Contemporary Latin

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Contemporary Latin is the form of the Latin language used from the end of the 19th century through to the present. Various kinds of contemporary Latin can be distinguished. On the one hand there is its symbolic survival in areas like taxonomy and others as the result of the widespread presence of the language in the New Latin era. This is normally found in the form of mere words or phrases used in the general context of other languages. On the other hand there is the use of Latin as a language in its own right as full-fledged means of expression. Living or Spoken Latin, being the most specific development of Latin in the contemporary context, is the primary subject of this article.

A contemporary Latin inscription at Salamanca University commemorating the visit of the then-Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan in, as the inscription states, 1985 (MCMLXXXV).

Token Latin

As a relic of the great importance of New Latin as the formerly dominant international lingua franca down to the 19th century in a great number of fields, Latin is still present in words or phrases used in many languages around the world.

Mottos

The official use of Latin in previous eras has survived at a symbolic level in many mottos that are still being used and even coined in Latin to this day. Old mottoes like E pluribus unum found in 1776 on the Seal of the United States, along with Annuit cœptis and Novus ordo seclorum, and adopted by an Act of Congress in 1782, are still in use. Similarly current pound sterling coins are minted with the Latin inscription ELIZABETH·II·D·G·REG·F·D (Dei Gratia Regina, Fidei Defensor, i.e. Queen by the Grace of God, Defender of the Faith). The official motto of the European Union, adopted as recently as 2000, is the Latin In varietate concordia. Similarly to the multi-lingual European Union, the motto on the Canadian Victoria Cross is in Latin due to Canada's bilingual status.

Fixed phrases

Some common phrases that are still in use in many languages have remained fixed in Latin, like the well known dramatis personæ or habeas corpus.

In science

In fields as varied as mathematics, physics, astronomy, medicine, pharmacy, and biology,1 Latin still provides internationally accepted names of concepts, forces, objects and organisms in the natural world.

The most prominent retention of Latin occurs in the classification of living organisms and the binomial nomenclature devised by Carolus Linnæus, although the rules of nomenclature used today allow the construction of names which may deviate considerably from historical norms.

Another continuation is the use of Latin names for the constellations and celestial objects (used in the Bayer designations of stars), as well as planets and satellites, whose surface features have been given Latin selenographic toponyms since the 17th century.

Probably the most recent innovation in this realm is the proposition of the Flemish astrophysicist Gerard Bodifee to give Latin (or Latinised Greek) names to one thousand prominent galaxies in a Catalogue of Named Galaxies (CNG, 2010).2 These names follow the binomial nomenclature system and thus consist of a first part, identifying the galaxy, and a second part, naming the constellation in which the galaxy is located in the sky. For example M87, conspicuous for its plasma jet, in this system becomes Jaculatrix Virginis, meaning Thrower of or in Virgo (the Virgin), and the famous Tadpole Galaxy Gyrinus Draconis, meaning Tadpole of / in Draco (the Dragon). This system aims to honour the most impressive objects in the universe with more than meaningless and "uninspired" codes and to take them out of the specialist databases and bring them into the reach of "daily" human consciousness, in the same way as only named people, places etc. really exist in human minds. However, modern astronomers are not easily convinced to use such a system.

Symbols for many of those chemical elements of the periodic table known in ancient times reflect and echo their Latin names, like Au for aurum (gold) or Fe for ferrum (iron).

Vernacular vocabulary

Latin has also contributed a vocabulary for specialised fields such as anatomy and law which has become part of the normal, non-technical vocabulary of various European languages. Latin continues to be used to form international scientific vocabulary and classical compounds. In fact, more than 56% of the vocabulary still used in English today derives ultimately from Latin, either directly (28.24%) or through French (28.30%).3

Ecclesiastical Latin

The Catholic Church has continued to use Latin, as in preceding centuries. Two main areas can be distinguished. One is its use for the official version of all documents issued by the Vatican City, which has remained intact to the present. Although documents are first drafted in various vernaculars (mostly Italian, now also German), the official version is written in Latin by the specific Latin letters office. The other is its use for the liturgy, which has been diminished after the Second Vatican Council of 1962-65, but seems to have recently seen some resurgence sponsored in part by Pope Benedict XVI.

