List of new religious movements

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A new religious movement (NRM) is a comprehensive term used to identify religious, ethical, and spiritual groups, communities and practices of relatively modern origins. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may exist on the fringes of a wider religion, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing denominations. Scholars studying the sociology of religion have almost unanimously adopted this term as a neutral alternative to the word cult, which is often considered derogatory.1 Academics identify a variety of characteristics which they employ in categorizing groups as new religious movements. The term is broad and inclusive, rather than sharply defined. New religious movements are generally seen as syncretic, employing human and material assets to disseminate their ideas and worldviews, deviating in some degree from a society's traditional forms or doctrines, focused especially upon the self and having a peripheral relationship that exists in a state of tension with established societal conventions.2

A NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates their adherents from mainstream society. Use of the term NRM is not universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied.3 Scholars have estimated that NRMs now number in the tens of thousands world-wide, with most in Asia and Africa. Most have only a few members, some have thousands, and very few have more than a million.4 Although academics occasionally propose amendments to technical definitions and continue to add newly emergent religious manifestations,56 the entities listed have been identified as new religions and new religious movements by scholars in the fields of the sociology of religion, psychiatry, history and theology.

List

Name Founder Year founded Type
3HO7 Harbhajan Singh Yogi8 19698 Sikhism8
Adidam, previously Free Daist Avabhasan Communion, Free Daist Communion, Crazy Wisdom Fellowship, Johannine Daist Community, Laughing Man Institute, Dawn Horse Communion, Free Primitive Church of Divine Communion, Free Communion Church, Dawn Horse Fellowship910 Adi Da10 197210 Hindu-inspired10
Adonai-Shomo11 Frederick T. Howland12 186112 Adventist Communal12
Adonism13 Franz Sättler13 192513 Neopagan13
Adventures in Enlightenment, A Foundation14 Terry Cole-Whittaker 1985 Religious Science
Aetherius Society151617 George King15 195415 UFO-Christian15
African Church Incorporated18 Jacob Kehinde Coker19 190119 Anglican Communion
African Independent Churches, also known as African Initiated Churches20 Multiple Starting in the 4th century Christianity; Indigenous
African Theological Archministry, previously Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests, Shango Temple, and Yoruba Temple21 Walter Eugene King22 197322 Voodoo22
Agasha Temple of Wisdom23 Richard Zenor24 194324 Spiritualism24
Agni Yoga Society2325 Nicholas Roerich26 mid-1920s26 Theosophical26
Ahmadiyya Movement252728 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad29 188929 Islam29
Aladura3031 Josiah Ositelu32 193032 Pentecostal32
Alamo Christian Foundation, also known as Alamo Christian Church, Consecrated, Alamo Christian Ministries, and Music Square Church303334 Tony Alamo; Susan Alamo35 196935 Fundamentalist; Communal35
Altruria36 Edward Biron Payne12 189412 Christian Socialist Communal12
Amana Church Society, also known as Church of True Inspiration3738 Eberhard Gruber; Johann Rock12 171412 Communal 12
American Buddhist Movement39 198040 Western Buddhism40
American Buddhist Society and Fellowship, Inc.41 Robert Ernest Dickhoff42 194542 Tibetan Buddhism42
American World Patriarchs43 Uladyslau Ryzy-Ryski44 197244 Eastern Liturgy44
Amica Temple of Radiance45 Ivah Berg Whitten26 193226 Theosophical26
Ananda Marga46474849 Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar50 195550 Hinduism50
Ancient British Church in North America51 Jonathan V. Zotique52 Homosexually Oriented52
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis465354 H. Spencer Lewis55 191555 Rosicrucianism55
