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Indonesian literature, is a term grouping various genres of South-East Asian literature.
Indonesian Literature can refer to literature produced in the Indonesian archipelago. It is also used to refer more broadly to literature produced in areas with common language roots based on the Malay language (of which Indonesian is one scion). This would extend the reach to the Maritime Southeast Asia (including Indonesia, but also other nations with a common language such as Malaysia and Brunei, as well as population within other nations such as the Malay people living in Singapore.
There are also works written in and about Indonesia in unrelated languages. There are several languages and several distinct but related literary traditions within the geographical boundaries of the modern nation of Indonesia. For example the island of Java has its own Javanese pre-national cultural and literary history. There are also Sundanese, Balinese, and Batak or Madurese traditions. Indonesia also has a colonial history of Dutch, British and Japanese occupation, as well as a history of Islamic influence that brought its own texts, linguistic and literary influences. There is also an oral literature tradition in the area.
The phrase Indonesian literature is used in this article to refer to Indonesian as written in the nation of Indonesia, but also covers literature written in an earlier form of the Indonesian language i.e. Malay language written in the Dutch East Indies.
- 1 Blurred distinctions
- 2 Overview
- 3 Traditional literature: Pujangga Lama
- 4 1870—1942: Sastra Melayu Lama
- 5 Angkatan Balai Pustaka
- 6 Interlude: the '20s Generation
- 7 Pujangga Baru
- 8 Angkatan 1945
- 9 Angkatan 1950
- 10 Angkatan 1966
- 11 Angkatan 1980-1990s
- 12 Angkatan Reformasi
- 13 Angkatan 2000s
- 14 Bibliography
- 15 Notes
The languages spoken (and part of them written) in the Indonesian Archipelago number over a thousand, and for that reason alone it is impracticable to survey their entire literary production in one article. Since the thought of a national Indonesian language only struck root as recently as the 1920s, this means that emphasis in the present article is put on the twentieth century.
At the same time, such a choice leaves a number of distinctions open. Major factors which make for a blurring of distinctions are:
- the difficulty of distinguishing between Malay and Indonesian
- Even in the 1930s, Malay was the lingua franca of the Archipelago, but was also used widely outside it, while a national Indonesian language was still in a state of development.1 Thus, it is often difficult to ascertain where Malay leaves off and Indonesian begins. Nor is it possible to understand the development of Indonesian literature without study of the older Malay which it reacted against, and whose tradition it continued.
- mutual influence between regional languages and their literatures.
- A work which appears in one Indonesian language may be found in a variant form in one or more others, especially when such literature has been part of the tradition for a long time.
- the problem of distinguishing between oral and written literature
- Oral literature is, of course, assessed by other means than written manifestations, and field-work is one of these means. However, in the written literature, too, poetry may have been recorded which had originated as oral literature.2
During its early history, Indonesia was the centre of trade among sailors and traders from China, India, Europe and the Middle East. Indonesia was then a colony of the Netherlands (ca. 1600—1942) and Japan (1942–45). Its literary tradition was influenced by these cultures, mainly those of India, Persia, China and, more recently, Western Europe. However, unique Indonesian characteristics cause it to be considered as a separate path and tradition.
Chronologically Indonesian literature may be divided into several periods:
- Pujangga Lama: the "Literates of Olden Times" (traditional literature)
- Sastra Melayu Lama: "Older Malay Literature"
- Angkatan Balai Pustaka: the "Generation of the [Colonial] Office for Popular Literature" (from 1908)
- Angkatan Pujangga Baru: the "New Literates" (from 1933)
- Angkatan 1945: the "Generation of 1945"
- Angkatan 1950 - 1960-an: the "Generation of the 1950s"
- Angkatan 1966 - 1970-an: the "Generation of 1966 into the 1970s"
- Angkatan 1980-an: the "Decade of the 1980s"
- Angkatan Reformasi: the post-Suharto "Reformation Period"
- Angkatan 2000-an: the "Generation of 2000s"
There is considerable overlapping between these periods, and the usual designation according to "generations" (angkatan) should not allow us to lose sight of the fact that these are movements rather than chronological periods. For instance, older Malay literature was being written until well into the twentieth century. Likewise, the Pujangga Baru Generation was active even after the Generation of 1950 had entered the literary scene.
