List of nearest stars

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This video takes you on a fly-through of the space around the nearest stars to the Sun.

This list contains all known stars and brown dwarfs at a distance of up to 5 parsecs (16.3 light-years) from the Solar System, ordered by increasing distance. In addition to the Solar System, there are another 55 stellar systems currently known lying within this distance. These systems contain a total of 56 hydrogen-fusing stars (of which 46 are red dwarfs), 15 brown dwarfs, and 4 white dwarfs. Despite the relative proximity of these objects to the Earth, only nine of them have an apparent magnitude less than 6.5, which means only about 13% of these objects can be observed with the naked eye.1 Besides the Sun, only three are first-magnitude stars: Alpha Centauri, Sirius, and Procyon. All of these objects are located in the Local Bubble, a region within the Orion–Cygnus Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.

List

Stars visible to the unaided eye have their magnitude shown in light blue below. The classes of the stars and brown dwarfs are shown in the color of their spectral types (these colors are derived from conventional names for the spectral types and do not represent the star's observed color). Many brown dwarfs are not listed by visual magnitude but are listed by near-IR J band magnitude. Some of the parallax and distance results are preliminary measurements.2

# Distance3
Light-years (±err)
Designation Stellar class Apparent magnitude (mV or mJ) Absolute magnitude (MV or MJ) Epoch J2000.0 Parallax24
mas(±err)
Discovery date5 Additional
references
System Star Star # Right ascension2 Declination2
0 Solar System Sun G2V2 −26.742 4.852 has eight planets
1 4.2421(16) Alpha Centauri
(Rigil Kentaurus)
Proxima Centauri (V645 Centauri) 1 M5.5Ve 11.092 15.532 14h 29m 43.0s −62° 40′ 46″ 768.87(029)67 1915 8
4.3650(68) α Centauri A (HD 128620) 2 G2V2 0.012 4.382 14h 39m 36.5s −60° 50′ 02″ 747.23(117)69
α Centauri B (HD 128621) 2 K1V2 1.342 5.712 14h 39m 35.1s −60° 50′ 14″ 1689 has one suspected planet10
2 5.9630(109) Barnard's Star (BD+04°3561a) 4 M4.0Ve 9.532 13.222 17h 57m 48.5s +04° 41′ 36″ 546.98(1 00)67 1916 largest known proper motion11
3 6.59(7) Luhman 16
(WISE 1049-5319)
