Liverpool Street station
|London Liverpool Street|
Main station concourse
|Location||Liverpool Street / Bishopsgate|
|Local authority||City of London|
|Managed by||Network Rail|
|Number of platforms||18|
|OSI||Bank; Fenchurch Street 2|
|National Rail annual entry and exit|
|Lists of stations|
| London Transport portal
UK Railways portalCoordinates:
Liverpool Street station, also known as London Liverpool Street,45 is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in the north-eastern corner of the City of London. It is the terminus for the West Anglia Main Line to Cambridge; the busier Great Eastern Main Line to Norwich; many local commuter services to parts of east London, Essex, and Hertfordshire; and the Stansted Express, a fast link to London Stansted Airport.
It was opened in 1874 as a replacement for the Great Eastern Railway's main London terminus, Bishopsgate station, which was subsequently converted into a goods yard. Liverpool Street was built as a dual-level station with an underground station opened in 1875 for the Metropolitan Railway, named Bishopsgate until 1909 when it was renamed Liverpool Street. An additional station called Bishopsgate (Low Level) existed on the mainline just outside of Liverpool Street from 1872 until 1916.
During the First World War Liverpool Street was a target of one of the most deadly daylight air raids by fixed-wing aircraft - the attack killed 162 people. In the build-up to the Second World War the station served as the terminus for thousands of child refugees arriving in London as part of the Kindertransport rescue mission.
The station was modernised and rationalised between 1985 and 1992; at the same time the neighbouring Broad Street station was demolished and its lines redirected to Liverpool Street. As part of the project the Broadgate development was constructed on the Broad Street site. Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the modified station in December 1991.
The Underground station was damaged by the 1993 Bishopsgate bombing, and during the 7 July 2005 terrorist attacks seven passengers were killed when a bomb exploded aboard an Underground train after it had departed Liverpool Street.
With over 57 million passenger entries and exits in 2011-12, Liverpool Street is one of the busiest railway stations in the United Kingdom and is the third busiest in London after Waterloo and Victoria.6 It is one of 19 stations managed by Network Rail. 7
It has three main exits: to Liverpool Street, after which the station is named; to Bishopsgate; and to the Broadgate development to the west of the station. The Underground station connects the Central, Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines, and is in fare zone 1.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Mainline railway station
- 1.1.1 A new terminus for the City (1875)
- 1.1.2 Expansion of the station (1895)
- 1.1.3 First World War and memorials (1917-1922)
- 1.1.4 Productivity experiments (1920s)
- 1.1.5 Second World War (1939-1945)
- 1.1.6 Post-war electrification (1946-60)
- 1.1.7 Redevelopment and Broadgate (1973-1991)
- 1.1.8 Recent history (1992–)
- 1.2 Underground stations
- 1.1 Mainline railway station
- 2 Future developments
- 3 Services
- 4 In popular culture
- 5 Gallery
- 6 Connections
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
In 1862 the GER had been formed by the merger of several railway companies and had inherited Bishopsgate station as its London terminus. Bishopsgate was inadequate for the company's passenger traffic and, being located in Shoreditch, was poorly situated for the City of London commuters the company was seeking as customers; as a consequence the GER made plans for a new, more central station.910 In 1865 early elements of the planned development included for a circa 1-mile long line branching from the mainline east of the company's existing terminus in Shoreditch, and a new station at Liverpool Street as the main terminus, with Bishopsgate station to be used for freight traffic after the former's completion. The station at Liverpool Street was to be constructed for the use of the GER and of the East London Railway, built on two levels with the underground East London line around 37 ft (11 m) below the GER and with the GER tracks supported on brick arches. The station was planned to be around 630 by 200 ft (192 by 61 m) in area, with its main façade onto Liverpool Street and an additional entrance on Bishopsgate-Street (now called Bishopsgate and forming part of the A10). The main train shed was to be a two-span wood construction with a central void providing light and ventilation to the lower station, and the station buildings were to be in an Italianate style to the designs of the GER's architect.9
The line and station construction was authorised by the Great Eastern Railway (Metropolitan Station and Railways) Act 1864.1112 The station was built on a 10 acres (4.0 ha) site previously occupied by the Bethlem Royal Hospital, adjacent to Broad Street station, west of Bishopsgate and facing onto Liverpool Street to the south; prior to the station's construction the site was part of the general urban development of London. The development land was compulsory purchased displacing around 3,000 residents of the parish of St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate.1314 In order to offset the distress caused by the displacement of persons the company was required by the 1864 Act to run daily low-cost workmen's trains from the station.11
