|Type||Limited liability company
|Predecessor(s)||Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.
|Headquarters||New York City, NY, United States|
|Number of locations||Manhattan Beach, California &
West Palm Beach, Florida, US
City of Westminster, London, UK
|Area served||US, UK|
|Key people||Isaac Perlmutter (CEO)
EVP, Office of the Chief Executive:
Alan Fine, John Turitzin
|Products||Comics, Animation, Film|
|Parent||NYSE listed (1998-2009)
The Walt Disney Company
Marvel Entertainment, LLC, formerly Marvel Enterprises and Toy Biz, Inc., is an American entertainment company formed from the merger of Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc. and Toy Biz, Inc. The company is known for its comic books and, as of the 2000s, films via its Marvel Studios.
Marvel has film partnerships with 20th Century Fox, Columbia Pictures, and Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. The company also licenses properties to the theme parks at Universal Orlando Resort and Universal Studios Japan.
- 1 History
- 2 Units
- 3 Executives
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
|Former type||Subsidiary then Public subsidiary (NYSE:MRV)|
|Parent||Cadence Industries (1968-1986)
New World Pictures (1986-1989)
Andrews Group (1989–1997)
Icahn Enterprises (1997)
Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc. (Marvel or MEG), the parent company of Marvel Comics and Marvel Productions, was put up for sale as part of the liquidation of its then parent corporation, Cadence Industries, and sold in 1986 to New World Pictures.3 In 1989, Ronald Perelman's MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings group of companies bought Marvel Entertainment Group from New World for $82.5 million,1 not including Marvel Productions, which was folded into New World's TV and movie business.3
"It is a mini-Disney in terms of intellectual property," said Perelman. "Disney's got much more highly recognized characters and softer characters, whereas our characters are termed action heroes. But at Marvel we are now in the business of the creation and marketing of characters."1
Marvel made an initial public offer of 40% of the stock (ticker symbol NYSE:MRV) in July 1991, giving $40 million from the proceeds1 to Andrews Group, Marvel's then direct parent corporation within MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings.4 Marvel purchased the trading card company Fleer within a year of going public. In April 1993, Marvel acquired 46% of ToyBiz, for the rights to make Marvel toys.1 The Andrews Group named Avi Arad of ToyBiz as the president and CEO of the Marvel Films division and of New World Family Filmworks, Inc., a New World Entertainment subsidiary. New World later became a fellow subsidiary of the Andrews Group.5
In 1993 and 1994, Marvel's holding companies — Marvel Holdings, Inc. and Marvel Parent Holdings, Inc. — were formed between Andrews Group and MEG and issued over half a billion dollars in bonds under the direction of Perelman, secured by Marvel's rising stock, which was passed up in dividends to Perlman's group of companies.6 Marvel continued acquisitions with Panini, an Italian sticker-maker, in August 1994, and SkyBox International in April 1995.1
Marvel also purchased Heroes World Distribution, a regional distributor to comic-book shops. Marvel's attempt to distribute its products directly led to a decrease in sales and aggravated the losses which Marvel suffered when the comic book bubble7 popped, the 1994 Major League Baseball strike massacred the profits of the Fleer unit,8 and Panini, whose revenue depended largely on Disney licensing, was hobbled by poor Disney showings at the box office.9
While licensing revenue reached $50 million in 1995, MEG laid off 275 employees on January 4, 1996.10 Perelman offered to have the Andrews Group purchase additional shares with an issue for $350 million in November 1996 (the "Andrews Plan"), which would have required ToyBiz to become a wholly owned subsidiary of Marvel. Meanwhile, Carl Icahn began buying Marvel's bonds at 20% of their value and moved to block Perelman's plan. The Marvel group of companies filed for bankruptcy on December 27, 1996, but the noteholders, led by Icahn, blocked this.1
In August 1996, Marvel created Marvel Studios, an incorporation of Marvel Films, due to the sale of its film and TV sister company, New World Communications Group, to News Corporation/Fox. Filing with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to raise money to finance the new corporation, Marvel, Isaac Perlmutter's Zib, Inc. and Avi Arad sold Toy Biz stocks, which Marvel had started and took public in February 1995.1112