Ancient Teachings of the Masters, also known as ATOM51 Darwin Gross56 198356 Sant Mat56
Anglo-Saxon Federation of America5758 Howard B. Rand59 192859 British Israelism59
Ansaaru Allah Community60 As Siddid Al Imaan Al Haahi Al Mahdi61 late 1960s61 Black Islam61
Anthroposophy576263 Rudolf Steiner64 191264 Western Occultist64
Antiochian Catholic Church in America65 Gordon Mar Peter66 1980s66 Independent Catholic, Monophysite66
Antoinism67 Louis-Joseph Antoine67 191067 Healing, Christian67
Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean)68 Samuel Heinrich Froehlich69 190669 European Free-Church69
Apostolic Christian Church of America68 Samuel Heinrich Froehlich69 183069 European Free-Church69
Apostolic Church70 Daniel Powell Williams71 191671 Pentecostal71
Apostolic Church of Christ (Pentecostal)72 Johnnie Draft; Wallace Snow73 196973 Apostolic Pentecostal73
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God74 William Thomas Phillips75 192075 Apostolic Pentecostal75
Arcane School76 Alice and Foster Bailey77 193777 Alice Bailey Groups77
Arica School7879 Oscar Ichazo80 196880 Sufism80
Art of Living Foundation, also known as Association for Inner Growth and Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Preeth81 Sri Sri Ravi Shankar81 198181 Hinduism81
Arya Samaj8283 Mul Shankara81 187581 Hinduism81
Aryan Nations, also known as Church of Jesus Christ Christian, Aryan Nations84 Wesley Swift85 late 1940s85 British Israelism85
Ásatrú86 Stephen McNallen86 1970s86 Neo-pagan86
Assemblies of God87 merger88 191488 Pentecostalism88
Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ82 merger89 195289 Apostolic Pentecostal89
Assemblies of Yahweh9091 C.O. Dodd92 193792 Adventist; Sacred Name92
Assembly of Christian Soldiers93 Jessie L. Thrift94 197194 Unclassified, Ku Klux Klan-based94
Assembly of Yahweh9091 Lorenzo Dow Snow
E. B. Adam95
194995 Adventist95
Association for Research and Enlightenment9396 Edgar Cayce97 193197 Occultist97
Association of Vineyard Churches98 John Wimber99 198299 White Trinitarian Pentecostals99
Aum Shinrikyo, also known as Aleph100101102103 Shoko Asahara104 1987104 Japanese Buddhism104
Ausar Auset Society105 R.A. Straughn106 mid-1970s106 Rosicrucianism106
Babism107 Báb107 1844107 Islam107
Bahá'í Faith108109 Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri110 1863110 Middle Eastern, Baha'i110
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship111 Bawa Muhaiyaddeen112 1971112 Sufism112
Bethel Ministerial Association113 Albert Franklin Varnell89 193489 Apostolic Pentecostal89
Bible Presbyterian Church114 Carl McIntire115 1938115 Reformed Presbyterian115
Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ116117 schism89 195789 Apostolic Pentecostal89
Brahma Kumaris118119120 Dada Lekhraj121 1936121 Hinduism121
Branch Davidian122123 Victor T. Houteff124 1930124 Seventh Day Adventist124
Branhamism125 William M. Branham125 1951125 Oneness Pentecostal125
Breatharians also known as Inedia126 Wiley Brooks127 1970s127 Hinduism-influenced127
The Brethren (Jim Roberts group), also known as The Body of Christ and The Garbage Eaters128 Jimmie T. Roberts128 c. 1970128 Unclassified Christian Churches128
British Israelism, also called Anglo-Israelism129130
Bruderhof, also known as the Hutterian Brethren and Hutterian Society of Brothers131 Eberhard Arnold132 c. 1920132 Communal132
Brunstad Christian Church133
Builders of the Adytum134135 Paul Foster Case136 1922136 Ritual magic136
Candomblé137138 19th century139 Syncretistic; Neo-African; Divination139
Cao Dai, also known as Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do140141 Ngô Văn Chiêu; Lê Văn Trung139 1919139 Syncretistic; Vietnamese Millenarian139
Cargo cults142143 Syncretistic; Nativist144
CAUSA International145 Sun Myung Moon146 1970146 Unification Church146
Celestial Church of Christ147 Samuel Oshoffa148 1947148 Nativist Christian Pentecostal148
The Centers Network149
Chabad-Lubavitch143150 Shneur Zalman of Liadi. late 18th century Chasidic movement in Orthodox Judaism.
