MeeGo's netbook user interface
|Company / developer||Nokia, The Linux Foundation|
|Working state||Terminated in favor of Tizen and Sailfish OS|
|Source model||Open source|
|Initial release||26 May 2010|
|Latest release||220.127.116.11 / 12 July 2012|
|Package manager||RPM Package Manager|
|Supported platforms||ARM and x86|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux kernel)|
|Default user interface||Several GUIs, see below|
|License||Various, see below|
MeeGo was a Linux-based free mobile operating system project resulting from the fusion of Intel's Moblin and Nokia's Maemo operating systems.1 Primarily targeted at mobile devices and information appliances in the consumer electronics market, MeeGo was designed to act as an operating system for hardware platforms such as netbooks, entry-level desktops, nettops, tablet computers, mobile computing and communications devices, in-vehicle infotainment devices, SmartTV / ConnectedTV, IPTV-boxes, smart phones, and other embedded systems.2 MeeGo is currently hosted by the Linux Foundation.3
The Linux Foundation canceled MeeGo in September 2011 in favor of Tizen.4 A new Finnish start-up, Jolla, picked up MeeGo’s community-driven successor Mer,5 to develop a new operating system: Sailfish OS, and launched a smartphone Jolla Phone at the end of 2013.6
- 1 History
- 2 Overview
- 3 System requirements
- 4 User interfaces
- 5 Licensing
- 6 Technical foundations
- 7 Derivatives
- 8 Release schedule
- 9 Launch
- 10 Companies supporting the project
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
MeeGo was first announced at Mobile World Congress in February 2010 by Intel and Nokia in a joint press conference. The stated aim is to merge the efforts of Intel's Moblin and Nokia's Maemo former projects into one new common project. According to Intel, MeeGo was developed because Microsoft did not offer comprehensive Windows 7 support for the Atom processor.7 Aminocom and Novell also play a large part in the MeeGo effort, working with the Linux Foundation on their build infrastructure and official MeeGo products. Amino was responsible for extending MeeGo to TV devices,8 while Novell is increasingly introducing technology that was originally developed for openSUSE, (including Open Build Service, ZYpp for package management, and other system management tools).29 In November 2010, AMD also joined the alliance of companies that were actively developing MeeGo.10
Harmattan, originally slated to become Maemo 6, is now considered to be a MeeGo instance (though not a MeeGo product), and Nokia is giving up the Maemo branding for Harmattan on the Nokia N9 and beyond (Maemo 5, aka Fremantle, and previous versions will still be referred to as Maemo).11
MeeGo is intended to run on a variety of hardware platforms including hand-helds, in-car devices, netbooks and televisions.20 All platforms share the MeeGo core, with different “User Experience” ("UX") layers for each type of device.
Within the MeeGo project there are several graphical user interfaces – internally called User Experiences ("UX").
Samsung Netbook NP-N100 use MeeGo for its operating system.23
MeeGo’s netbook version uses several Linux applications in the background, such as Evolution (Email, calendar), Empathy (instant messaging), Gwibber (microblogging), Chromium (web browser), and Banshee (multimedia player), all integrated into the graphical user interface.
The Handset UX is based on Qt, but GTK+ and Clutter will be included to provide compatibility for Moblin applications.21 To support the hundreds of Hildon-based Maemo applications, users have to install the Hildon library ported by the maemo.org community. Depending on the device, applications will be provided from either the Intel AppUp or the Nokia Ovi digital software distribution systems.24
The MeeGo Handset UX’s "Day 1" prerelease was on 30 June 2010. The preview was initially available for the Aava Mobile Intel Moorestown platform, and a ‘kickstart’ file provided for developers to build an image for the Nokia N900.2526
Since then, some information appeared on MeeGo website indicating there will be a Tablet UX part of the MeeGo project, but it is not known if this UX will be the one demonstrated by Intel. This Tablet UX will be fully free like the rest of the MeeGo project and will be coded with Qt and the MeeGo Touch Framework.27 Intel has revealed interest in combining Qt with Wayland instead of X11 in MeeGo Touch in order to utilize the latest graphics technologies supported by Linux kernel, which should improve user experiences and reduce system complexity.2829
Minimum hardware requirements are currently unknown.