Luhman 16A 5 L8±112 10.7 J 10h 49m 15.57s −53° 19′ 06″ 495 (5)12 2013 has one suspected planet
Luhman 16B 5 T1±212
4 7.17513 WISE 0855–0714 2014
5 7.7825(390) Wolf 359 (CN Leonis) 7 M6.0V2 13.442 16.552 10h 56m 29.2s +07° 00′ 53″ 419.10(210)6 1919
6 8.2905(148) Lalande 21185 (BD+36°2147) 8 M2.0V2 7.472 10.442 11h 03m 20.2s +35° 58′ 12″ 393.42(070)67 1801
7 8.5828(289) Sirius
(α Canis Majoris)
Sirius A 9 A1V2 −1.462 1.422 06h 45m 08.9s −16° 42′ 58″ 380.02(128)67 brightest star in the night sky
Sirius B 9 DA22 8.442 11.342 1844
8 8.7280(631) Luyten 726-8 Luyten 726-8 A (BL Ceti) 11 M5.5Ve 12.542 15.402 01h 39m 01.3s −17° 57′ 01″ 373.70(270)6 1949
Luyten 726-8 B (UV Ceti) 11 M6.0Ve 12.992 15.852
9 9.6813(512) Ross 154 (V1216 Sagittarii) 13 M3.5Ve 10.432 13.072 18h 49m 49.4s −23° 50′ 10″ 336.90(178)67 1925
10 10.322(36) Ross 248 (HH Andromedae) 14 M5.5Ve 12.292 14.792 23h 41m 54.7s +44° 10′ 30″ 316.00(110)6 1925
11 10.522(27) Epsilon Eridani (BD−09°697) 15 K2V2 3.732 6.192 03h 32m 55.8s −09° 27′ 30″ 309.99(079)67 150 at least one planet14
12 10.742(31) Lacaille 9352 (CD−36°15693) 16 M1.5Ve 7.342 9.752 23h 05m 52.0s −35° 51′ 11″ 303.64(087)67 1753
13 10.919(49) Ross 128 (FI Virginis) 17 M4.0Vn 11.132 13.512 11h 47m 44.4s +00° 48′ 16″ 298.72(135)67 1925
14 11.08915 WISE 1506+7027 18 T6 14.3 J 15h 06m 49.9s +70° 27′ 36″ 310(042)15 2011
15 11.266(171) EZ Aquarii
(Gliese 866, Luyten 789-6)
EZ Aquarii A 19 M5.0Ve 13.332 15.642 22h 38m 33.4s −15° 18′ 07″ 289.50(440)6 1937
EZ Aquarii B 19 M? 13.272 15.582 -
EZ Aquarii C 19 M? 14.032 16.342 1995
16 11.402(32) Procyon
(α Canis Minoris)
Procyon A 22 F5V–IV2 0.382 2.662 07h 39m 18.1s +05° 13′ 30″ 286.05(081)67
Procyon B 22 DQZ2 10.702 12.982 1844
17 11.403(22) 61 Cygni 61 Cygni A (BD+38°4343) 24 K5.0V2 5.212 7.492 21h 06m 53.9s +38° 44′ 58″ 286.04(056)67 1725 first star (other than Sun) to have its distance measured16
61 Cygni B (BD+38°4344) 24 K7.0V2 6.032 8.312 21h 06m 55.3s +38° 44′ 31″ -
18 11.525(69) Struve 2398
(Gliese 725, BD+59°1915)
Struve 2398 A (HD 173739) 26 M3.0V2 8.902 11.162 18h 42m 46.7s +59° 37′ 49″ 283.00(169)67 1835
Struve 2398 B (HD 173740) 26 M3.5V2 9.692 11.952 18h 42m 46.9s +59° 37′ 37″ 1835
19 11.624(39) Groombridge 34
(Gliese 15)
Groombridge 34 A (GX Andromedae) 28 M1.5V2 8.082 10.322 0h 18m 22.9s +44° 01′ 23″ 280.59(095)67 1813