Charismatic Movement151 1950s152
Chen Tao, also called God's Salvation Church and God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation153
Cheondoism, also called Chendogyo154
Cherubim and Seraphim, also known as Sacred Cherubim and Seraphim Society and Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim155 Moses Orimolade Tunolase156 c. 1925156 African Pentecostal156
Christ Apostolic Church157 T. O. Obadare158 1941158 Pentecostal158
Christadelphians, also called Thomasites159160 John Thomas161 1844162 Baptist family162
The Christian Community, also known as the Christian Community Church and Christengemeinschaft163 Rudolf Steiner
Friedrich Rittelmeyer164
1922164 Anthroposophy164
Christian Identity165166 1982167 British Israelism167
Christian Reformed Church in North America168 Gijsbert Haan169 1857169 Reformed Presbyterian169
Christian Science170171 Mary Baker Eddy172 1876172 Christian Science-Metaphysical;172 New Thought173
Christian World Liberation Front, also known as the Spiritual Counterfeits Project174 Jack Sparks; Fred Dyson; Pat Matrisciana175 1969175 Christian Fundamentalist-Millenarian175
Church of All Worlds176177 Tim Zell; Lance Christie178 1962178 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism178
Church of Aphrodite176 Gleb Botkin179 1939179 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism179
Church of Bible Understanding180181 Stewart Traill182 1971182 Adventist; Fundamentalist182
Church of Daniel's Band183 1893184 Non-Episcopal Methodism184
Church of God in Christ185 Charles H. Mason186 1908186 Pentecostal186
Church of God in Christ, Mennonite185187 John Holdeman187 c. 1870187 German Mennonite187
The Church of God (Jerusalem Acres)185 Grady R. Kent188 1957188 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal188
Church of God Mountain Assembly189 J.H. Parks, Steve N. Bryant, Tom Moses, William O. Douglas 1906188 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal188
Church of God of Prophecy190 Ambrose Tomlinson191 1903191 White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal191
Church of God with Signs Following192 George Went Hensley193 1920s193 Holiness Pentecostal193
Church of Israel194 Dan Gayman195 1974195 British Israelism195
The Church of Light196197 C.C. Zain198199 1932 200201 Hermetism202203
Church of Satan204 Anton LaVey205 1966205 Satanism205
Church of the Living Word, also known as The Walk206 John Robert Stevens207 1954207 Fundamentalist; Occultist207
Church of the Lord (Aladura)208 Josiah Ositelu32 193032 Pentecostal Family32
Church of World Messianity209210 Mokichi Okada211 1934211 Shintoism211
Church Universal and Triumphant212213 Mark Prophet; Elizabeth Clare (Wolf) Prophet214 1958214 Theosophical; Occultist214
Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, also known as CARP215 Sun Myung Moon216216 1955216 Unification Church216
Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God217218 Arnold Josiah Ford219 1924219 Black Judaism219
Community Chapel and Bible Training Center220 Donald Lee Barnett221 1967221 Latter Rain Pentecostal221
Concerned Christians222
Conservative Judaism223224 Sabato Morais, Marcus Jastrow, H. Pereira Mendes225 1887225 Mainline Judaism225
A Course in Miracles226227 Helen Schucman
William Thetford228
1975228 New Thought228
Covenant of the Goddess109229 merger230 1975230 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism230
Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans231232 Margot Adler230 1987230 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism230
The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord233234 James D. Ellison85 mid-1970s85 British Israelism85
Creativity235 Ben Klassen235 early-1970's Pantheism and Agnostic Atheism and White Racialism.235
Crossroads Movement236 1970s237
Cyberchurches238
Dalit Buddhist movement239 Bhimrao Ramji Sakpal239 1956239 Buddhism239
Dances of Universal Peace240
Dianic Wicca241 merger242 1971242 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism242