The GENIVI Alliance, a consortium of several car makers and their industry partners, uses Moblin with Qt as base for its 'GENIVI 1.0 Reference Platform' for In-Vehicle Infotainment (IVI) and automotive navigation system as a uniformed mobile computing platform. Graham Smethurst of GENIVI Alliance and BMW Group announced in April 2010 the switch from Moblin to MeeGo.3132
Intel is planning on developing a version of MeeGo for IPTV set top boxes.33
The MeeGo framework consists of a wide variety of original and upstream components, all of which are licensed under licenses certified by the Free Initiative (such as the GNU General Public License). In order to allow hardware vendors to personalize their device's user experiences, the project's license policy requires that MeeGo's reference User Experience subsystems be licensed under a Permissive free software license – except for libraries that extend MeeGo API's (which were licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License to help discourage fragmentation), or applications (which can be licensed separately).34
The MeeGo Core operating system is a Linux distribution, drawing onvague Nokia’s Debian-based Maemo and Intel’s Fedora-based Moblin.35 MeeGo is one of the first Linux distributions to use the Btrfs file system as default, and uses RPM repositories.
According to the last available specification the API consists of:
- Qt 4.7 [Qt47]
- Qt Mobility 1.0 [QtMob]
- OpenGL ES 2.0 [OGLES]38
As with Moblin before, MeeGo also serves as a technology pool that software vendors can access to build their products from.
Even though MeeGo was initiated as collaboration between Nokia and Intel, the collaboration was formed when Nokia was already developing the next incarnation of its Maemo Linux distribution. As a result, the Maemo 6 base operating system was kept intact while the Handset UX was shared, with the name changed to "MeeGo/Harmattan".11
The original Mer project was a free re-implementation of Maemo, ported to the Nokia Internet Tablet N800. When MeeGo first appeared this work was discontinued and the development effort went to MeeGo.
After both Nokia and then Intel abandoned MeeGo, the Mer project was revived and continued to develop the MeeGo codebase and tools. It is now being developed in the open by a meritocratic community. Mer provides a Core capable of running various UXs developed by various other projects, and will include maintained application development APIs, such as Qt, EFL, and HTML5/WAC.
Some of the former MeeGo user interface were already ported to run on top of Mer, such as the handset reference UX, now called Nemo Mobile. There are also a couple of new tablet UXes available, such as Cordia and Plasma Active. Mer is considered to be the legitimate successor of Meego, as the other follow-up project Tizen (see below) changed the APIs fundamentally.
Sailfish OS is an operating system developed by the Finnish startup Jolla. It also incorporates Mer. After Nokia abandoned their participation in the MeeGo project, the directors and core professionals from Nokia's N9 team left the company and together formed Jolla, to bring MeeGo back into the market mainstream. This effort eventually resulted in the creation of the Sailfish OS. The Sailfish OS and the Sailfish OS SDK are based on the core and the tools of the Mer core distribution,40 which is a revival of the core of the MeeGo project41 (a meritocracy-governed and managed successor of the MeeGo OS, but without its own Graphical User Interface and system kernel). Sailfish includes a multi-tasking user interface that Jolla intends to use to differentiate its smartphones from others and as a competitive advantage against devices that run Google's Android or Apple's iOS.42 Among other things, the Sailfish OS is characterised by:
- can be used with a wide range of devices in the same way as MeeGo
- Jolla continues to use the MeeGo APIs (via Mer), which consists of:
- Qt 4.7 [Qt47]
- Qt Mobility 1.0 [QtMob]
- OpenGL ES 2.0 [OGLES]38
- updated version, like Qt 5.0 are or will be used in/via Mer core;
- an in-house Jolla GUI (successor of swipe UI) for smartphone devices;
- uses QML, Qt and HTML5;
- thanks to Mer, the core can run on various hardware like Intel, ARM and any other which has a kernel able to work with the Mer core;
- open source, except for some of Jolla's UI elements. Those interested in further development can become involved through the Mer project or the Sailfish Alliance or Jolla;
- Jolla, i.e. the Sailfish team, is an active contributor to the Mer project
Although Tizen was initially announced as a continuation of the MeeGo effort, there is little shared effort and architecture between these projects, since Tizen inherited much more from Samsung's LiMo than from MeeGo. As most of the Tizen work is happening behind closed doors and is done by Intel and Samsung engineers, the people involved in the former MeeGo open source project continued their work under Mer and projects associated with it. Because Tizen does not use the Qt framework,43 which is the core part of Meego's API (see above), Tizen cannot technically be considered to be a derivate of MeeGo.
