List of political parties in Pakistan

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State emblem of Pakistan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Pakistan
Constitution

Pakistan is a multi-party democracy that at times has been subject to military government. The country has many political parties and it is common for the country to be ruled by a coalition government. The Parliament of Pakistan is bicameral, consisting of the National Assembly of Pakistan and the Senate. The main political parties in Pakistan are listed below in order of their number of elected parliamentarians.

Parties

Pakistan Muslim League

Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, a wealthy industrialist, is the leader of the largest political party, Pakistan Muslim League-N.

On 11 May 2013, the PML (PML Nawaz group, or PML-N) became Pakistan's ruling party. It holds 16 of 103 seats in the Senate1 and 189 seats in the National Assembly.2 Prime minister Nawaz Sharif has been the PML leader since 2011. It is a fiscally conservative party which holds moderate religious and social policies. It promotes strong and friendly relations with India, the US and the EU. The PML was initially supported by the Pakistan's military oligarchy and intelligence community and in particular by the army general, Hameed Gul.

Pakistan People's Party

On 30 November 1967, the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), an Islamic socialist party, was founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1928 - 1979). The PPP won the 1970 general election on a socialist agenda of Roti, Kapra, Makan (bread, clothes, shelter). It supported ties with China and ruled Pakistan after the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. After a first parliamentary term, the PPP succeeded at the Pakistani general election of 1977. Under Benazir Bhutto, the PPP became a secular party that promoted privatisation in order to secure funding from the US and the World Bank. From March 2008 to March 2013, it was leading party of ruling coalition. Party faced defeat in elections of 2014. The PPP currently holds 41 senate seats and 42 national assembly seats.3

Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf

Cricketer turned politician Imran Khan leads Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf under the slogan, "Change".

On 25 April 1996, in Lahore, the Pakistan Movement for Justice (PTI), a social and political movement, was founded by Imran Khan. The PTI boycotted the 2008 general elections but became more politically active in 2011. The PTI claims to represent all Pakistanis, regardless of religion, ethnicity, language or residence. It aims to create a modern, egalitarian Islamic democratic welfare state.456 The PTI promotes a nationalist agenda, arguing that terrorism, extremism, and radicalisation have increased since Pakistan joined the War on Terror. The party holds 32 seats in the National Assembly. It is strong in the Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Provincial Assembly of Punjab.

Jamaat-Islami

On 26 August 1941, Lahore, the rightist, Islamist party, Jamaat-e-Islami (JI), by Abul Ala Maududi, a Muslim theologian and philosopher. It aims to create an Islamic democracy in Pakistan ruled under Sharia law. The JI elects its leader (emir) in along democratic lines; Syed Munawar Hasan is the incumbent emir. After the Partition of India, JI moved its base to West Pakistan (remaining members formed the Jamaat-e-Islami Hind) and during the Bangladesh Liberation War, opposed the independence of Bangladesh, but in 1975, established there an independent political party, the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami. JI now has its headquarters in Mansoorah, Lahore. JI has an association with international Muslim groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood. JI holds 3 seats in the National Assembly and 7 seats in the Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Jamiat Ulema-s-Islam

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (Assembly of Islamic Clergy, Fazl-ur-Rahman Group, JUI-F) is an ultra-conservative religious and theocratic party which, in 2002, formed a ruling coalition with Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and with the PML(Q) in Balochistan. It holds 11 seats in the National Assembly, 7 seats in the senate, 13 seats in the Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 6 seats in the Provincial Assembly of Balochistan. Its economic policy is socialist and moderate. 7

Awami National Party

In 1986, the Awami National Party (Popular National Party, ANP) was founded by Abdul Wali Khan. It is a leftist, secular party that promotes Pashtun nationalism, democratic socialism, public sector government, and economic egalitarianism. It supports ties with Afghanistan, India, and the US.8 The ANP holds 12 seats in the senate and 1 seat in the national assembly. Asfandyar Wali Khan, grandson of Bacha Khan is the incumbent president of the ANI. Between 2008 and 2013, it was part of the ruling PPP led coalition. 9 It performs well in Pashtun dominated areas in and around Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the Balochistan and Sindh provinces.

Muttahida Qaumi Movement

The Muttahida Qaumi Movement (United National Movement, MQM) was founded in 1978 by Altaf Hussain (who went on, in 1984, to found the Muhajir Quami Movement) from the student organisation, the All Pakistan Muhajir Student Organization (APMSO). It is supported by the urban Muhajir community of Sindh. 10 The MQM is socially liberal and democratic.

In 1997, the MQM officially removed the term Muhajir, which refers to Urdu-speaking Muslims and replaced it with Muttahida (United). Between 1992 and 1999, the Pakistan Army, in Operation Cleanup, attempted to suppress the MQM.11 On 11 September 2001, the MQM condemned attacks by al-Qaida in the US with public demonstrations. 12

Regional parties

Senate

Party
Pakistan Peoples Party 41
Pakistan Muslim League (N) 14
Awami National Party 12
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (F) 07
Muttahida Qaumi Movement 07
Pakistan Muslim League (Q) 05
Balochistan National Party (Awami) 04
National Party (Pakistan) 01
Pakistan Muslim League (F) 01
Tribal Areas 08
Independents 04
Total 104

National Assembly

Affiliation Members
PML(N) 189
PPP 44
PTI 32
MQM 24
JUI (F) 12
PML (F) 5
PkMAP 4
JI 4
NPP 3
ANP 2
PML(Q) 2
Others 7
Independents 8
 Total
342
 Ruling coalition majority
209

Members of the PML(N) are marked in bold text

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ "Party wise list." Government of Pakistan.
  2. ^ "Members' listing." Government of Pakistan.
  3. ^ "Sentate position" Government of Pakistan.
  4. ^ Khan S. M. "Pakistan's creation pointless if it fails to become Islamic welfare state." Pakistan Tribune 27 June 2012. "Imran Khan said on Wednesday that Pakistan’s creation had been pointless if the country fails to become an Islamic welfare state."
  5. ^ Michaelsen M. "Pakistan's dream catcher." Qantara 27 March 2012. "Iqbal's work has influenced Imran Khan in his deliberations on an Islamic social state."
  6. ^ "Constitution of Pakistan Tahreek e Insaaf" Insaf party website.
  7. ^ [1] Daily Times, Pakistan. 14 December 2008.
  8. ^ "Pakistan" The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency Accessed 5 January 2013.
  9. ^ "Pakistan's 'Gandhi' party takes on Taliban, Al Qaeda". Christian Science Monitor 5 May 2008 Accessed 9 May 2008.
  10. ^ "Pakistan: Human rights crisis in Karachi." Amnesty International 1 February 1996. Accessed 26 July 2009.
  11. ^ Haq F. "Rise of the MQM in Pakistan: Politics of Ethnic Mobilisation." Asian Survey, University of California Press 1 November 1999 35(11) p990 - 1004 doi=10.1525/as.1995.35.11.01p00677 Accessed 3 August 2009.
  12. ^ "MQM is a liberal and democratic party: Altaf." Daily Times, Pakistan 26 May 2008. Accessed 17 May 2011.
  13. ^ GEMC (Upddated). "Election Results 2013". Geo Election Monitoring Cell. Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Irfan Ali Shaikh. "Acid test for MQM". October 04, 2002. Daily Times. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 







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