Eckankar243 Paul Twitchell244 1971244 Sant Mat244
Elan Vital (formerly Divine Light Mission)119245246 Shri Hans Ji Maharaj247 1920s247 Sant Mat247
Esoteric Nazism248
EST (Erhard Seminars Training)249 Werner Erhard250 1971251252 Human Potential Movement,253 Self religions254
Evangelical Methodist Church255 J.H. Hamblen256 1946256 Non-Episcopal Methodist256
Falun Gong257 Li Hongzhi258 1992258 Taoist258
Family International, previously known as the Children of God, the Family of Love and the Family119259260 David Berg259 1968259 Fundamentalist,259 Jesus movement offshoot,260 with countercultural and Evangelical beliefs261
Fellowship of Isis262 Olivia Robertson263 1976263 Spiritual organization263
Feraferia264 Frederick Adams264 1967264 Neopagan, Goddess264
Findhorn Foundation265 Eileen Caddy; Peter Caddy; Alexis Edwards; Roger Benson266 1963266 Christian-Anthroposophistical-Rosicrucian266
Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas265 W.E. Fuller267 1898267 Black Trinitarian Pentecostal267
Followers of Christ268 Marion Reece (or Riess)268269 late 19th century268 Unclassified268 Pentecostal 269
Foundation for A Course In Miracles270 Kenneth and Gloria Wapnick271 1983271 Christian Science-Metaphysical; New Thought271
Fraternitas Rosae Crucis272 Paschal Beverly Randolph273 1858273 Rosicrucianism273
Freedomites274
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO)275 Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967275 Buddhism
Fundamentalist Christianity276
General Church of the New Jerusalem277 schism278 1890278 Swedenborgianism278
Ghost Dance279
Global Peace Foundation280 Hyun Jin Moon281 2007280 Unification Church280
Grail Movement282 Oskar Ernst Bernhardt283 1924283 Spiritualist, Psychic and New Age; Channeling283
Hanuman Foundation284 Richard Alpert (Ram Dass)285 1980286 Hinduism286
Heaven's Gate287 Marshall Herff Applewhite; Bonnie Lu Nettles287 1973287 New Age, UFO287
Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy288 Swami Rama289 1971289 Hinduism289
"I AM" Activity166 Guy Ballard290 I AM Groups; Ascended Masters290
Independent Fundamental Churches of America291 R. Lee Kirkland292 1922292 Unaffiliated Fundamentalist292
Insight Meditation Society293 Jack Kornfield, Sharon Salzberg, Joseph Goldstein294 1976294 Theravada Buddhism294
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel272 Aimee Semple McPherson295 1923295 White Trinitarian Pentecostal295
International Community of Christ also known as Church of the Second Advent (CSA) and Jamilians296 Eugene Douglas Savoy296 1972296 New Age Occultist296
International Society for Krishna Consciousness297 Srila A.C. Bhaktivedanta298 mid-1960s298 Hinduism298
Jediism299 2000s299 Star Wars-inspired New Age299
Jehovah's Witnesses300 Charles Taze Russell301 1870301 Adventist; Bible Student Groups301
Jesus Army (also known as "Jesus Fellowship Church" and "Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship")302 Noel Stanton (split from Baptist Union)303 1977303 Fundamentalist, Communal 303
Jesus Movement302304 late 1960s305 Fundamentalist305
Jews for Jesus306 Moishe Rosen307 1970307 Fundamentalist Christianity307
John Frum306 1936307 Syncretistic; Millenarian307
Kabbalah Centre308 Philip Berg308 1970s308 New Age308
Kemetic Orthodoxy309 Tamara Siuda309 1988309 Kemetic309
Kerista310 John Presmont311 1956311 Communal—After 1960311
Kopimism Isak Gerson 2012 Internet religion
Konkokyo312 Bunjiro Kawate313 1859313 Shintoism313
Kripalu Center (Kirpalu)312 Amrit Desai314 1966314 Hinduism314
Lama Foundation315 Steve Durkee316 1967316 Communal—After 1960316
Latter Rain Movement317 schism led by George Hawtin and Percy Hunt318 1946318 Millenarian Pentecostal318
Laymen's Home Missionary Movement317 Paul S. L. Johnson319 c. 1920319 Adventist; Bible Student Groups319
Lectorium Rosicrucianum320 1924321 Rosicrucianism321
The Living Word Fellowship322 John Robert Stevens323 1951323 Latter Rain Pentecostals323