In the Anglican Church, after the publication of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer of 1559, a 1560 Latin edition was published for use at universities such as Oxford and the leading public schools, where the liturgy was still permitted to be conducted in Latin,4 and there have been several Latin translations since. Most recently a Latin edition of the 1979 USA Anglican Book of Common Prayer has appeared.5

Academic Latin

Latin has also survived to some extent in the context of classical scholarship. Some classical periodicals, like Mnemosyne or the German Hermes, to this day accept articles in Latin for publication.6

Latin is used in most of the introductions to the critical editions of ancient authors in the Oxford Classical Texts series, and it is also nearly always used for the apparatus criticus of Ancient Greek and Latin texts.

The University Orator at the University of Cambridge makes a speech in Latin marking the achievements of each of the honorands at the annual Honorary Degree Congregations, as does the Public Orator at the Encaenia ceremony at the University of Oxford. Harvard and Princeton also have Latin Salutatory commencement addresses every year.7

The Charles University in Prague8 and many other universities around the world conduct the awarding of their doctoral degrees in Latin.

In addition to the above, Brown, Sewanee and Bard College also hold in Latin a portion of their graduation ceremonies.

The famous hymn Gaudeamus igitur is acknowledgedcitation needed as the anthem of academia and is sung at university opening or graduation ceremonies throughout Europe.citation needed

Living Latin

Living Latin (latin vivant in French or Latinitas viva in Latin itself), also known as Spoken Latin, is an effort to revive Latin as a spoken language and as the vehicle for contemporary communication and publication. Involvement in this Latin revival can be a mere hobby or extend to more serious projects for restoring its former role as an international auxiliary language.

Origins

As soon as the decline of Latin at the end of the New Latin era started to be perceived, there were attempts to counteract this process and revitalise the use of Latin for international communication.

In 1815 Miguel Olmo wrote a booklet proposing Latin as the common language for Europe with the title Otia Villaudricensia ad octo magnos principes qui Vindobonæ anno MDCCCXV pacem orbis sanxerunt, de lingua Latina et civitate Latina fundanda liber singularis (Villaudric leisure to the eight great princes who signed world peace at Vienna in 1815, a book about the Latin language and the founding of a Latin state).9

In the late nineteenth century, Latin periodicals advocating the revived use of Latin as an international language started to appear. Between 1889 and 1895 Karl Heinrich Ulrichs published in Italy his Alaudæ.10 This publication was followed by the Vox Urbis: de litteris et bonis artibus commentarius,11 published by the architect and engineer Aristide Leonori from 1898, twice a month, until 1913, one year before the outbreak of World War I.

The early 20th century, marked by warfare and by drastic social and technological changes, saw few advances in the use of Latin outside of academia. Following the beginnings of the re-integration of postwar Europe, however, Latin revivalism gained some strength.

One of its main promoters was the former dean of the University of Nancy (France), Prof. Jean Capelle, who in 1952 published a cornerstone article called "Latin or Babel"12 where he proposed Latin as an international spoken language.

Capelle was called "the soul of the movement" when in 1956 the first International Conference for Living Latin (Congrès international pour le Latin vivant) took place in Avignon,13 marking the beginning of a new era for the active use of Latin. About 200 participants from 22 different countries took part in that foundational conference.

Pronunciation

The essentials of the classical pronunciation had been defined since the early 19th century (e.g. in K.L. Schneider's Elementarlehre der Lateinischen Sprache, 1819), but in many countries there was strong resistance to adopting it in instruction. In English-speaking countries, where the traditional academic pronunciation diverged most markedly from the restored classical model, the struggle between the two pronunciations lasted for the entire 19th century. The transition between Latin pronunciations was sudden and drastic (the "new pronunciation" was adopted throughout the schools in England in 1907).14

Although the older pronunciation, as found in the nomenclature and terminology of various professions, continued to be used for several decades, and, in some spheres, prevails to the present day, contemporary Latin as used by the living Latin community is largely characterized by the general adoption of the classical pronunciation of Latin as restored by specialists in Latin historical phonology.15

A similar shift occurred in German-speaking areas; the traditional pronunciation is discussed in Deutsche Aussprache des Lateinischen (German), while the reconstructed classical pronunciation, which took hold circa 1900, is discussed at Schulaussprache des Lateinischen.