Early Indonesian literature originates in Malay literature, and the influence of these roots was felt until well into the twentieth century. The literature produced by the Pujangga lama (literally "the old poets") was mainly written before the 20th century, but after the coming of Islam. Before that time, however, there must have existed a lively oral tradition.3 Within traditional Malay-language literature, sometimes it is differentiated into 3 periods: before ~1550AD; between ~1550-1750AD; ~1750-1900AD.4
In written poetry and prose, a number of traditional forms dominate, mainly:—
- syair (traditional narrative poetry)
- pantun (quatrains made up of two seemingly disconnected couplets)
- gurindam (brief aphorisms)
- hikayat (stories, fairy-tales, animal fables, chronicles)
- babad (histories or chronicles).
Some of these works are:
- Syair Bidasari, Syair Ken Tambuhan, Syair Raja Mambang Jauhari, Syair Raja Siak
- scattered items found all over the Indonesian Archipelago, and also incorporated in other works (e.g., Sejarah Melayu) 5
- Hikayat Abdullah, Hikayat Andaken Penurat, Hikayat Bayan Budiman, Hikayat Djahidin, Hikayat Hang Tuah, Hikayat Kadirun, Hikayat Kalila dan Damina, Hikayat Masydulhak, Hikayat Pelanduk Jinaka, Hikayat Pandja Tanderan, Hikayat Putri Djohar Manikam, Hikayat Tjendera Hasan, Tsahibul Hikayat.
- Sejarah Melayu.
The literature of this period was produced from the year 1870 until 1942. The works from this period were predominantly popular among the people in Sumatra (i.e. the regions of Langkat, Tapanuli, Padang, etc.), the Chinese and the Indo-Europeans. The first works were dominated by syair, hikayat and translations of western novels. These are:
Until the twentieth century, ethnic and linguistic diversity was dominant in the vast archipelago, and as a result, no national literature existed. Literature in Malay rubbed shoulders with works in other languages of the region, from Batak in the West through Sundanes, Javanese, Balinese, to Moluccan in the East. It is true that Malay was used as the lingua franca of the colony, and indeed, far beyond its borders, but it could not be regarded as a national language.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, however, changes became visible. National consciousness emerged among educated Indonesians especially. At the same time, the Dutch colonisers temporarily veered to a point of view which allowed for the education and unification of the Indonesian peoples to self-reliance and maturity, as it was perceived. Indonesian independence, however, was not contemplated by the Dutch. A third factor was the emergence of newspapers, which at the beginning of the century began to appear in Chinese and subsequently in Malay.6
Education, means of communication, national awareness: all these factors favoured the emergence of a comprehensive Indonesian literature. The Dutch, however, wished to channel all these forces, nipping any political subversiveness in the bud while at the same time instructing and educating Indonesians, in a way the government saw fit. For those reasons, an official Bureau (or: Commission) for Popular Literature was instituted under the name Balai Pustaka, which became some sort of government-supervised publisher. Besides preventing criticism of the colonial government, Balai Pustaka blocked all work that might be conducive to any sort of religious controversy, and anything "pornographic" was avoided: even a novel featuring divorce had to be published elsewhere.
At the same time, school libraries were founded and were supplied by the new publisher. Works in Dutch as well as translations of world literature were brought out, but a burgeoning indigenous literature was also stimulated.7 From 1920 to 1950 Balai Pustaka published many works in high Malay (as opposed to everyday "street Malay"), but also in Javanese and Sundanese, and occasionally also in Balinese, Batak or Madurese.
During this period, whose heyday was in the 1920s, Indonesian literature came to be dominated by fiction (both short stories and novels), and Western-style drama and poetry, which gradually replaced the earlier syair, gurindam, pantun and hikayat. Merari Siregar's Azab dan Sengsara was the very first modern novel appearing in Indonesian, constituting a break with the Malay romance tradition. While not completely successful, in that it rather schematically deals in black-and-white oppositions, and directly addresses the reader, subverting its realism, this may still be regarded as the first treatment of contemporaneous problems (i.e., the issue of forced marriage) in the realist tradition.8
Meanwhile, not all publications in the languages of Indonesia appeared under the Balai Pustaka imprint. As mentioned, this publisher was a government-supervised concern, and it operated in the context of political and linguistic developments. Notable among these developments were an increasing consciousness of nationality, and the emergence of Indonesian as the embodiment of a national language.