Icahn fought to take control of the company from Perelman,9 finally becoming Marvel's chairman on June 20, 1997. Bankruptcy proceedings continued with multi-way arguments among Perelman, Icahn, Toy Biz and the banks.1 Toy Biz owners Ike Perlmutter and Avi Arad, with the banks on their side, snatched Marvel from Perelman and Icahn, in order to protect their own financial interests.9 Comic-book analyst Chuck Rozanski estimated that Perelman made $200 to $400 million from Marvel,13 while Forbes magazine believes he made nothing;14 and the judge in the Marvel bankruptcy trial estimated that Perelman made $280 million plus various tax advantages.9 The judge ousted Icahn as Marvel's chairman in December 1997, naming a trustee to run Marvel while discussion continued between the various factions.1
In June 1997, Marvel formed its Marvel Enterprise division, headed by president and CEO Scott C. Marden, to manage its trading card and sticker businesses, as well as Marvel Interactive, an Internet-entertainment and software-publishing company.15
A lawsuit by bond holders and Marvel's litigation trustees was filed in 1997, accusing Perelman and other Marvel Board Directors of diverting $553.5 million in proceeds from 1993 and 1994 notes to other MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings' companies, prior to Marvel's 1996 bankruptcy. The lawsuit asked for $470.8 million in damages. The appellate court ruled that, “None of the proceeds went to Marvel, or were used for Marvel’s benefit”, but instead improperly enriched the directors. While denying any wrongdoing, Perelman agreed in August 2008 to settle for $80 million, which the trustees accepted. The settlement fund, after paying off trustees' and legal fees, administrative expenses and a $2 million loan, had $50 million to distribute to some Marvel Entertainment Group shareholders and unsecured creditors.6
On February 18, 1998, Marvel and co-owner Universal Studios Hollywood opened Marvel Mania Restaurant near Universal Studios in California,16 as well as Planet Hollywood. However, Planet Hollywood had financial problems due to expanding too quickly, and closed Marvel Mania.17
ToyBiz and Marvel Entertainment Group were merged into Marvel Enterprises to bring it out of bankruptcy in June 1998.1 As part of this merger plan, Fleer/SkyBox and Panini would be auctioned off separately.18
Later, the rights to names like "Spider-Man" were being challenged. Toy Biz hired an attorney to review its license agreement. Los Angeles patent attorney Carole E. Handler19 found a legal loophole in the licensing of the Marvel name and was successful in reclaiming Marvel Enterprises' movie rights to its character Spider-Man.20212223
In 2003, Bill Stine purchased back Quest Aerospace, a 1995 Toy Biz acquisition, from Marvel.24 In summer 2003, Marvel places an offer for Artisan Entertainment.25 A new unit, Marvel International, was set up in London under a president, Bruno Maglione, to extend the company's operation and presence in major overseas markets in November 2003.26 In December 2003, Marvel Entertainment acquired Cover Concepts from Hearst Communications, Inc.27 In November 2004, Marvel consolidated its children's sleepwear-apparel licensing business with American Marketing Enterprises, Inc.28
In November 2004, the corporation sued South Korea-based NCSoft Corp. and San Jose, California-based Cryptic Studios Inc. over possible trademark infringement in their City of Heroes massive multiplayer online game.29 Marvel settled a film-royalties lawsuit in April 2005 with its former editor-in-chief and publisher, Stan Lee, paying him $10 million and negotiating an end to his royalties.30
In September 2005, Marvel Enterprises changed its name to Marvel Entertainment to reflect the corporation's expansion into financing its own movie slate.31
In 2007, several Stan Lee Media related groups filed lawsuits against Marvel Entertainment for $1 billion and for Lee's Marvel creations in multiple states most of which have been dismissed.32 Additionally, a lawsuit over ownership of the character Ghost Rider was filed on March 30, 2007, by Gary Friedrich and Gary Friedrich Enterprises, Inc.33
On August 31, 2009, The Walt Disney Company announced a deal to acquire Marvel Entertainment for $4.24 billion, with Marvel shareholders to receive $30 and about 0.745 Disney shares for each share of Marvel they own.34 The voting occurred on December 31, 2009 and the merger was approved.235 The acquisition of Marvel was finalized hours after the shareholder vote, therefore giving Disney full ownership of Marvel Entertainment.36 The company was delisted from the New York Stock Exchange under its ticker symbol (MVL), due to the closing of the deal.