Aims

Many users of contemporary Latin promote its use as a spoken language, a movement that dubs itself "Living Latin". Two main aims can be distinguished in this movement.

For Latin instruction

Among the proponents of spoken Latin, some promote the active use of the language to make learning Latin both more enjoyable and more efficient, in this respect drawing upon the methodologies of instructors of modern languages.

In the United Kingdom, the Association for the Reform of Latin Teaching (ARLT, still existing as the Association foR Latin Teaching), was founded in 1913 by the distinguished Classical scholar W. H. D. Rouse. It arose from Summer Schools which Rouse organised in order to train Latin teachers in the direct method of language teaching, which entailed using the language in everyday situations rather than merely learning grammar and syntax by rote. The Classical Association also encourages this approach. The Cambridge University Press has now published a series of school textbooks based on the adventures of a mouse called Minimus designed to help children of primary school age to learn the language, as well as its well known Cambridge Latin Course (CLC) to teach the language to secondary school students, all of which include extensive use of dialogue and an approach to language teaching mirroring that now used for most modern languages, which have brought many of the principles espoused by Rouse and the ARLT into the mainstream of Latin teaching.

Outside of Great Britain, one of the most accomplished handbooks used worldwide that fully adopts the direct method for Latin is the well known Lingua Latina per se illustrata by the Dane Hans Henning Ørberg published first in 1955 and improved in 1990. It is composed fully in Latin, and requires no other language of instruction, whereby it is used to teach pupils whatever their mother tongue.

For contemporary communication

Others support the revival of Latin as a language of international communication, in the academic, perhaps even scientific and diplomatic, spheres (as it was in Europe and European colonies through Middle Ages until the mid-18th century), or as an international auxiliary language to be used by anyone. However, as a language native to no people, this movement has not received support from any government, national or supranational.

Latin is nonetheless sometimes used as a written and occasionally spoken lingua franca among academics from different countries whose work involves familiarity with the language; for example, medieval historians.citation needed

Supporting institutions and publications

A substantial group of institutions (particularly in Europe, but also in North and South America) has emerged to support the use of Latin as a spoken language.16

The foundational first International Conference for living Latin (Congrès international pour le Latin vivant) that took place in Avignon was followed by at least five others.17 As a result of those first conferences, the Academia Latinitati Fovendae was then created in Rome. Among its most prominent members are well known classicists from all over the world,18 like Prof. Michael von Albrecht or Prof. Kurt Smolak. The ALF held its first international conference in Rome in 1966 bringing together about 500 participants. From then on conferences have taken place every four or five years, in Bucharest, Malta, Dakar, Erfurt and Berlin, Madrid and many other places. The official language of the ALF is Latin and all acts and proceedings take place in Latin.

Also in the year 1966 Clément Desessard published a method with tapes within the series sans peine of the French company Assimil. Desessard's work aimed at teaching contemporary Latin for use in an everyday context. Assimil took this out of print at the end of 2007 and published another Latin method which now focuses on the classical idiom only. Desessard's method is still used for living Latin instruction at the Schola Latina Universalis.