Local Church movement324 Ni Shu-tsu (Watchman Nee)325 1920s325 Independent Fundamentalist; Other Bible Students325
Love Family, also known as the Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon and Love Israel326 Paul Erdman327 1969327 Communal327
Lucis Trust328 Alice A. Bailey329 1923329 Occultist; Theosophical329
Mahikari330 Kotama Okada331 1959331 Shintoism331
Maranatha Campus Ministries332 Bob Weiner333 1972333 Pentecostalism333
Mazdaznan334 Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish335 1902335 Zoroastrianism335
Meher Baba followers246 Merwan Sheriar Irani335 1921335 Hindu-inspired335
Messianic Judaism336
Million Man March337 Louis Farrakhan337 1995337 Nation of Islam337
Mita Congregation338 Juanita García Peraza92 194092 Deliverance Pentecostal92
Monastic Order of Avallon339 Henri Hillion de Coatmoc'han339 1972339 Neo-pagan339
Moody Church338 Dwight L. Moody340 1864340 Fundamentalist and Evangelical Churches340
Moorish Science Temple of America341 Timothy Drew342 1925342 Black Islam342
Moral Re-Armament343 Frank N. D. Buchman344 1921344
Latter Day Saint movement345 Joseph Smith, Jr.346 1830346 Latter Day Saint movement; Mormonism;
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness347 John-Roger Hinkins56 197156 Sant Mat56
Namdhari348 Balak Singh349 mid-19th century349 Sikhism349
Nation of Islam350 Elijah Muhammad351 mid-1930s351 Black Muslims351
Nation of Yahweh352353 Hulon Mitchell, Jr.354 1970s354 Black Judaism354
National Spiritualist Association of Churches355 Harrison D Barrett, James M. Peebles, Cora L. Richmond356 1893356 Spiritualism356
Native American Church357 1906358 Entheogen Groups358
New Apostolic Church359 Heinrich Geyer360 1863360 Unclassified Christian Churches360
New Kadampa Tradition361 Geshe Kelsang Gyatso362 mid-1970s362 Tibetan Buddhism362
The New Message from God363364365 Marshall Vian Summers 1992366
New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn367 1969368 Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism368
New Thought369 Phineas Parkhurst Quimby370 mid-19th century370 Metaphysical370
Odinism371 Orestes Brownson371 1848 371 Neo-paganism371
Oomoto372 Mrs. Nao Deguchi373 1899373 Millenarian Shintoism373
Open Bible Standard Churches374 merger375 1935375 White Trinitarian Pentecostals375
Opus Dei119376377378379380381 Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer376 1928376 Roman Catholic376
Ordo Templi Orientis382 Carl Kellner;382383 Theodor Reuss383 1895;382 1906383 Thelema383
Pentecostal Church of God384 1919385 Pentecostalism385
Pentecostalism386
Peoples Temple387388 Jim Jones389 1955389 Other Psychic, New Age Groups389
Philosophical Research Society390 Manly Palmer Hall391 1934391 Occult Orders391
Pilgrims of Arès392 Michel Potay392 1974392
Plymouth Brethren393394 John Nelson Darby395 1830395 Millenarian395
Potter's House also known as Chritian Fellowship Ministries (CFM), The Door, Victory Chapel, Christian Center, Crossroads Chapel, etc.285 Wayman Mitchell285 1970285 Pentecostalism285
Radha Soami Satsang Beas396 Seth Shiv Dayal Singh397 1861397 Sant Mat397
Raëlism396 Claude Vorilhon (Rael)398 1973398 Flying Saucer Groups398
Rainbow Family399 Barry Adams400 late-1960s400 Communal—After 1960400
Rajneesh movement401 Rajneesh Chandra Mohan402 1966402 Eastern Family402
Ramtha403 J. Z. Knight404 1977405 New Age403
Rastafari406407 Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds408 1935408 Black Judaism408
Reformed Druids of North America409 1960s410 Neo-Paganism410
Religious Science411 Ernest Holmes412 1948412 New Thought412
Risshō Kōsei Kai413 Nikkyo Niwano and Myoko Naganuma414 1938 414 Nichiren Buddhist414
Rosicrucian Fellowship415 Carl Louis von Grasshof416 1909416 Rosicrucianism416
Sacred Name Movement417 Clarence Orvil Dodd 1930s Adventist; Church of God (Seventh-Day);
Sahaja Yoga418 Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi419 1970419 Hinduism419
Saiva Siddhanta Church417 Subramuniy419 1957419 Hinduism419