The station's design was by GER engineer Edward Wilson and it was built by Lucas Brothers, Builders; the station roof was designed and constructed by the Fairburn Engineering Company.14 The overall design was approximately Gothic, built using stock bricks and bath stone dressings. The building incorporated booking offices as well as the company offices of the GER, including chairman's, board, committee, secretary and engineers' rooms. The roof was spanned by four wrought iron spans, with primarily glass glazing; two central spans of 109 ft (33 m) and outer spans of 46 and 44 ft, 730 ft (220 m) in length over the eastern main lines, and 450 ft (140 m) long over the local platforms;15 the station had 10 platforms, two of which were used for mainline trains and the remainder for suburban trains.16
The station was built with a connection to the sub-surface Metropolitan Railway, with the station platform sunk below ground level; as a result there are considerable gradients leaving the station.17 The Metropolitan Railway used the station as a terminus from 1 February 1875 until 11 July 1875; their own underground station opened on 12 July 1875.18
Local trains began serving the partially completed station from 2 October 1874,10 and it was fully opened on 1 November 1875,19 at a final cost of over £2 million.20 The original City terminus at Bishopsgate closed to passengers and was converted for use as a goods station from 1881 until it was destroyed by fire in 1964.21
Although initially viewed as an expensive white elephant,23 within 10 years the station was working at capacity (circa 600 trains per day) and the GER was acquiring land to the east of the station for expansion.20 An Act of Parliament was obtained in 1888 and work started in 1890 on the eastward expansion of Liverpool Street by the addition of eight new tracks and platforms.1924
The main station was extended approximately 230 ft (70 m) eastwards, additional shops and offices were constructed east of the new train shed up to the boundary formed by Bishopsgate-Street Without.25
The new station's roof consisted of four longitudinally aligned arched roofs, the outer roofs were approximately 51 ft (16 m) wide, and the two inner roofs approximately 42 ft (13 m) wide in width. The roofs were set on 13 sets of piers space 30 ft (9.1 m) apart,2627 plus an 87 ft (27 m) roof at right angles over the "circulating area" at the buffer stop end of the station.28
At the north end of the station roof a parcels office was constructed over the tracks,29 supported on cast iron columns carrying wrought iron box and plate girders longitudinally and crosswise, on which were carried rolled steel joists;3031 The eleveated main parcel offices and side buildings required extensive and substantial foundation work, taken down to 30ft below ground level to a clay substratum; the building was supported on multiple iron columns - the largest of which were 3ft diameter, connected in pairs and cross strutted.36
For foundations and inner walls stock bricks were used, for the base of the outer walls of the parcel office Staffordshire blue bricks were used followed by Leicester bricks, and for facing other walls of the new station Ruabon bricks and Suffock bricks were used.37 The four train shed roofs were carried out by Messrs. Handyside and Co., supervised by a Mr. Sherlock, the resident engineer; all the foundations, earthwork and brickwork were carried out by Mowlem & Co;38 the ironwork of the parcels office was carried out by Head Wrightson, approximately 620 long tons (630 t) of cast iron was used for columns, stanchions and accessories, and 1,230 long tons (1,250 t) of wrought iron for box and plate girders.39
Electric power (for lighting) was supplied from an engine house located north of the station.38 Additional civil works included three iron bridges carrying road traffic over the railway on Skinner, Primrose and Worship Streets;40 the bridge ironwork was supplied and erected by the Horseley Company.414243 John Wilson was chief engineer, with W. N. Ashbee as architect.19
During the First World War, on 13 June 1917, Ernst Brandenburg led an aerial raid with 20 Gotha G.V bombers – the first such attack by fixed-wing enemy aircraft in daylightdisputed citation needed – targeting a number of sites including Liverpool Street station. Seven tons of explosive were dropped which killed 162 people and injured 432.4445 Three bombs hit the station, of which two exploded, having fallen through the train shed roof, near to two trains, causing multiple fatalities.46 This was the deadliest single raid on Britain during the war.47
Over 1,000 GER employees who died during the war were honoured on a large marble memorial installed in the booking hall, unveiled on 22 June 1922 by Sir Henry Wilson. On his return home from the unveiling ceremony, Wilson was assassinated by two Irish Republican Army members. He was commemorated by a memorial plaque adjoining the GER monument, unveiled one month after his death.48484950
The GER memorial was relocated during the modification of the station and now incorporates both the Wilson and Fryatt memorials, as well as a number of railway related architectural elements salvaged from demolished buildings.52