In 1986 the Belgian radiologist Gaius Licoppe, who had discovered the contemporary use of Latin and learnt how to speak it thanks to Desessard's method, founded in Brussels the Fundatio Melissa for the promotion of Latin teaching and use for communication.19

In Germany, Marius Alexa and Inga Pessarra-Grimm founded in September 1987 the Latinitati Vivæ Provehendæ Associatio (LVPA, or Association for the Promotion of Living Latin).20

The first Septimana Latina Amoeneburgensis (Amöneburg Latin Week) was organized in 1989 at Amöneburg near Marburg / Germany by Mechtild Hofmann and Robert Maier. Since then the Latin Weeks were offered every year. In addition, members of the supporting association Septimanae Latinae Europaeae (European Latin Weeks) published a text book named Piper Salve that contains dialogues in modern everyday Latin.21

One of the most extensive attempt to create a Latin immersion academic environment is on the part of the Accademia Vivarium Novum located in Rome, Italy. All classes are taught by faculty fluent in Latin or Ancient Greek, and the internationally diverse community of students residing at the Accademia speaks in Latin or Greek during meals and all other moments outside class. Most students are supported by scholarships from the Mnemosyne foundation and spend one or two years in residence to acquire fluency in Latin.22

Living Latin at the Accademia Vivarium Novum in Rome, Italy. Latin and Ancient Greek are spoken in all classes and among students and faculty outside of classes.

The living Latin movement eventually crossed the Atlantic, where it has grown with equal, if not greater, enthusiasm than in Europe. On October 1996 the Septentrionale Americanum Latinitatis Vivæ Institutum (SALVI, or North American Institute for Living Latin Studies) was founded in Los Angeles, California, by a group of professors and students of Latin literature concerned about the long-term future of classical studies in the US.23

In the University of Kentucky, Prof. Terence Tunberg established the Institute of Latin Studies, which awards Graduate Certificates in Latin Studies addressed at those with a special interest gaining "a thorough command of the Latin language in reading, writing and speaking, along with a wide exposure to the cultural riches of the Latin tradition in its totality".24

Most of these groups and institutions organise seminars and conferences where Latin is used as a spoken language, both throughout the year and over the summer, in Europe and in America.25

Less academic summer encounters wholly carried out in Latin are the ones known as Septimanæ Latinæ Europææ (European Latin Weeks), celebrated in Germany and attracting people of various ages from all over Europe.21

At the present time, several periodicals and social networking web sites are published in Latin. In France, immediately after the conference at Avignon, the publisher Théodore Aubanel launched the magazine Vita Latina, which still exists, associated to the CERCAM (Centre d’Étude et de Recherche sur les Civilisations Antiques de la Méditerranée) of the University Paul Valéry of Montpellier. Until very recently, it was published in Latin in its entirety.26 In Germany, the magazine Vox Latina was founded in 1956 by Caelestis Eichenseer (1924–2008) at the University of Saarbrücken and is to this day published wholly in Latin four times a year.27 In Belgium, the magazine Melissa created in 1984 by Gaius Licoppe is still published six times a year completely in Latin.28

The Finnish radio station YLE Radio 1 has for many years broadcast a now famous weekly review of world news called Nuntii Latini completely in Latin.29 The German Radio Bremen also has regular broadcasts in Latin. Other attempts have been less successful.30

The government of Finland, during its presidencies of the European Union, issued official newsletters in Latin on top of the official languages of the Union.31

On the Internet

The emergence of the Internet on a global scale in the 1990s provided a great tool for the flourishing of communication in Latin, and in February 199632 a Polish Latinist from Warsaw (Poland), Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz, founded what is still today the most populated and successful Latin-only email list on the Internet, the Grex Latine Loquentium. Subsequently the Nuntii Latini of YLE Radio 1 would also create a discussion list called YLE Colloquia Latina.33 The Circulus Latinus Panormitanus of Palermo (Italy) went a step further creating the first online chat in Latin called the Locutorium.34

In February 2003 Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz published an on-line glossary with his proposals for some computer terms in Latin under the title of Vocabula computatralia.35 The Internet also allows for the preservation of other contemporary Latin dictionaries that have fallen out of print or have never been printed, like the Latinitas Recens (Speculum)36 or the ADUMBRATIO LEXICI ANGLI ET LATINI.37

In June 200438 an on-line newspaper Ephemeris was founded once again from Warsaw by Stanisław Tekieli, and is to this day published wholly in Latin about current affairs.39

In January 2008 a Schola, (membership 1800) a Latin-only social network service, including a real-time video and/or text chatroom, was founded from London (UK).40

A number of Latin web portals, websites and weblogs in Latin have developed, like Lingua Latina Æterna from Russia41 or Verba et facta from somewhere in the US.42

The Internet also provides tools like Latin spell checkers43 for contemporary Latin writers, or scansion tools44 for contemporary Latin poets.