A MeeGo-based Linux distribution with this user interface is already available from openSUSE's Goblin Team under the name Smeegol Linux, this project combines MeeGo with openSUSE to get a new netbook-designed Linux distribution. What makes Smeegol Linux unique when compared to the upstream MeeGo or openSUSE is that this distribution is at its core based on openSUSE but has the MeeGo User Experience as well as a few other changes such as adding the Mono-based Banshee media player, NetworkManager-powered network configuration, a newer version of Evolution Express, and more. Any end-users can also build their own customized Smeegol Linux OS using SUSE Studio.945
The latest version of the instant-on OS Splashtop-platform (by Splashtop Inc. which was previously named DeviceVM Inc.) is compliant with MeeGo, and future version of Splashtop will be based on MeeGo and will be available for commercial use in the first half of 2011.4950
It was announced at the Intel Developer Forum 2010 that MeeGo would follow a six-month release schedule. Version 1.0 for Atom netbooks and a code drop for the Nokia N900 became available for download as of Wednesday, 26 May 2010[update].
|Version||Kernel version||Release date||Notes||Devices supported (netbooks)||Devices supported (handsets)||Codename|
|1.0||2.6.3351||26 May 201052||Primarily a Netbook release; only a code drop was released for mobile devices (the Nokia N900).||Asus EeePC 901, 1000H, 1001P, 1005HA, 1005PE, 1008HA,X101, Eeetop ET1602, Dell mini10v, Inspiron Mini 1012, Acer Aspire One D250, AO532-21S, Revo GN40, Aspire 5740-6025, Lenovo S10, MSI U100, U130, AE1900, HP mini 210-1044, Toshiba NB302.||Nokia N900 (No handset UX).||Arlington|
|1.0.1||18.104.22.1683||July 201053||Update to MeeGo 1.0; Kernel updated to 22.214.171.124, USB device loading time improved, improved 3D performance, browser enhancements, resolved multiple e-mail client issue, enhanced netbook window manager, improved visuals, full support for GNOME proxy configuration in the media player, more control over DNS settings.53||All Netbooks supported by MeeGo 1.0; see above.||None||Boston|
|1.0.2||126.96.36.1994||9 August 201054||Update to MeeGo 1.0; X-Server Update, Connection Manager Update, Package Manager UI Update, Perl Update and several more.54||All Netbooks supported by MeeGo 1.0; see above.||None||Cupertino|
|1.0.3||188.8.131.525||10 September 201055||Update to MeeGo 1.0; several Updates, e.g. Chromium browser, Connection Manager55||All Netbooks supported by MeeGo 1.0; see above.||None||Dallas|
|1.0.4||184.108.40.2066||12 October 201056||Update to MeeGo 1.0; several security updates, better support for Lenovo S10-3, ...56||All Netbooks supported by MeeGo 1.0; see above.||None||Emeryville|
|1.0.5||Unknown56||28 November 201056||MeeGo core update.57||All Netbooks supported by MeeGo 1.0; see above.||None||Fairbanks|
|1.0.6||Unknown56||4 January 201156||MeeGo core update.58||All Netbooks supported by MeeGo 1.0; see above.||None||Georgetown|
|1.0.7||Unknown56||24 February 201156||MeeGo Netbook software update.59||All Netbooks supported by MeeGo 1.0; see above.||None||Honolulu|
|1.1||2.6.3560||28 October 201061||Touch-based devices support proposed with the Handset UX62||Unknown||Aava and Nokia N900||Irvine|
|1.1.1||2.6.3563||28 November 201063||Several Fixes and Updates63||Unknown||Aava and Nokia N900||Jefferson|
|1.1.2||2.6.3564||7 January 201164||Several security issues fixed, update syncevolution and connman64||Unknown||Knoxville|
|1.1.3||2.6.3565||24 February 201165||Fixed many important security issues, enabled all programs to access remote files over network and updated translation65||Unknown||Lakeside|
|1.1.99||2.6.3565||24 February 201165||Beta testing of MeeGo 1.2 for Nokia N900 and other handsets.66||Unknown||Mallard|
|1.2||2.6.3767||19 May 2011||Unknown||Nokia N950 (developers only) and Nokia N9||Newark|
|1.3||2.6.37||October 2011 (canceled)||Unknown||Nokia N950 (developers only) and Nokia N9||Otsego|
In February 2011, Nokia announced a partnership with Microsoft for mobile handsets68 and the departure of Nokia's MeeGo team manager Alberto Torres,69 leading to speculation as to Nokia's future participation in MeeGo development or using Windows Phone by Nokia.