In the early 1900s successful applications of electric traction suggested that electrification could be viable on the heavily used local services out of London termini, and after the First World War the GER required increased capacity out of Liverpool Street. However, the company was not able to undertake the cost of electrification; high powered, high tractive effort steam locomotives such as the GER Class A55 were a possible solution providing high acceleration usually associated with electric traction, but were rejected due to the high track loadings. An alternative optimisation scheme was followed using a combination of automatic signalling and modifications to the layout at Liverpool Street. The station introduced coaling, watering, and other maintenance facilities directly at the station, as well as separate engine bays and a modified track and station layout in an effort to reduce turnaround times and increase productivity.5354 Services began on 2 July 1920 with trains to Chingford and Enfield running every 10 minutes. The cost of the modifications was £80,000 compared to an estimated £3 million for electrification.55
Thousands of Jewish refugee children arrived at Liverpool Street in the late 1930s as part of the Kindertransport rescue mission in the run up to the Second World War. In September 2003 the Für Das Kind Kindertransport Memorial sculpture by artist Flor Kent, who conceived the project, was installed at the station. It consisted of a specialised glass case with original objects and a bronze sculpture of a girl, a direct descendant of a child rescued by Nicholas Winton, who unveiled the work.56 The objects included in the sculpture began to suffer deterioration due to weather, and in 2006 a replacement bronze memorial by Frank Meisler, depicting a group of children and a railway track, was installed at the main entrance on Liverpool Street.57 The statue of the child from the Kent memorial was re-erected separately on the concourse.
During the Second World War the station's structure sustained damage, particularly the Gothic tower at the main entrance on Liverpool Street and its glass roof, which was damaged by a bomb that landed nearby on Bishopsgate.citation needed
After the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board in 1933, work to electrify the line from Liverpool Street to Shenfield began in association with the London and North Eastern Railway company.58
Progress had been halted by the Second World War but was given a high priority after the end of hostilities and the line between Liverpool Street and Stratford was electrified from 3 December 1946, and the full electrification of the Shenfield line at 1500V DC was completed by late 1949.58 At the same time electrification of London Underground services in Essex and northeast and east London led to the withdrawal of some services from Liverpool Street, being replaced with LU operations. Electrification continued with the line to Chingford electrified by November 1960.59
In 1973 the British Railways Board, London Transport Executive, Greater London Council and Department of the Environment produced a report examininng the modernisation of transport facilities in Greater London. The report recommended that the reconstruction of Liverpool Street and Broad Street stations should be given high priority, also recommending financing this through development of property on the site.60 Liverpool Street had a number of design and access issues, much of which derived from the 1890 extension, which had created effectively two stations on one site, with two concourses linked by walkways, multiple booking halls, and inefficient traffic flows within the station. Additionally the rail infrastructure presented limitations: only seven of the platforms could stable 12-carriage trains, and the station track exit layout was a bottleneck.61 In 1975 British Railways announced plans to demolish and redevelop both stations.62 The proposed demolition resulting in considerable public opposition, and as a result a public inquiry took place from November 1976 to February 1977.63
The inquiry resulted in the requirement to retain and incorporate the western (1875) train shed roof into the new development; the station end roof was repaired and reinforced between 1982 and 1984, followed by repairs to the main roof completed in 1987.64 Initial plans included the broadening of the exit of the stations by two to eight tracks, with 22 platforms on a layout similar to that of Waterloo station; the combined Broad Street and Liverpool Street station was to be at the level of the original Liverpool Street station, with relatively low rise office developments.65 Poor utilisation of land value caused the development to be reassessed in 1983/4. As a result it was decided to retain the existing six-road exit throat, and 18-platform layout in combination with resignalling; this resulted in a station confined to the Liverpool Street site, with ground space released for development.66 In 1985 British Railways signed an agreement with developers Rosehaugh Stanhope and work on the office development, known as Broadgate, began.67
Railway work included the construction of a chord from the North London Line to the Cambridge main line allowing trains formerly using Broad Street to terminate at Liverpool Street.68 The station was reconstructed on rationalised grounds with a single concourse at the head of the staton platforms and entrances onto Bishopsgate and Liverpool Street, as well as a bus interchange in the southwest corner.69 The Broadgate development was constructed between 1985 and 1991, with 330,000 m2 (3,600,000 sq ft) of office space on the site of the former Broad Street station and above the Liverpool Street tracks.70 Proceeds from the Broadgate development were used to help fund the station modernisation.71
The redeveloped Liverpool Street was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 5 December 1991. At this time a giant departures board was installed above the concourse; it was one of the last remaining mechanical 'flapper' display boards at a British railway station until its replacement in 2007.