Google search engine has Latin as a language option.

The social networking website Facebook has Latin as one of its language options.

There is a MUD text game in Latin called Labyrinthus Latinus aimed at uniting people interested in the language. Website is shut down but the game is still available at address: labyrinthus.latinus.imp.ch and port 3333

There is even a Latin Wikipedia,45 although discussions are held not only in Latin but in German, English, and other languages as well.46 Nearly 200 active editors work on the project. There are nearly 100,000 articles on topics ranging from ancient Rome to mathematics, Tolkien's fiction, and geography. Those in particularly good Latin, currently about 10% of the whole, are marked.47

In public spaces

The ATM with Latin instructions
The signs at Wallsend Metro station are in English and Latin as a tribute to Wallsend's role as one of the outposts of the Roman empire.

Although less so than in previous eras, contemporary Latin has also been used for public notices in public spaces:

The Wallsend Metro station of the Tyne and Wear Metro has signs in Latin.

The Vatican City has an automated teller machine with instructions in Latin.48

Original production

Some contemporary works have been produced originally in Latin, most overwhelmingly poetry,49 but also prose, as well as music or cinema. They include:

Poetry

  • 1924. Carminum libri quattuor by Tomás Viñas.50
  • 1946. Carmina Latina by A. Pinto de Carvalho.51
  • 1954. Vox Humana by Johannes Alexander Gaertner.52
  • 1962. Pegasus Tolutarius by Henry C. Snurr aka C. Arrius Nurus.
  • 1966. Suaviloquia by Jan Novák.
  • 1966. Cantus Firmus by Johannes Alexander Gaertner.52
  • 1972. Carmina by Traian Lăzărescu.53
  • 1991. Periegesis Amatoria by Geneviève Immè.
  • 1992. Harmonica vitrea by Anna Elissa Radke.

Prose

Music

  • 1994. Ista?!?! by Latin hiphop band Ista.

Cinema

Television

  • 2008. O Tempora! by the Kulturzeit team (37:44min extra emission 22/8/2008) of the German public channel 3sat.59

Translations

Various texts—usually children's books—have been translated into Latin since the beginning of the living Latin movement in the early fifties for various purposes, including use as a teaching tool or simply to demonstrate the capability of Latin as a means of expression in a popular context. They include:

Dictionaries, glossaries and phrase books for contemporary Latin

  • 1990. Latin for All Occasions, a book by Henry Beard, attempts to find Latin equivalents for contemporary catchphrases.
  • 1992–7. Neues Latein Lexicon / Lexicon recentis Latinitatis by Karl Egger, containing more than 15,000 words for contemporary everyday life.
  • 1998. Imaginum vocabularium Latinum by Sigrid Albert.
  • 1999. Piper Salve by Robert Maier, Mechtild Hofmann, Klaus Sallmann, Sabine Mahr, Sascha Trageser, Dominika Rauscher, Thomas Gölzhäuser.
  • 2010. Visuelles Wörterbuch Latein-Deutsch by Dorling Kindersley, translated by Robert Maier.
  • 2012. Septimana Latina vol. 1+2 edited by Mechtild Hofmann and Robert Maier (based on Piper Salve).

Further reading

English:

  • W.H.S.Jones, M.A. Via Nova or The Application of the Direct Method to Latin and Greek, Cambridge University Press 1915.
  • Jozef Ijzewijn, A companion to neo-latin studies, 1977.

Spanish:

  • José Juan del Col, ¿Latín hoy?, published by the Instituto Superior Juan XXIII, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, 1998. Downloadable PDF version: ¿Latín hoy?.