Groombridge 34 B (GQ Andromedae) 28 M3.5V2 11.062 13.302 -
20 11.824(30) Epsilon Indi
(CPD−57°10015)
Epsilon Indi A 30 K5Ve2 4.692 6.892 22h 03m 21.7s −56° 47′ 10″ 275.84(069)67 1597 one suspected planet17
Epsilon Indi Ba 30 T1.0V 12.3 J18 22h 04m 10.5s −56° 46′ 58″ Jan 2003
Epsilon Indi Bb 30 T6.0V 13.2 J18 Aug 2003
21 11.826(129) DX Cancri (G 51-15) 33 M6.5Ve 14.782 16.982 08h 29m 49.5s +26° 46′ 37″ 275.80(300)6 1972
22 11.887(33) Tau Ceti (BD−16°295) 34 G8Vp2 3.492 5.682 01h 44m 04.1s −15° 56′ 15″ 274.39(076)67 150 possibly five planets
23 11.991(57) GJ 1061 (LHS 1565) 35 M5.5V2 13.092 15.262 03h 35m 59.7s −44° 30′ 45″ 272.01(130)19 1995 2021
24 12.06815 WISE 0350-5658 36 Y1 >22.8 J22 03h 50m −56° 58′ 291(050)15 2011
25 12.132(133) YZ Ceti (LHS 138) 37 M4.5V2 12.022 14.172 01h 12m 30.6s −16° 59′ 56″ 268.84(295)67 1961
26 12.366(59) Luyten's Star (BD+05°1668) 38 M3.5Vn 9.862 11.972 07h 27m 24.5s +05° 13′ 33″ 263.76(125)67 1935
27 12.514(129) Teegarden's star (SO025300.5+165258) 39 M6.5V 15.142 17.222 02h 53m 00.9s +16° 52′ 53″ 260.63(269)19 2003 21 possible planetary system23
28 12.571(54) SCR 1845-6357 SCR 1845-6357 A 40 M8.5V2 17.39 19.41 18h 45m 05.3s −63° 57′ 48″ 259.45(111)19 2004 21
SCR 1845-6357 B 40 T624 13.3 J18 18h 45m 02.6s −63° 57′ 52″ 2006
29 12.777(43) Kapteyn's Star (CD−45°1841) 42 M1.5V2 8.842 10.872 05h 11m 40.6s −45° 01′ 06″ 255.27(086)67 1898
30 12.870(57) Lacaille 8760 (AX Microscopii) 43 M0.0V2 6.672 8.692 21h 17m 15.3s −38° 52′ 03″ 253.43(112)67 1753
31 13.149(74) Kruger 60
(BD+56°2783)
Kruger 60 A 44 M3.0V2 9.792 11.762 22h 27m 59.5s +57° 41′ 45″ 248.06(139)69 1880
Kruger 60 B (DO Cephei) 44 M4.0V2 11.412 13.382 1890?
32 13.167(82) DEN 1048-3956 46 M8.5V2 17.392 19.372 10h 48m 14.7s −39° 56′ 06″ 247.71(155)19 2001 2526
33 13.259 UGPS 0722-05 47 T92 16.52 J27 07h 22m 27.3s –05° 40′ 30″ 246 2010 28
34 13.349(110) Ross 614
(V577 Monocerotis, Gliese 234)
Ross 614A (LHS 1849) 48 M4.5V2 11.152 13.092 06h 29m 23.4s −02° 48′ 50″ 244.34(201)69 1927
Ross 614B (LHS 1850) 48 M5.5V 14.232 16.172 1936
35 13.820(98) Wolf 1061 (Gliese 628, BD−12°4523) 50 M3.0V2 10.072 11.932 16h 30m 18.1s −12° 39′ 45″ 236.01(167)67 1919
36 14.066(109) Van Maanen's star (Gliese 35, LHS 7) 52 DZ72 12.382 14.212 00h 49m 09.9s +05° 23′ 19″ 231.88(179)67 1896
37 14.231(66) Gliese 1 (CD−37°15492) 53 M3.0V2 8.552 10.352 00h 05m 24.4s −37° 21′ 27″ 229.20(107)67 1884
