2006-11-18.
- first unit installed in 1942, 21st in 1991; 6 units in third powerplant were installed between 1975 and 1980, 3 units of pumped-storage plant were installed in 1973, 3 more units in 1983 and 1984
- Combined with adjacent La Grande-2-A the LG-2 complex has 7,722 MW of installed capacity
- Hydro-Québec (April 2009). Powering Our Future : Annual Report 2008 (pdf). Montreal. p. 125. ISBN 978-2-550-55046-4.
- power plat is being reconstructed after catastrophic failure in 2009 and may reach original 6,400 MW capacity in 2014
- 10 units were installed between 1985 and 1989, after 2009 failure new units are being installed since 2010
- ELETROBRAS 2011 Form 20-F
- Hydro-Québec (2010), Hydroelectric Generating Stations, Montreal: Hydro-Québec, retrieved 2010-08-16
- Combined US-CA capacity >= 1.6 MW greater than this so would be about 10th place.
- Combined with adjacent Paulo Afonso IV, Paulo Afonso I, II, III and Apollonius Sales the Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex has 4,279 MW of installed capacity
- Combined with Robert-Bourassa, it would place LG-2 complex in 5th place
- 1,332 MW already installed
- 1,200 MW already installed
- 770 MW already installed