In September 2011, Nokia began shipping the first MeeGo smartphone Nokia N9, ahead of the Windows Phone 7 launch expected later this year.7071 The first MeeGo-based tablet WeTab was launched in 2010 by Neofonie.
In early July 2012, Nokia's Meego development lead Sotiris Makyrgiannis and other team members left Nokia.72
|Company||Industry||Support for MeeGo||Targeted Device|
|Acer||Computer systems and Hardware||Iconia M500 tablet will run MeeGo73||Tablets and Notebooks|
|AMD||Computer systems and Hardware||Will contribute Engineering resources to the free MeeGo project74||Laptops and PCs|
|Amino||Home Entertainment||The Amino Freedom Jump and Freedom Media Centre products are based on MeeGo75||Set Top Box|
|Asus||Computer Systems and Hardware||The Asus Eee PC X101 will have a MeeGo operating system option76||Laptop|
|Asianux||Software||The MeeGo version of the Midinux 3.0 tablet is based on Asianux Linux77||Tablet|
|basysKom||Software Consulting||Is working on a MeeGo Tablet User Interface78||Tablet|
|Collabora||Software||Provide Consulting for MeeGo79||None|
|CS2C||Software||They are creating a MeeGo Tablet80||Tablet|
|DeviceVM||Computer and Software||Uses MeeGo for Splash Top PC's81||PC|
|EA Mobile||Gaming||Verbally supports MeeGo and has declared its intention to use it for future mobile games82||Tablets and smartphones|
|Gameloft||Gaming||Verbally supports MeeGo and has declared its intention to use it for future mobile games82||Tablets and smartphones|
|GENIVI Alliance||Auto||Has standardized on MeeGo for auto infotainment (IVI) system.83||IVI|
|GM||Auto||Member of the GENIVI Alliance that has standardized on MeeGo for Automobil Infotainment Systems (IVI)83||IVI|
|Hancom||Computer Software82||Plans to spread MeeGo to the Korean market||PC and Laptop|
|Igalia||Software Consulting||Development of MeeGo and Sponsor of MeeGo at the Dublin 2010 conference84||From Mobile devices to Desktop|
|Integrated Computer Solutions||Software Consulting||Develops custom software for MeeGo device suppliers.85||Embedded and Mobile devices|
|Intel||Semiconductors||Core sponsor and developer of MeeGo||Smartphones|
|Jaguar Land Rover||Auto||They plan to use MeeGo for their New car Infotainment86||IVI|
|Lanedo||Software Consulting||Software Development of MeeGo and Sponsor of MeeGo at the San Francisco 2011 conference87||Embedded device to desktops|
|Linaro||Software||Optimises MeeGo for high performance on ARM88||Mobile-devices|
|Linpus||Software OS||Created the Linpus Lite Computer with a MeeGo OS89||Laptops and netbooks|
|Mandriva||Software Industry||The Mandriva minis will run on MeeGo90||PC and laptops|
|Metasys||Computer and Software||Uses a MeeGo based operating system91||Laptop PC|
|Nokia||Telecommunications and Computer Software||Nokia had two MeeGo handsets, the N9 and N950. Abandoned MeeGo development in favor of Microsoft's Windows Phone in 2011.||Smart Phones|
|PixArt||Software Development||Provides an operating system for the Intel Atom Processor92||Desktop PCs|
|PSA Peugeot Citroen||Auto Manufacturing||They plan to use MeeGo for their New car Infotainment93||IVI|
|Red Flag||Linux OS||Plans on incorporating portions of MeeGo (the UI) into their Linux distribution.94||Tablet and IVI|
|ST-Ericsson||Wireless semiconductor||The U8500 Platform will include MeeGo95||Smart Phones|
|Tencent||Online Service Provider||Plans to work on Next gen mobile devices and apps, using MeeGo96||Smart Phones|
|TurboLinux||Linux OS||TurboLinux has expressed its support for MeeGo82||Smart Phones|
|Wind River||Mobile Software||Owned by Intel, plans on porting MeeGo to other platforms.97||Smart Phones|
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