On June 2, 2010 Marvel announced that it promoted Joe Quesada to Chief Creative Officer of Marvel Entertainment.37 In June 2010, Marvel set up a television division headed by Jeph Loeb as executive vice president.38 Three months later, Smith & Tinker licensed from Marvel the character rights for a superhero digital collectible game for Facebook and Apple's mobile platform.39 On October 1, 2010, Marvel moved its offices to a 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m2) suite at 135 W. 50th Street, New York City, New York, under a nine-year sublease contract.40
In July 2011, a U.S. District Court judge ruled that Marvel characters co-created by Jack Kirby would remain the property of Marvel.41
In March 2013, Feld Entertainment agreed with Marvel to produce a Marvel Character based live arena show. Marvel was also launching a new pop culture and lifestyle web show, “Earth’s Mightiest Show”.42
The company's operating units, as of 2012, include:
- Asgard Productions LLC (Delaware)
- Cover Concepts, Inc.
- Green Guy Toons LLC (Delaware)
- Marvel Entertainment International Limited (United Kingdom)
- Marvel Film Productions LLC (Delaware)
- Marvel Internet Productions LLC (Delaware)
- Marvel Studios (1996-) a film and television production company
- Marvel Toys Limited (Hong Kong)
- Marvel Worldwide, Inc. publisher of Marvel Comics;
- MRV, Inc. (Delaware)
- MVL International C.V. (The Netherlands)
- MVL Film Finance LLC: holder of Marvel's Movie debt and theatrical film rights to the twelve characters and supporting characters as collateral.5253
- MVL Iron Works Productions Canada, Inc. (Province of Ontario)
- MVL Incredible Productions Canada, Inc. (Province of Ontario)
- Squad Productions LLC (Delaware)54
- Intellectual property holding companies
- Iron Works Productions LLC, movie rights subsidiary
- Incredible Productions LLC (Delaware), movie rights subsidiary53
- Marvel Characters, Inc.: subsidiary holding general rights of all Marvel Comics characters
- Marvel Characters B.V. (The Netherlands)
- Marvel International Character Holdings LLC (Delaware)
- Marvel Property, Inc. (Delaware) incorporated 12/2/198655 (formerly Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc.53)
- MVL Development LLC (Delaware), rights subsidiary
- Marvel Merchandising department/Heroes World Distribution Co. (early 1970s-1975/1994-1996)
- Malibu Comics (1994–1997)
- Marvel Books division (c.1985)56
- Marvel Comics Ltd. (1972–1995; UK subsidiary)57
- Marvel Films (1993-1996) (later Marvel Studios 1996–present)
- Marvel Mania Restaurant (Marvel Restaurant Venture Corp.)
- Marvel Enterprise division
- Marvel Music Groups (1981-1989) music publishing subsidiary5859
- Marvel Productions (1981-1989)3
- Mighty Marvel Music Corporation (1981-1989) music publishing subsidiary5859
- MLG Productions (2006-2011), Marvel & Liongate's subsidiary group for Marvel Animated Features6061
- Spider-Man Merchandising, L.P. (-2011): A joint venture of Marvel and Sony Pictures Consumer Products Inc. that owns the rights to Spider-Man movie related licensed products.
- Welsh Publishing: comic book publisher
- Rick Ungar (?-November 1993)
- Avi Arad (November 1993-)62
- William Bevins Jr.63
- Scott Sassa, Chief Executive Officer & Chairman October 1996-64
- Joseph Ahearn, CEO, October 199865 - November 24, 1998 (from ToyBiz)
- Eric Ellenbogen, CEO, November 24, 199866 - ?
- F. Peter Cuneo, CEO, July 1999 - December 2002
- Allen Lipson, CEO (December 200267 - January 1, 200568)
- Office of the Chief Executive
- Isaac Perlmutter, CEO, (January 1, 200568-present)
- Executive Vice Presidents:
- Stan Lee 1972-19737273
- Al Landau 1973-1977
- Jim Galton 1975-199174
- Terry Stewart, Chief Operating Officer (COO), 199375
- Rick Ungar (?-November 1993)
- Avi Arad (November 1993-)62
- Bruce Stein (-Nov. 1994)
- William Bevins Jr. (Nov. 1994-)63
- Terry Stewart (and vice chairman) - May 199564
- Jerry Calabrese May 1995-Mid 1996 & October 1998-November 199864
- Scott C. Marden (interim) Mid 1996-September 199664
- David Schreff (Chief Operating Officer) September 1996 -64
- Joseph Calamari - October 199864
- Eric Ellenbogen November 1998 - July 199964
- F. Peter Cuneo (July 199964-February 2000)
- Bill Jemas February 200076 -200377
- See subsidiaries' articles for their executives.