In 1992, an additional entrance was constructed from the east side of Bishopsgate with a subway under the thoroughfare.citation needed The station was twinned with Amsterdam Centraal railway station in 1993, with a plaque marking this close to the entrance to the Underground station.citation needed
In 2007 the 'flapper' departure and arrivals board was removed and replaced by electronic boards.73
In 2013, during excavation work for the Crossrail project, a 2 acres (0.81 ha) mass burial ground dating from the 17th century was uncovered a few feet beneath the surface at Liverpool Street. It contained the remains of several hundred people and it is thought that the internments were from a wide strata of society, including plague victims, prisoners and unclaimed corpses.74 A 16th century gold coin, thought to have been used as a sequin or pendent, was also found.75
Entrance from the main concourse at Liverpool Street
|Local authority||City of London|
|Managed by||London Underground|
|Number of platforms||4|
|London Underground annual entry and exit|
|1 February 1875||Opened (using mainline)|
|12 July 1875||Opened as Bishopsgate|
|1 November 1909||Renamed as Liverpool Street|
|28 July 1912||Central line opened (terminus)|
|4 December 1946||Central line extended (through)|
|Lists of stations|
|London Transport portal|
From 1874 to 1875 the Metropolitan Railway used the Liverpool Street mainline station as a terminus; on 12 July 1875 the company opened their own station, initially called Bishopsgate.19 The station was renamed Liverpool Street in 1909.19
Subsurface platforms 1 and 2 were opened in 1875. A disused west-facing bay platform 3 was used by terminating Metropolitan and occasional District line trains running via Edgware Roadwhen? is still extant.citation needed
In 1912 Liverpool Street became the new terminus of the Central London Railway after the completion of an extension project from Bank.79 The deep-level Central line platforms 4 and 5 opened on 28 July 1912 as the eastern terminus of the Central London Railway.citation needed
The London Post Office Railway opened a station at at the south end of Liverpool Street under the hotel in December 1927;80 lifts on either side of the station as well as chutes enabled the transfer of mail to and from the main station.24 Two 315-foot (96 m) parcel and letter bag conveyors were connected to platforms 10 and 11; postal traffic reached 10,000 bags daily in the 1930s, with 690 Post Office services calling.80
The Underground station was badly damaged by the 1993 Bishopsgate bombing and was temporarily closed as a result.8283 In the 7 July 2005 London terrorist attacks a bomb was exploded aboard an Underground train that had just departed Liverpool Street toward Aldgate.84
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2014)|
From 2018, Liverpool Street will be served by underground Crossrail platforms for services westwards to Paddington, Heathrow and Maidenhead via the City and the West End. Abbey Wood and Shenfield will be served by overground Crossrail trais to the east.
A new ticket hall with step-free access will be built next to the Broadgate development, with a pedestrian link via the new platforms to the ticket hall of Moorgate, providing direct access to London Underground's Northern line and the Northern City Line.
The six trains per hour that run a stopping metro service between Liverpool Street and Shenfield will be doubled and diverted into the Crossrail tunnel between Liverpool Street and Stratford via Whitechapel.