The Salvation Army420 William Booth421 1865421 Nineteenth Century Holiness421
Sant Nirankari Mission422 Baba Buta Singh Ji 1929 Sikhism
Scientology119423424425 L. Ron Hubbard426 1955426 Other Psychic, New Age Groups426
Self-Realization Fellowship427 Paramahansa Yogananda428 1935428 Hinduism428
Semitic Neopaganism429 Raphael Patai429 1960s429 Neo-paganism, Feminism429
Seventh-day Adventist Church430 Ellen G. White431 1860431 Seventh Day Adventists431
Seventh-day Adventist Reform Movement432 schism433 1925433 Seventh Day Adventists433
Shakers434 Ann Lee435 1750s435 Communal—Before 1960435
Shepherd's Rod, also known as the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association436 Victor T. Houteff437 1935437 Seventh Day Adventists437
Shiloh Youth Revival Centers438 John J. Higgins, Jr.439 1969439 Communal—After 1960439
Shinnyo-en440 Shinjo Ito and Tomoji Ito441 1936441 Japanese Buddhism441
Shinreikyo438 Kanichi Otsuka331 post–World War II331 Shintoism331
Shri Ram Chandra Mission442 Shri Ram Chandraji Maharaj442 1945442 Hinduism442
Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres443 Kuppuswami Iyer444 1935444 Hinduism444
Soka Gakkai International445446 Tsunesaburo Makiguchi447 1930447 Nichiren Buddhism447
Subud448 Muhammed Subuh449 1933449 Sufism449
Sufi Ruhaniat International448 Samuel L. Lewis450 1968450 Sufism450
Sukyo Mahikari212 Sekiguchi Sakae451 1978451 Mahikari Syncretistic451
Summum212 Claude Rex Nowell452 1975452 Unclassified Christian Churches452
Tenrikyo453 Miki Nakayama454 1838454 Shintoism454
Tolstoyan primitivism455 Leo Tolstoy455 1901455 Christian anarchism, Pacifism455
Toronto Blessing456 Randy Clark457 1994457 Pentecostalism457
Transcendental Meditation458 Brahmananda Saraswati (Guru Dev), Maharishi Mahesh Yogi459 1958459 Hinduism459
True Buddha School460 Lu Sheng-yen460 Late 1980s Tibetan Buddhism/Taoism460
Twelve Tribes461 Gene and Marsha Spriggs462 1972462 Communal—After 1960462
Two by Twos, also known as Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, the Workers and Friends, the Truth, etc.463 William Irvine464 1897465 Independent fundamentalist family466
Umbanda467 Zélio Fernandino de Moraes468 1920468 Spiritism468
Unification Church469 Sun Myung Moon470 1954470 Unification Church470
Unitarian Universalism 471 consolidation472 1961472 Unitarian Universalism472
United Holy Church of America473 Isaac Cheshier474 1900474 Black Trinitarian Pentecostal474
United House of Prayer for All People475 Marcelino Manoel de Graca476 1925476 African American Pentecostal476
United Israel World Union477 David Horowitz478 1944478 Other Jewish Groups478
United Lodge of Theosophists479 Robert Crosbie480 1909480 Theosophy480
United Pentecostal Church International481 merger482 1945482 Apostolic Pentecostals482
Unity Church483 Charles Fillmore484 1903484 New Thought484
Universal Great Brotherhood485 Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere486 late 1940s486 Other Theosophical Groups486
Universal Life Church487 Kirby Hensley488 1962488 Liberal Family488
Universal White Brotherhood489 Peter Deunov490 1900490 Other Theosophical Groups490
Urantia Foundation491 William S. Sadler491 1934491 UFO,491 Spiritualist, Psychic, New Age492 and Christian occultist493
Vajradhatu494 Chögyam Trungpa495 1973495 Tibetan Buddhism495
Vale do Amanhecer496 Tia Neiva496 1959496 Spiritualism496
Vedanta Society497 Swami Vivekananda498 1894498 Hinduism498
Volunteers of America98 Ballington Booth and Maud Booth499 1896499 Nineteenth Century Holiness499
The Way International500 Victor Paul Wierwille501 1942501 Independent fundamentalist family501
White Eagle Lodge502 Lady Elizabeth Carey503 1943503 Other Theosophical Groups503
Wicca504 Gerald Gardner505 c. 1949505 Occultist505
Women's Federation for World Peace506 Hak Ja Han506 1992506 Unification Church506
The Word Foundation507 Harold W. Percival508 c. 1904508 Theosophy508

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Brink 2008, p. 320.
