Mediatisation

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Mediatisation is the loss of imperial immediacy. Broadly defined it is the subsumption of one monarchy into another monarchy in such a way that the ruler of the annexed state keeps his sovereign title and, sometimes, a measure of local power. For instance: when a sovereign county is annexed to a larger realm, its reigning count might find himself subordinated to another sovereign ruler, but nevertheless remains a count of sovereign rank, if not fully sovereign in fact. His subjects owe allegiance to the higher prince through him, and so his sovereignty is said to be mediatised, that is, rendered intermediate.

The term "mediatisation" was originally applied to the reorganisation of the German states during the early 19th century, although the process had been going on since the Middle Ages. Mediatisation has occurred in a number of other countries: Italy (e.g. Orsini, Doria, Pallavicini), Russia (e.g. Sibirsky, Vorotynsky), and France (e.g. Rohan, de Bouillon and Lorraine) are notable examples.

The term is also sometimes used in reference to everything from Indian princely states to African chiefdoms.

Holy Roman Empire

Between 1803 and 1806, the vast majority of the states of the Holy Roman Empire were mediatised by Napoleon. These states lost their imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit) and became part of other states. The number of states was reduced from about three hundred to about thirty. Mediatisation went along with secularisation: the abolition of most of the ecclesiastical states.

The legal basis for mediatisation was the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, which had become necessary under pressure from France. The Treaty of the Confederation of the Rhine of 1806 continued the process of mediatisation. The constitution of the German Confederation of 1815 confirmed the mediatisation, but preserved certain rights for the mediatised princes within their former realms, now ranked as state countries, such as first instance jurisdiction, supervision of religion and foundations.

Mediatised sovereign houses rank higher than other houses of nominally equal (or higher) rank, but who never ruled a state.citation needed This division had great social significance, as mediatised princes were considered equal to royals for marriage purposes; in essence they were regarded as royalty. However, there were two types of mediatised families; old and new. Old were those who have for centuries ruled immediate imperial territories. New families were those who obtained immediate status after the end of the Middle Ages, mostly as a reward for service and loyalty to the reigning Emperor. Most of these families came from hereditary Habsburg lands and south-western Germany; originally they were mediate nobles, upgraded to immediate status. After the mediatisation, these families were officially regarded as equals to royalty; however, the reigning houses often, but not always declined to treat them as such. Emperor Franz Joseph, for example, forbade his nephew`s son, future Charles I of Austria, even to consider a possible match with a Hohenlohe princess even though the Hohenlohes were an old family who reigned for centuries prior to the mediatisation and King Frederick William III of Prussia had to marry morganatically the Countess Auguste von Harrach even though she came from a mediatised family. Thus in theory, if a scion from the most obscure mediatised family (say the child of an impoverished mediatised count) married an emperor or a king, their alliance was considered equal, not morganatic, and their children had dynastic rights. In practice, however, this never happened. The authoritative guide to the royal and noble houses of Europe, the Almanach de Gotha, has been, since the late 19th century, divided into three sections: sovereign houses, mediatised houses, and noble houses.

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