A temporary shaft in Finsbury Circus allows for construction of the platforms; this will be removed once the station is complete.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014)|
Liverpool Street serves many destinations in the East of England including Stansted Airport and Southend Airport, Cambridge, Lowestoft, Great Yarmouth, Norwich, Ipswich, Clacton-on-Sea, Colchester, Braintree, Southend Victoria, Harwich, and many suburban stations in north-eastern London, Essex and Hertfordshire. It is one of the busiest commuter stations in London. A small number of daily express trains to Harwich International provides connection with the Dutchflyer ferry to Hoek van Holland.
Almost all passenger services are operated by Greater Anglia, but there are two late-evening weekday shuttle services to Barking, calling only at Stratford operated by c2c.85 All other c2c services depart from Fenchurch Street: c2c also operates from Liverpool Street during engineering works between Barking and Fenchurch Street.
The following off-peak weekday services depart from Liverpool Street:
Liverpool Street is one of the four railway stations on the UK version of Monopoly, introduced in the early 20th century.
The station has been used several times as the site of fictionalised terrorist attacks: in Andy McNab's novel Dark Winter station is the target of an attack; in London Under Attack, a fictional docu-drama portrayal of a terrorist attack on London using chlorine gas (first shown May 2004 by BBC One's Panorama), Liverpool Street was used as a the site of the attack.;86 and the drama Dirty War, (first shown October 2004, BBC) portrayed a suicide terrorist attack using a "dirty bomb" near the Underground station.
The location has also been used in a number of crime and espionage dramas: in the film Stormbreaker, the lead character runs through the station to find a photo booth, whereupon he is then transported to MI6; the BBC drama The Shadow Line (2011) included a scene in which a man was attempting to evade both the police and a criminal via the London Underground, eventually losing them by alighting at Liverpool Street.
H. G. Wells' 1898 novel The War of The Worlds included a chaotic rush to board trains at Liverpool Street as the Martian machines overran military defences in the West End, and described the crushing of people under the wheels of the steam engines.
During the 2000s the station has been used as the gathering point for staged flash mobs: in 2009, the cast of St. Trinian's 2: The Legend of Fritton's Gold and hundreds of extras were filmed during a flash mob type scene where the girls danced in the middle of the station, and on 15 January 2009 around 350 people took part in a staged three-minute guerrilla-style dance for a new T-Mobile advert.
THROUGH crystal roofs the sunlight fell,
And pencilled beams the gloss renewed
On iron rafters balanced well
On iron struts ; though dimly hued.
With smoke o'erlaid, with dust endued.
The walls and beams like beryl shone ;
And dappled light the platforms strewed
With yellow foliage of the dawn
That withered by the porch of day's divan.—John Davidson , Fleet Street and Other Poems (Extract).88
|Preceding station||National Rail||Following station|
Grays to Liverpool Street
|Preceding station||London Underground||Following station|
|Hammersmith & City line||
|Terminus||Lea Valley Lines||Bethnal Green
towards Enfield Town, Cheshunt
|Terminus||Eastern Region of British Railways|
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- The building's column foundations were taken down 30 ft (9.1 m) through levels of made ground, the original surface, and then gravel and a layer of yellow clay to blue clay.32 The side buildings had foundations of a 10 ft (3.0 m) square, 2 ft (0.61 m) thick concrete bed, supporting brick footings and then a 5 ft (1.5 m) square, 2 ft (0.61 m) thick bedstone,33 which supported 18 to 24 in (460 to 610 mm) wide 1.25 in (32 mm) thick main columns.34 The main central parcels building was built on foundations of a 21 by 19 ft (6.4 by 5.8 m) bed of concrete 3 ft (0.91 m) thick supporting brick footings and then a 12 by 10 ft (3.7 by 3.0 m) square, 1 ft 9 in (0.53 m) thick bedstone, supporting twinned 3 ft diameter cross-strutted iron columns 3 in (76 mm) thick up to the floor level support girders.35
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- "Architectural mini guide - Liverpool Street". Network Rail. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014.
- Thorne, Robert (1978). Liverpool Street Station. Academy Editions.
- Derbyshire, Nick (1991). Liverpool Street : A station for the 21st Century. Granta. ISBN 0906782864.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Liverpool Street station.|
- Station information on Liverpool Street station from Network Rail
- Liverpool Street 1977 photos from 1977
- London Landscape TV episode (7 mins) about Liverpool Street station
- Alternative view of the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan line platforms