  2. ^ See:
  3. ^ Coney 1998.
  4. ^ Barker 1999.
  5. ^ *Beckford 1987, pp. vii–xv.
  6. ^ Introvigne 2001.
  7. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 131.
  8. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 162.
  9. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 25-28.
  10. ^ a b c d Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 146.
  11. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 28.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Melton 2003, p. 707.
  13. ^ a b c d Hakl 2010.
  14. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 28–29.
  15. ^ a b c d Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 3.
  16. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 25-26.
  17. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 29–31.
  18. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 26.
  19. ^ a b Omoyajowo 1995, pp. xv, 113.
  20. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 26–27.
  21. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 31.
  22. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 934.
  23. ^ a b Lewis 1998, p. 32.
  24. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 764.
  25. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 6.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 876.
  27. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 27–28.
  28. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 32–33.
  29. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 985.
  30. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 7.
  31. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 28–29.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 517.
  33. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 29.
  34. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 33–34.
  35. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 13.
  36. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 34–35.
  37. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 9.
  38. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 35.
  39. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 35–36.
  40. ^ a b Melton 2003, p. 1116.
  41. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 36.
  42. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1102.
  43. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 37-38.
  44. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 309.
  45. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 38.
  46. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 11.
  47. ^ Chryssides 1999, p. 370
  48. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 30–31.
  49. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 41.
  50. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1001.
  51. ^ a b Lewis 1998, p. 43.
  52. ^ a b Melton 2003, p. 1142.
  53. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 31.
  54. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 42–43.
  55. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 841.
  56. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 1054.
  57. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 13.
  58. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 43-44.
  59. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 651.
  60. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 44.
  61. ^ a b c Melton 2003, pp. 986–987.
  62. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 33–34.
  63. ^ Lewis 1998, pp. 44–47.
  64. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 20.
  65. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 47.
  66. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 241.
  67. ^ a b c d Beit-Hallahmi 1993.
  68. ^ a b Lewis 1998, pp. 47–48.
  69. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 548.
  70. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 15.
  71. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 23.
  72. ^ Lewis 1998, p. 48.
  73. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 464.
  74. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 16.
  75. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 465.
  76. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 38.
  77. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 857.
  78. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 17.
  79. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 38–39.
  80. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 971.
  81. ^ a b c d e f g Melton 2003, p. 1004.
  82. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 18.
  83. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 40–41.
  84. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 91.
  85. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 654.
  86. ^ a b c d Strmiska and Sigurvinsson 2005, pp. 127–180.
  87. ^ Chryssides 2001, pp. 41–42.
  88. ^ a b c Clark 1949, p. 106.
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h i Melton 2003, p. 466.
  90. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 19.
  91. ^ a b Chryssides 2001, p. 42.
  92. ^ a b c d e f Melton 2003, p. 462.
  93. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 21.
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    • Lewis, James R. Legitimating New Religions. Rutgers University Press, 2003, p. 94: "Groups in the metaphysical (Christian Science–New Thought) tradition ... usually claim to have discovered spiritual laws which, if properly understood and applied, transform and improve the lives of ordinary individuals, much as technology has transformed society."
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    • Beckford 1987, p. 44. "TM, Erhard Seminars Training (est), and the Rajneesh Foundation are currently the most visible NRMs offering a release service to clients in Western Europe, but a large number of smaller groups are also in operation."