- Bruno Maglione, President of Marvel International November 2003 -26
- Morton E. Handel, Chairman of the board, October 1998 – 2009
- Joe Quesada, Chief Creative Officer (2010–present)
- Raviv, Dan (April 2002). Comic Wars. Broadway Books, Random House, Heroes Books. ISBN 0-7679-0830-9. page numbers?
- Fritz, Ben (September 23, 2009). "Disney tells details of Marvel Entertainment acquisition in a regulatory filing". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- Hicks, Jonathan (November 8, 1988). "The Media Business; Marvel Comic Book Unit Being Sold for $82.5 Million". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings Inc.". International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 28. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale / St. James Press, via FundingUniverse.com. 1999. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved 2008-05-16.
- "Marvel Entertainment and Avi Arad to Develop Media Projects.". Marvel Entertainment Group press release. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Perelman to Settle Marvel Suit". The New York Times (Bloomberg News). August 7, 2008. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
- A minority of dissidents maintain no bubble existed. Rozanski, Chuck. "The Vicious Downward Spiral of the 1990s". Tales from the Database. Mile High comics. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- Lott, Jeremy (2002). "Smash! Pow! Bam!". Reason Magazine. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- Raviv, pp. 38-39
- Leonhardt, David (22 January 1996). "What Evil Lurks in the Heart of Ron?". Business Week. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
- Hass, Nancy (1996-08-11). "Marvel sets up division to put its own characters into movies". The New York Times.
- "Toy Biz, Inc. Prospectus". New York Stock Exchange. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- Roznski, Chuck. "Perelman's Team Nearly Destroyed the Entire World of Comics". Mile High Comics. Retrieved 2007-01-27.
- Miller, Matthew (2005). "Don't Mess With Me". The Forbes 400. Forbes Publishing. Retrieved 2007-01-29.
- "Marvel Entertainment Unifies Three Major Business Operations By Forming Marvel Enterprises, A New Unit". Marvel Entertainment Group press release. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Zoltak, James (March 2, 1998). "Spiderman And The Hulk Add Punch To Opening Of Marvel Mania Eatery". Amusement Business (BPI Communications Inc.). Retrieved 2011-03-18.
- Rhoades, Shirrel. Comic Books: How the Industry Works. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing. p. 204.
- "Marvel & Toy Biz Sign Letter of Intent". Marvel Entertainment Group press release. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Carole E. Handler
- Shprintz, Janet. "Spider-Man's legal web may finally be unraveled, Judge tying up Marvel's loose ends", Variety, August 19, 1998.
- Comics 2 Film
- Guardian Unlimited, Court web snares Spider-Man, April 27, 2003
- Bing, Jonathan. "Inside Move: Rights snares had Spidey suitors weaving", Variety, May 19, 2002: "Marvel lawyer Carole Handler found a legal loophole: The original sale to Cannon hadn't been registered with the U.S. Copyright Office, so rights reverted to Marvel."
- "NARCON 2011 Presentations". NARCON. Washington Aerospace Club. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
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- "Publishing Industry Soundbytes: People". The Write News. November 21, 2003. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "Marvel Acquires Cover Concepts to Extend Demographic Reach; Acquisition Extends Reach of Marvel's Publishing Operations to 30 Million Public School Children". BNet. 2003-12-18. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
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- Gardner, Eriq. "Marvel Dodges Bullet as $1 Billion Lawsuit over Stan Lee Company Is Dismissed", The Hollywood Reporter, February 9, 2011.
- "'Ghost Rider' creator sues over copyright". Reuters. 2007-04-10.
- Wilkerson, David B. "Disney to acquire Marvel Entertainment for $4B". MarketWatch.com. Retrieved 2009-08-31.
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- Disney Completes Marvel Acquisition, Fox Business, December 31, 2009
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- Kim, Susanna (8 June 8, 2013). "Captain America Comic Pitches Skin Care Products". ABC News. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
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