Maltol

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Maltol
Maltol.png
Identifiers
CAS number 118-71-8 YesY
PubChem 8369
ChemSpider 8066 YesY
UNII 3A9RD92BS4 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL31422 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C6H6O3
Molar mass 126.11 g mol−1
Density 1.348 g/cm3
Melting point 161 to 162 °C (322 to 324 °F; 434 to 435 K)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Maltol is a naturally occurring organic compound that is used primarily as a flavor enhancer. It is found in the bark of larch tree, in pine needles, and in roasted malt (from which it gets its name). It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in hot water, chloroform, and other polar solvents. Because it has the odor of cotton candy and caramel, maltol is used to impart a sweet aroma to fragrances. Maltol's sweetness adds to the odor of freshly baked bread, and is used as a flavor enhancer (INS Number 636) in breads and cakes. It is not registered as a food additive in the EU and thus has no E-number.1 Instead, maltol is registered as a flavor component in the EU.2

Maltol, like related 3-hydroxy-4-pyrones such as kojic acid, binds to hard metal centers such as Fe3+, Ga3+, Al3+, and VO2+.3 Related to this property, maltol has been reported to greatly increase aluminum uptake in the body4 and to increase the oral bioavailability of gallium5 and iron.6

Derivatives of maltol

Some synthetic derivatives of maltol, developed at the University of Urbino, have got antiproliferative activity towards cancer cells, that induce apoptosis mechanisms against these cells78

See also

References

  1. ^ Official Journal of the European Union, Volume 54, November 12, 2011
  2. ^ Official Journal of the European Union, Volume 55, October 2, 2012
  3. ^ B. D. Liboiron, K. H. Thompson, G. R. Hanson, E. Lam, N. Aebischer, C. Orvig (2005). "New Insights into the Interactions of Serum Proteins with Bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV): Transport and Biotransformation of Insulin-Enhancing Vanadium Pharmaceuticals". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (14): 5104–5115. doi:10.1021/ja043944n. PMID 15810845. 
  4. ^ N. Kaneko, H. Yasui, J. Takada, K. Suzuki, H. Sakurai (2004). "Orally administrated aluminum-maltolate complex enhances oxidative stress in the organs of mice". J. Inorg. Biochem. 98 (12): 2022–2031. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2004.09.008. PMID 15541491. 
  5. ^ L. R. Bernstein, T. Tanner, C. Godfrey, B. Noll (2000). "Chemistry and pharmacokinetics of gallium maltolate, a compound with high oral gallium bioavailability". Metal Based Drugs 7 (1): 33–48. doi:10.1155/MBD.2000.33. PMC 2365198. PMID 18475921. 
  6. ^ D.M. Reffitt, T.J. Burden, P.T. Seed, J. Wood J, R.P. Thompson, J.J. Powell (2000). "Assessment of iron absorption from ferric trimaltol". Ann. Clin. Biochem. 37 (4): 457–66. doi:10.1258/0004563001899645. PMID 10902861. 
  7. ^ S.Amatori, G.Ambrosi, M.Fanelli, M.Formica, V.Fusi, L.Giorgi, E.Macedi, M.Micheloni, P.Paoli, R.Pontellini, P.Rossi, Synthesis, basicity, structural characterization, and biochemical properties of two [(3-hydroxy-4-pyron-2-yl)methyl]amine derivatives showing antineoplastic features, J. Org. Chem., 2 marzo 2012; 77(5):2207-18. DOI: 10.1021/jo202270j. Epub 22 febbraio 2012.
  8. ^ S.Amatori, I.Bagaloni, E.Macedi, M.Formica, L.Giorgi, V.Fusi, M.Fanelli,Malten, a new synthetic molecule showing in vitro antiproliferative activity against tumour cells and induction of complex DNA structural alterations, Br. J. Cancer., 13 luglio 2010; 103(2):239-48. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605745. Epub 22 giugno 2010.







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