French:

  • Guy Licoppe, Pourquoi le latin aujourd'hui ? : (Cur adhuc discenda sit lingua Latina), s.l., 1989
  • Françoise Waquet, Le latin ou l'empire d'un signe, XVIe-XXe siècle, Paris, Albin Michel, 1998.
  • Guy Licoppe, Le latin et le politique : les avatars du latin à travers les âges, Bruxelles, 2003.

German:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Yancey, P.H. (March 1944). "Introduction to Biological Latin and Greek". Bios 15 (1): 3–14. 
  2. ^ G. Bodifee - M. Berger (2010) Catalogue of Named Galaxies*Website of Gerard Bodifée See also Wolfgang Steinecke *[1]
  3. ^ According to the computerised survey of about 80,000 words in the old Shorter Oxford Dictionary (3rd ed.) published in Ordered Profusion by Thomas Finkenstaedt and Dieter Wolff, Cf. Latin influence in English.
  4. ^ http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/Latin1560/BCP_Latin1560.htm Liber Precum Publicarum, The Book of Common Prayer in Latin (1560). Society of Archbishop Justus, resources, Book of Common Prayer,Latin,1560. Retrieved 22 May 2012
  5. ^ http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/Latin1979/Latin_1979.htm Society of Archbishop Justus, resources,Book of Common Prayer,Latin,1979 Retrieved 22 May 2012
  6. ^ Cf. Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz, "A. Gellius, Noctes Atticæ, 16.2.6: tamquam si te dicas adulterum negent", Mnemosyne 58 (2005) 132-135; "Et futura panda siue de Catulli carmine sexto corrigendo", Hermes 132 (2004) 125-128.
  7. ^ Cf. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47u6IJ2GVdM
  8. ^ Sponse doktorská
  9. ^ IJsewijn, Jozef, Companion to Neo-Latin Studies. Part I. History and Diffusion of Neo-Latin Literature, Leuven University Press, 1990, p. 112s.
  10. ^ Cf. Wilfried Stroh (ed.), Alaudæ. Eine lateinische Zeitschrift 1889-1895 herausgegeben von Karl Heinrich Ulrichs. Nachdruck mit einer Einleitung von Wilfried Stroh, Hamburg, MännerschwarmSkript Verlag, 2004.
  11. ^ Cf. Volfgangus Jenniges, "Vox Urbis (1898-1913) quid sibi proposuerit", Melissa, 139 (2007) 8-11.
  12. ^ Published on the 23rd of October 1952 in the French Bulletin de l'Éducation Nationale, an English version of the same was published in The Classical Journal and signed by himself and Thomas H. Quigley (The Classical Journal, Vol. 49, No. 1, October 1953, pp. 37-40)
  13. ^ Cf. Goodwin B. Beach, "The Congress for Living Latin: Another View", The Classical Journal, Vol. 53, No. 3, December 1957, pp. 119-122:
  14. ^ The School world, Macmillan & Co., 1907
  15. ^ E.g. Prof. Edgar H. Sturtevant (The Pronunciation of Greek and Latin, Chicago Ares Publishers Inc. 1940) and Prof. W. Sidney Allen (Vox Latina, A Guide to the Pronunciation of Classical Latin, Cambridge University Press 1965), who followed in the tradition of previous pronunciation reformers; cf. Erasmus's De recta Latini Græcique sermonis pronuntiatione dialogus and even Alcuin's De orthographia.
  16. ^ Cf. http://circuluslatinuslondiniensis.co.uk/Vincula.html
  17. ^ The fifth conference took place in Pau, France, from the 1st to the 5th of April 1975.
  18. ^ Cf. http://www.academialatina.org/sodales.html
  19. ^ Cf. http://www.fundatiomelissa.org/fundatiomelissa/Salvete.html
  20. ^ Cf. http://www.lvpa.de/