    • Campbell 1999, p. 35. "...the human potential and psychotherapy movements, as well as the more 'life-affirming' New Religious Movements and religions of the self. This was the complex world of the Californian 'psychobabble', of Scientology and est (Erhard Seminars Training, later called Forums Network), of Encounter Groups, meditation techniques and self-help manuals designed to assist individuals 'realise their potential'."
    • Lewis 2004, p. 187. "These two opposing strategies of new religious movements for delivering compensators I will term 'compensation delivery systems' (CDS). The gradual CDS can best be described as religion as a multi-level marketing (MLM) tactic - a term I take from the business world [...] Exemplars of new religious movements with a gradual CDS are Scientology and Erhard Seminar Training in its various manifestations."
    • Saliba 2003, p. 88. "Many of the new religions attract individuals by the promise of peace of mind, spiritual well-being, gratifying experiences, and material success. In so doing they stress their concern for the individual and highlight one's personal worth and self-development. This is especially so in human growth movements such as Scientology, The Forum (previously known as Erhard Seminar Training [EST]), and qualsi-religious encounter groups."
  250. ^ Aupers 2005, p. 193. "The founder of EST, a former member of the Scientology church called Werner Erhard, based the program on a combination of Zen meditation, gestalt therapy, psychosynthesis and management, but the main goal was self-spirituality."
  251. ^ Heelas 1991, p. 167. "And the founder of est (the highly influential seminar training established by Erhard in 1971)..."
  252. ^ Nichols 2006, p. 108.
  253. ^ See"
    • Nelson 1987, p. 177. "Finally his study of EST (Erhard Systems Training) provides an insight into the work of the human potential movement which aims at self realisation."
    • Puttick 2004, p. 406. "est was one of the most successful manifestations of the human potential movement (HPM)..."
    • Nichols 2006, pp. 107–108. "The Forum is an organization characterized as New Age and specifically as human potential."
  254. ^ See:
    • Wallis 1991, p. 171–172. "Although the self-religions, especially those of an est-like variety, are expanding, they are not expanding as fast as they are in the United States."
    • Cresswell 1999, p. 35. "...the human potential and psychotherapy movements, as well as the more 'life-affirming' New Religious Movements and religions of the self. This was the complex world of the Californian 'psychobabble', of Scientology and est (Erhard Seminars Training, later called Forums Network), of Encounter Groups, meditation techniques and self-help manuals designed to assist individuals 'realise their potential'."
    • Ramstedt 2007, p. 6. "How can one find a definition of 'New Age' that will serve to bring so many different features together? One major difficulty in defining 'New Age' is that different writers draw different boundaries. Paul Heelas, for example, includes a significant number of what he calls the 'self religions': groups like Landmark Forum (also known simply as The Forum, formerly est or Erhard Seminar Training) and Programmes Limited (formerly Exegesis). Some writers trace the New Age back to William Blake (1757–1827); others see it as originating in the 'hippie' counter-culture in the USA in the 1960s, while the scholar of the New Age, Wouter Hanegraaff, places it later still, regarding it as beginning in the second half of the 1970s."
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  476. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 371.
  477. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 305.
  478. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 959.
  479. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 305.
  480. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 855.
  481. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 287–306.
  482. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 476.
  483. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, pp. 306–307.
  484. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 373.
  485. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 310.
  486. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 883.
  487. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 311.
  488. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 680.
  489. ^ (Fraternite Blanche Universelle) Mayer 1993, p. 370.
  490. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 880.
  491. ^ a b c d Nichols 2006, pp. 319–322.
  492. ^ Melton 2003, p. 839.
  493. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 380.
  494. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 313.
  495. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 1115.
  496. ^ a b c d Dawson 2007, pp. 48-49.
  497. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 314.
  498. ^ a b c Beit-Hallahmi 1998, p. 382.
  499. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 420.
  500. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 318.
  501. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 608.
  502. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 319.
  503. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 884.
  504. ^ Hanegraaff 1998, p. 87.
  505. ^ a b c Nichols 2006, p. 338.
  506. ^ a b c d Bainbridge 1997, pp. 203–205.
  507. ^ Beit-Hallahmi 1993, p. 320.
  508. ^ a b c Melton 2003, p. 856.

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