Nur Sutan Iskandar was the most active authors and he could be called as "the King of Balai Pustaka Generation". When viewed the original author, could said that the novels of a raised in the generation are "novel Sumatera", with the Minangkabau as the center point.9
In 1908, Budi Utomo, the first indigenous movement, was founded. Conceived as a political organization, it soon adapted its objectives under pressure from the Dutch government, and mainly restricted itself to cultural activities.10 Political concerns were more prominent in Sarekat Islam, founded in 1912 as a society of tradesmen, but which soon evolved into a nationalist movement, counting among its members the future President of the Republic, Soekarno, and the communist Semaun. Meanwhile, other societies were founded, and a political party mainly aimed at halfcaste Dutch and Indonesian members appeared.
In due course, the Dutch colonizers followed suit, and a Volksraad (Dutch East Indies) ("People's Council") was founded in 1918.11 This Council was an assembly of Dutch and Indonesian members, whose powers, however, were severely restricted. It was a consultative committee advising the Governor General, the Dutch viceroy of the East-Indies, who could react to the Council's advice as he pleased.
One of the first actions the Volksraad took was to request the sanction of the use of two official languages in its meetings: Dutch and Malay. Although until well into the 1930s only one Council member consistently used Malay,12 it was significant that the language had now acquired official status.
In 1928, an association of young Javanese intellectuals referred to the language as "Bahasa Indonesia" ("Indonesian language"), for the first time, thus emphasizing the notion of a national rather than an ethnic language. A few months later, on October 28, 1928, a congress of associations of young Indonesians, known as the Youth Congress (Sumpah Pemuda) adopted the principles of "one people, one nation, one language".,13 and this step may be regarded as the birth of the Indonesian language.
It was, however, still a language in development. Indonesian had never been a national language, and to most Indonesians it, or its ancestral Malay, had never been their mother tongue. For all this, in addition to the publications of Balai Pustaka and its magazine Panji Pustaka,14 various other magazines featured work by Indonesian writers as well, although there was not as yet one particular indigenous magazine devoted exclusively to the emerging literature. However, a notable source was Jong Sumatra, a magazine founded in 1918 as the platform of Jong Sumatranen Bond, the Association of Young Sumatran intellectuals.
As a result of all this, dominant factors in the literary landscape of the 1930s were the following:
- National consciousness among young Indonesian intellectuals was well-developed.
- These intellectuals had formed various groups: there existed, then, a certain degree of organization.
- The need for a national language was felt, as was the need for literary expression in that language.
- While a platform for such expression existed in Balai Pustaka, this platform was considered unsatisfactory in that it was government-controlled, and therefore at odds with the urge for nationalist development. The intervention of Dutch language officials was felt to be censorship, and the editorial policy was regarded as an unwarranted harnessing of the emerging language. (Thus, certain words were invariably replaced by more "respectable" synonyms, which seemed to curtail language development as well as freedom of expression.15)
- At the same time, young intellectuals felt that their classic Malay literature had congealed into set turns of phrase, clichéd descriptions and conventional plots.16 While literature cannot but operate between the polarities of convention and renewal, classic conventions were now felt to be over-constrictive, and their Western-style schooling had made them conscious of the possibilities for renewal.
Angkatan Pujangga Baru was created as a reaction to all this. This "Generation of the New Literates (or New Poets)" adopted its very name, Poedjangga Baroe, to emphasize its striving for renewal, attempting to break away both from the set forms of traditional Malay literature and from the yoke of colonial constraints: the objective was a new poetics and a new national consciousness.
To this end, in 1933 they founded the first national literary magazine, Poedjangga Baroe,17 created by Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana, Amir Hamzah (regarded as the greatest of the poets of the late colonial period),18 and Armijn Pane. Its main protagonists were the three founders, together with Sanusi Pane (brother of Armijn).