38 14.312(289) Wolf 424
(FL Virginis, LHS 333, Gliese 473)
Wolf 424 A 54 M5.5Ve 13.182 14.972 12h 33m 17.2s +09° 01′ 15″ 227.90(460)6
Wolf 424 B 54 M7Ve 13.172 14.962
39 14.509(187) TZ Arietis (Gliese 83.1, Luyten 1159-16) 56 M4.5V2 12.272 14.032 02h 00m 13.2s +13° 03′ 08″ 224.80(290)6
40 14.793(55) Gliese 687 (LHS 450, BD+68°946) 57 M3.0V2 9.172 10.892 17h 36m 25.9s +68° 20′ 21″ 220.49(082)67 has one known planet29
41 14.805(242) LHS 292 (LP 731-58) 58 M6.5V2 15.602 17.322 10h 48m 12.6s −11° 20′ 14″ 220.30(360)6
42 14.809(107) Gliese 674 (LHS 449) 59 M3.0V2 9.382 11.092 17h 28m 39.9s −46° 53′ 43″ 220.25(159)67 has one known planet30
43 14.812(67) GJ 1245 GJ 1245 A 60 M5.5V2 13.462 15.172 19h 53m 54.2s +44° 24′ 55″ 220.20(100)6
GJ 1245 B 60 M6.0V2 14.012 15.722 19h 53m 55.2s +44° 24′ 56″
GJ 1245 C 60 M5.5 16.752 18.462 19h 53m 54.2s +44° 24′ 55″
44 15.060(140) Gliese 440 (WD 1142-645) 63 DQ62 11.502 13.182 11h 45m 42.9s −64° 50′ 29″ 216.57(201)67
45 15.313(259) GJ 1002 64 M5.5V2 13.762 15.402 00h 06m 43.8s −07° 32′ 22″ 213.00(360)6
46 15.342(141) Gliese 876 (Ross 780) 65 M3.5V2 10.172 11.812 22h 53m 16.7s −14° 15′ 49″ 212.59(196)67 has four known planets31
47 15.610(204) LHS 288 (Luyten 143-23) 66 M5.5V2 13.902 15.512 10h 44m 21.2s −61° 12′ 36″ 208.95(273)19 21
48 15.832(83) Gliese 412 Gliese 412 A 67 M1.0V2 8.772 10.342 11h 05m 28.6s +43° 31′ 36″ 206.02(108)67
Gliese 412 B (WX Ursae Majoris) 67 M5.5V2 14.482 16.052 11h 05m 30.4s +43° 31′ 18″
49 15.848(52) Groombridge 1618 (Gliese 380) 69 K7.0V2 6.592 8.162 10h 11m 22.1s +49° 27′ 15″ 205.81(067)67
50 15.942(218) AD Leonis 70 M3.0V2 9.322 10.872 10h 19m 36.4s +19° 52′ 10″ 204.60(280)6
51 16.06722 DENIS J081730.0-615520 71 T6 08h 17m −61° 55′ 203 22 2010
52 16.085(105) Gliese 832 72 M3.0V2 8.662 10.202 21h 33m 34.0s −49° 00′ 32″ 202.78(132)67 has one known planet32
53 16.195(338) LP 944-020 73 M9.0V2 18.692 20.022 03h 39m 35.2s −35° 25′ 41″ 201.40(420)33
54 16.197(313) DEN 0255-4700 74 L7.5V2 22.922 24.442 02h 55m 03.7s −47° 00′ 52″ 201.37(389)19 26
# Distance3
Light-years (±err)
System Star Star # Stellar class Apparent magnitude (mV or mJ) Absolute magnitude (MV or MJ) Right ascension2 Declination2 Parallax24
mas(±err)
Discovery date Additional
references
Designation Epoch J2000.0