  21. ^ a b Cf. http://www.septimanalatina.org/
  22. ^ Cf. http://www.vivariumnovum.net/eng/index.htm
  23. ^ Cf. http://www.latin.org/about.php
  24. ^ Cf. http://www.uky.edu/AS/Classics/institute_eng.html
  25. ^ Cf. http://www.lvpa.de/html/latinus.htm
  26. ^ Cf. http://recherche.univ-montp3.fr/cercam/article.php3?id_article=131
  27. ^ Cf. http://www.voxlatina.uni-saarland.de/
  28. ^ Cf. http://web.me.com/fundatiomelissa/Site/Periodicum.html
  29. ^ Cf. http://www.yle.fi/radio1/tiede/nuntii_latini/
  30. ^ The Nuntii Latini Italici of the University of Catania were discontinued in 2008, cf. http://www.radiozammu.it/index.php?sez=programma&id=30
  31. ^ Cf. http://www.eu2006.fi/NEWS_AND_DOCUMENTS/NEWSLETTERS/EN_GB/NEWSLETTERS/INDEX.HTM
  32. ^ Cf. http://www.alcuinus.net/GLL/victorius.htm
  33. ^ Cf. http://chat.yle.fi/latini/
  34. ^ Cf. http://www.cirlapa.org/locutorium.htm
  35. ^ Cf. http://www.obta.uw.edu.pl/~draco/docs/voccomp.html
  36. ^ Cf. http://latinlexicon.org/latinitas_recens_latine.html
  37. ^ Cf. http://eweb.furman.edu/~dmorgan/lexicon/adumbratio.htm
  38. ^ Cf. Issue nº1 http://ephemeris.alcuinus.net/archi2004/nuntii/eph1/index.php
  39. ^ Cf. http://ephemeris.alcuinus.net/
  40. ^ Cf. http://schola.ning.com
  41. ^ Cf. http://www.linguaeterna.com
  42. ^ Cf. http://nemo-nusquam.blogspot.com/index.html
  43. ^ Cf. http://latin.drouizig.org
  44. ^ Cf. Poeta ex Machina
  45. ^ Vicipaedia. "Pagina prima".
  46. ^ Cf. Vicipaedia. Taberna, analogous to the "village pump" elsewhere. Legatio or "embassy"
  47. ^ As of August 2013, there are 94,777 pages, of which about a third are marked as stubs. Among the pages whose Latin has been assessed, 9,658 are marked as having good Latin and just over 500 are marked as poor Latin.
  48. ^ http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2279/2360283395_08b38b230c.jpg?v=0/
  49. ^ Contemporary Latin Poetry
  50. ^ IJsewijn, Jozef, Companion to Neo-Latin Studies. Part I. History and Diffusion of Neo-Latin Literature, Leuven University Press, 1990, p. 113.
  51. ^ IJsewijn, Jozef, Companion to Neo-Latin Studies. Part I. History and Diffusion of Neo-Latin Literature, Leuven University Press, 1990, p. 123.
  52. ^ a b IJsewijn, Jozef, Companion to Neo-Latin Studies. Part I. History and Diffusion of Neo-Latin Literature, Leuven University Press, 1990, p. 293.
  53. ^ IJsewijn, Jozef, Companion to Neo-Latin Studies. Part I. History and Diffusion of Neo-Latin Literature, Leuven University Press, 1990, p. 226.
  54. ^ Cf. http://www.jstor.org/pss/3292896
  55. ^ IJsewijn, Jozef, Companion to Neo-Latin Studies. Part I. History and Diffusion of Neo-Latin Literature, Leuven University Press, 1990, p. 156.
  56. ^ Cf. http://web.me.com/fundatiomelissa/Site/Libri_editi.html
  57. ^ Cf. http://commons.wvc.edu/sberard/boreoccidentales/latin/05/Home.aspx
  58. ^ Cf. http://www.amazon.com/CAPTI-Menippeo-Hoffmanniana-Americana-Stephani-Berard/dp/1456759736
  59. ^ Cf. http://www.3sat.de/mediathek/mediathek.php?obj=9250&mode=play & http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PUpaCk6QjQ
  60. ^ Robinson Crusoe in Latin at archive.org.
  61. ^ Asterix in Latin.
  62. ^ [2]
  63. ^ Aladdin (1992 Disney film)







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