The magazine was published between 1933 and 1942. When the Japanese occupied the country, a request on the part of the editors for permission to continue publication went unanswered, and this was tantamount to a refusal.19 Publication was resumed in 1948, until the magazine finally folded in 1953. Although influential as the pioneering platform of an emerging Indonesian literature, sales had never been comfortable: Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana has revealed that the periodical's subscription was never much more than 150.citation needed 20
Poedjangga Baroe occasionally, and for reasons that have not been explained, included prose in English, and more regularly and perhaps understandably, prose and poetry in Dutch.21 However, the magazine was characterized by its position as the first literary periodical in the national language. In contrast with Panji Pustaka (the Balai Pustaka magazine), its editors were all Indonesians, who had as often as not received their editorial training by working for the government publishers in the 1920s. There was one exception: Beb Vuyk, an Indo-European (Eurasian) author of Dutch nationality but with strong nationalist sympathies, was briefly on the editorial board before the war broke out.22
The contents of the magazine were dominated by essays, often touching on the requirements and exigencies of the new literature; and by poetry in the modern vein. This modernism was a conscious breakaway from tradition, although two quite distinct tendencies were discernible.
On the one hand, poets (who usually had had a Dutch schooling) connected with a late Romantic movement in Dutch poetry, the Beweging van Tachtig.23 (Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana was the main proponent of this tendency.)
- This "Movement of the 1880s" had put emphasis on the individual expression of emotions, and it is this emphasis which was reflected in the new Indonesian poetry. The central role of individual emotions is borne out by the titles of some poems; representative instances are: Mengeluh ("Complaint"), Kematian Anak ("The Death of a Child"), or Di Kakimu ("At Your Feet").24
- Nature poetry, in addition, bore witness to the romantic nature of this movement, with titles such as Sawah ("Rice Fields") or Bintang ("Stars").24
- A third aspect involved mysticism, Sanusi Pane's poem Do'a ("Prayer") perhaps the best-known instance, with its opening stanza:25
Bikin gua, Masinis mulia,
Jadi sekerup dalam masinmu,
Yang menjalankan kapal dunia,
Ke pelabuhan sama ratamu.
Make me, Great Engineer,
A cog in Your machine
Which takes the ship of the world
To the harbour of Your rest.
- The influence of Romanticism was discernible, too, in the use of westernizing verse forms, notably the sonnet. This constituted a break with traditional syair and pantun. At the same time, practitioners of the new sonnet form maintained that it had its similarities with the pantun. A traditional sonnet had its volta, a thematic turn between the eighth and ninth verses, and likewise, a strong contrast is seen between the first and second couplets of a pantun.26
The Dutch example was not followed slavishly. In particular, its emphasis on the strictly individual in human experience was rejected. It was the poets' task, Poedjangga Baroe maintained, to be a social agent, a force for national development. To some of its members, too, the role of the poet was a religious one.27
On the other hand, some members of the movement were not unequivocally in favour of western influence. A countervailing tendency was found in traditional eastern literature. The influence of Rabindranath Tagore was felt. Amir Hamzah was greatly attracted to the Thousand and One Nights, although his intention to translate this work into Indonesian never materialized. The Bhagavad Gita was translated into Indonesian by him.28 Sanusi Pane's play Manusia Baru ("New Humanity") was set in India.29 Plays were based on Java's past. Amir Hamzah anthologized eastern poetry.30
Some works of the Pujangga Baru generation are worthy of especial mention. Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana's short novel Layar Terkembang ("The Sail Unfolds") is a sensitive portrayal of young women in contemporary Indonesia. Rustam Effendi with his Bebasari wrote the first modern play (on a historical theme). Armijn Pane's Belenggu ("Shackles") dealt with extramarital relations, thus initially giving rise to controversy, but eventually the novel became a classic and has been described as the first psychological novel in Indonesian.31
The works of authors during this period are dominated by the thoughts of independence and political manner. The works created by angkatan '45 are mostly more realistic, compared to the works of pujangga baru, which are more romantic - idealistic.
- Chairil Anwar
- Asrul Sani, with Rivai Apin and Chairil Anwar
- Tiga Menguak Takdir (1950)
- Achdiat Karta Mihardja
- Atheis (1949)
- Trisno Sumardjo
- Katahati dan Perbuatan (1952)
- Utuy Tatang Sontani
- Suman Hs.
- Pramoedya Ananta Toer
Angkatan '66 was marked by rising the Horison magazine, led by Mochtar Lubis32 Dozens of writers previously associated with Lekra or leftist groups went into exile overseas, creating their own literature.33
This generation of Indonesian literature was dominated by romance novel. Beside that, the 1980s generation marked by raised of popular stories, such as Lupus who wrote by Hilman Hariwijaya.