Maps of nearby stars

This map shows all of the star systems within 14 light-years of the Sun (shown as Sol), except for four brown dwarfs discovered after 2009. Double and triple stars are shown "stacked", but the true location is the star closest to the central plane. Color corresponds to the table above.
This is a 3D map of the nearest stars using the coordinates listed above. The stars in the front have a right ascension of 18h. An animated version is available here. 3d glasses red green.svg 3D red green glasses are recommended to view this image correctly.


Future and past

Distances of the nearest stars from 20,000 years ago until 80,000 years in the future

Ross 248, currently at a distance of 10.3 light-years, has a radial velocity of −81 km/s. In about 31,000 years it may be the closest star to the Sun for several millennia, with a minimum distance of 0.927 parsecs (3.02 light-years) in 36,000 years.34 Gliese 445, currently at a distance of 17.6 light-years, has a radial velocity of −119 km/s. In about 40,000 years it will be the closest star for a period of several thousand years.34

Known Hipparcos stars that have passed or will pass within 5.1 light-years of the Sun within ±2 million years:35

Star name HIP# Minimum distance in light-years (parsecs) Approach date in kiloyears Current distance in light-years (parsecs) Stellar classification Mass in M Current apparent magnitude Constellation Right ascension Declination
Gliese 710 89825 1.01 (0.311) 1447 62.9 (19.3) K7V 0.4–0.6 9.6 Serpens 18h 19m 50.843s −01° 56′ 18.98″
Proxima Centauri 70890 2.90 (0.890) 27.4 4.24 (1.29) M5Ve 0.15 11.05 Centaurus 14h 29m 42.949s −62° 40′ 46.14″
Alpha Centauri A 71683 2.97 (0.910) 28.4 4.36 (1.338) G2V 1.10036 −0.01 Centaurus 14h 39m 36.495s −60° 50′ 02.31″
Alpha Centauri B 71681 2.97 (0.910) 28.4 4.36 (1.338) K1V 0.90736 1.33 Centaurus 14h 39m 35.080s −60° 50′ 13.76″
AC+79 3888 57544 3.45 (1.059) 46.0 17.6 (5.39) M4 0.15? 10.8 Camelopardalis 11h 47m 41.377s +78° 41′ 28.18″
Barnard's Star 87937 3.74 (1.148) 9.8 5.98 (1.834) sdM4 0.144 9.54 Ophiuchus 17h 57m 48.498s +04° 41′ 36.25″
Zeta Leporis 27288 4.16 (1.275) −861 70.2 (21.5) A2Vann 2.0 3.55 Lepus 05h 46m 57.341s −14° 49′ 19.02″
Lalande 21185 54035 4.65 (1.426) 20.5 8.32 (2.55) M2V 0.39 7.52 Ursa Major 11h 03m 20.194s +35° 58′ 11.55″
Gliese 208 26335 5.01 (1.537) −500 37.1 (11.38) K7 0.47 8.9 Orion 05h 36m 30.991s +11° 19′ 40.32″

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga Research Consortium on Nearby Stars, GSU (2007-09-17). "The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems". RECONS. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  3. ^ a b From parallax.
  4. ^ a b Parallaxes given by RECONS are a weighted mean of values in the sources given, as well as measurements by the RECONS program.
  5. ^ Before 1900: earliest certain recorded observation. 1900–1930: first catalogued. After 1930: earliest trigonometric or spectroscopic parallax.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap General Catalogue of Trigonometric Parallaxes.
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  8. ^ Burgasser et al. 2000
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  13. ^ Luhman, K. L. (21 April 2014). "Discovery of a ~250 K Brown Dwarf at 2 pc from the Sun". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 786 (2): L18. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/786/2/L18. 
  14. ^ Janson, M. et al. (September 2008), "A comprehensive examination of the ε Eridani system. Verification of a 4 micron narrow-band high-contrast imaging approach for planet searches", Astronomy and Astrophysics 488 (2): 771–780, arXiv:0807.0301, Bibcode:2008A&A...488..771J, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200809984 
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  16. ^ Bessel, F. W. (1839). "Bestimmung der Entfernung des 61sten Sterns des Schwans. Von Herrn Geheimen - Rath und Ritter Bessel". Astronomische Nachrichten (in German) 16 (5-6): 65. Bibcode:1839AN.....16...65B. doi:10.1002/asna.18390160502. "(page 92) Ich bin daher der Meinung, daß nur die jährliche Parallaxe = 0"3136 als das Resultat der bisherigen Beobachtungen zu betrachten ist"  A parallax of 313.6 mas yields a distance of 10.4 light years
  17. ^ Zechmeister, M.; Kürster, M; Endl, M.; Lo Curto, G.; Hartman, H.; Nilsson, H.; Henning, T.; Hatzes, A.; Cochran, W. D. (April 2013). "The planet search programme at the ESO CES and HARPS. IV. The search for Jupiter analogues around solar-like stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 552: pp62. arXiv:1211.7263. Bibcode:2013A&A...552A..78Z. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116551. 
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  30. ^ http://exoplanet.eu/star.php?st=GJ+674
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  32. ^ Bailey, Jeremy et al. (2008). "A Jupiter-like Planet Orbiting the Nearby M Dwarf GJ832". The Astrophysical Journal 690 (1): 743–747. arXiv:0809.0172. Bibcode:2009ApJ...690..743B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/690/1/743. 
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