- Ahmadun Yosi Herfanda
- Y.B Mangunwijaya
- Burung-burung Manyar (1981)
- Darman Moenir
- Budi Darma
- Anak Bajang Menggiring Angin (1984)
- Arswendo Atmowiloto
- Canting (1986)
- Hilman Hariwijaya
- Dorothea Rosa Herliany
- Afrizal Malna34
- Abad Yang Berlari (1984)
- Yang Berdiam Dalam Mikropon (1990)
- Arsitektur Hujan (1995)
- Kalung Dari Teman (1998)
- Gustaf Rizal
- Remy Sylado
- Ayu Utami
- Seno Gumira Ajidarma
- Garis Tepi Seorang Lesbian (2003)
- Dejavu, Sayap yang Pecah (2004)
- Dewi Lestari
- Raudal Tanjung Banua
- Habiburrahman El Shirazy
- Andrea Hirata
- Ahmad Fuadi
- Okky Madasari
- Entrok (2010)
- 86 (2011)
- Maryam (2012)
Indonesian personal names differ from western-style names in that no clear distinction exists between given names and family names, if any. This gives rise to various systems of alphabetization. In alphabetizing according to the initial of the first name, the present bibliography follows the convention adopted in many Indonesian works (but also in, for instance, Merriam Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature). Thus, Ajip Rosidi is found under A. Western names, of course, are alphabetized according to the surname.
Now, Indonesian Literature in English Translation available at Lontar Foundation website http://lontar.org/, http://www.i-lit.org/ and Lontar Digital Library http://library.lontar.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lontar_Foundation
- Even now, Javanese is the language with most native speakers in the country (see Languages of Indonesia). One century ago, this was no different: the 1905 census showed that of 37m "natives", nearly 30m hailed from the isles of Java and Madura alone: neither they nor many other natives from the "outer islands" were Malay (cf. Bezemer 1921, p. 64).
- Bezemer 1943, pp. 47ff.
- Bezemer 1943, p. 8.
- Braginsky 2004, for a summary see Malay Canonical Texts.
- Bezemer 1943, p. 58; Braasem 1959.
- Teeuw 1980b, p. 22.
- Teeuw 1973, Uhlenbeck 1986.
- Teeuw 1980b, p. 82; Seribu Tahun Nusantara 2000, p. 530.
- Mahayana, Maman S, Oyon Sofyan (1991). Ringkasan dan Ulasan Novel Indonesia Modern. Jakarta: Grasindo. p. 370.
- Brouwer 1958, pp. 37-38.
- Brouwer 1958, Ch. IV.
- De Vries 1980, p. 106.
- De Vries p. 102.
- Braasem 1949, p. 153.
- Jassin 1987, pp. 18-19.
- Jassin 1987, pp. 16-17.
- Spellings here, as elsewhere, may vary due to the spelling reform of 1972. Thus, the title page of the magazine displays the title Poedjangga Baroe, whereas modern spelling dictates Pujangga Baru. An intermediate version, Pudjangga Baru, is also occasionally found. The present article as a rule uses the modern spelling, except where previous forms have been expressly retained, as in the name Soekarno.
- Braasem 1954, p. 36; Teeuw 1980a, p. 333.
- Jassin 1987, p. 27.
- Distribution of information had long been a problem in the Netherlands East Indies (Pigeaud 1949, p. 128), and this problem was compounded by the fact that pre-war indigenous literacy was as low as 6 % of the population (François n.d., p. 25).
- Jassin 1987, pp. 28-29.
- Scova Righini 2005, p. 174.
- Jassin 1987, p. 23.
- Jassin 1987.
- Jassin 1987, p. 248.
- Jassin 1987, pp. 21-22.
- Jassin 1987, p. 25.
- Jassin 1987, p. 8.
- Jassin 1987, p. 26.
- Braasem 1949, p. 161.
- Teeuw 1980b, p. 119; Teeuw 1980a, p. 333.
- Yudiono (2007). Pengantar Sejarah Sastra Indonesia. Jakarta: Grasindo. p. 167.
- Hill, David (2008). Knowing Indonesia from Afar: Indonesian Exiles and Australian Academics (Paper delivered at the 17th Biennial Conference on the Asian Studies Association of Australia). Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2012.