Men who have sex with men
Men who have sex with men (abbreviated as MSM, also known as males who have sex with males) are male persons who engage in sexual activity with members of the same sex, regardless of how they identify themselves; many men choose not to (or cannot for other reasons) accept sexual identities of homosexual or bisexual.1 The term was created in the 1990s by epidemiologists in order to study the spread of disease among men who have sex with men, regardless of identity.1
- 1 As a constructed behavioral category
- 2 Prevalence
- 3 Sexual practices
- 4 Health issues
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
As a constructed behavioral category
The term MSM had been in use in public health discussions, especially in the context of HIV/AIDS, since 1990 or earlier, but the coining of the initialism by Glick et al. in 1994 "signaled the crystallization of a new concept."23 This behavioural concept comes from two distinct academic perspectives. First, it was pursued by epidemiologists seeking behavioral categories that would offer better analytical concepts for the study of disease-risk than identity-based categories (such as "gay", "bisexual", or "straight"), because a man who self-identifies as gay or bisexual is not necessarily sexually active with men, and someone who identifies as straight might be sexually active with men. Second, its usage is tied to criticism of sexual identity terms prevalent in social construction literature which typically rejected the use of identity-based concepts across cultural and historical contexts.
MSM are not limited to small, self-identified, and visible sub-populations. MSM and gay refer to different things: behaviors and social identities. MSM refers to sexual activities between men, regardless of how they identify, whereas gay can include those activities but is more broadly seen as a cultural identity. Homosexuality refers to sexual/romantic attraction between members of the same sex and may or may not include romantic relationships. Gay is a social identity and is generally the preferred social term, whereas homosexual is used in formal contexts, though the terms are not entirely interchangeable. Men who are non-heterosexual or questioning may identify with all, none, a combination of these, or one of the newer terms indicating a similar sexual, romantic, and cultural identity like bi-curious.
In their assessment of the knowledge about the sexual networks and behaviors of MSM in Asia, Dowsett, Grierson and McNally concluded that the category of MSM does not correspond to a single social identity in any of the countries they studied.4 There were no similar traits in all of the MSM population studied, other than them being males and engaging in sex with other men.
As applied to transgender individuals
The term's precise use and definition has varied with regard to transwomen, people born either biologically male or with ambiguous genitalia who self-identify as female.7 Some sources consider transwomen who have sex with men to be MSM,8 others consider transwomen "alongside" MSM,1 and others are internally inconsistent (defining transgender women to be MSM in one place but referring to "MSM and transgender" in another).9
Determining the number of men who have ever had sex with another man is difficult. Worldwide, at least 3% of men, and perhaps as high as 16% of men, have had sex at least once with a man.10 These figures include victims of sexual abuse in addition to men who regularly or voluntarily have sex with men.
In the U.S., among men aged 15 to 44, an estimated 6% have engaged in oral or anal sex with another man at some point in their lives, and about 2.9% have had at least one male partner in the previous 12 months.11
Historically, anal sex has been popularly associated with male homosexuality and MSM. However, many MSM do not engage in anal sex, and may engage in oral sex, frotting or other forms of mutual masturbation instead.12131415 Among those who do have anal sex, the insertive partner is referred to as the top or active partner. The man being penetrated is referred to as the bottom or passive partner.14 Preference for either is referred to as versatile.14 MSM may also have greater risks in that they can switch sex roles.16
Since LGBT people began to organize for their social and legal rights, access to equal health care has remained an important but often not primary issue. LGBT-specific health organizations have been formed, including charities educating on specific issues, health clinics, and even professional organizations for LGBT people and their allies. Many of them have advocated for specific changes to various governmental practices, and the ongoing effort to legalize same-sex marriage often includes examples of LGBT people unable to secure health coverage equivalent to that of their heterosexual counterparts.
Since medical literature began to describe homosexuality, it has often been approached from a view that assumed or sought to find an inherent psychopathology as the root cause. Much literature on mental health and homosexuals centered on examples of their depression, substance abuse, and suicide. Although these issues exist among non-heterosexuals, discussion about their causes shifted after homosexuality was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 1973. Instead, social ostracism, legal discrimination, internalization of negative stereotypes, and limited support structures are all indications of the issues faced by homosexuals in Western societies, which often adversely affect their mental health.17
Sexually transmitted infections
A 2007 study reported that two large population surveys found "the majority of gay men had similar numbers of unprotected sexual partners annually as straight men and women."1618 Anal sex is considered to be very risky behavior. A person who inserts his penis into an infected partner is at risk because STIs can enter through the urethra or through small cuts, abrasions, or open sores on the penis. Also, condoms are more likely to break during anal sex than during vaginal sex. Thus, even with a condom, anal sex can be risky.19
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).202122 HIV can infect anybody, regardless of sex, ethnicity, or sexual orientation.23 Worldwide, an estimated 5–10% of HIV infections are the result of men having sex with men.24 However in many developed countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and most of Western Europe, more HIV infections are transmitted by men having sex with men than by any other transmission route.23 In the United States, "men who have had sex with men since 1977 have an HIV prevalence (the total number of cases of a disease that are present in a population at a specific point in time) 60 times higher than the general population".25
In 2007, the largest estimated proportion of HIV/AIDS diagnoses among adults and adolescents in the U.S. were men who have sex with men (MSM). While this category is only 2% of the U.S. population26 they accounted for 53% of the overall diagnoses and 71% among men.27 According to a 2010 federal study, one in five men who have sex with men are HIV positive and nearly half don't realize it.28
According to a CDC study, HIV prevalence in the MSM population of the U.S. varies widely by ethnicity. "As many as 46% of black MSM have HIV" while "the HIV rate is estimated at 21% for white MSM and 17% for Hispanic MSM."293031 In the United States from 2001–2005, the highest transmission risk behaviors were sex between men (40–49% of new cases) and high risk heterosexual sex (32–35% of new cases).32 HIV infection is increasing at a rate of 12% annually among 13–24-year-old American men who have sex with men.333435 Experts attribute this to "AIDS fatigue" among younger people who have no memory of the worst phase of the epidemic in the 1980s and early 1990s, as well as "condom fatigue" among those who have grown tired of and disillusioned with the unrelenting safer sex message. The increase may also be because of new treatments.33 In developing countries, HIV infection rates have been characterized as skyrocketing among MSM.36 Studies have found that less than 5% of MSM in Africa, Asia, and Latin America have access to HIV-related health care.36
Hepatitis B is a disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of hominoidea, including humans, and causes an inflammation called hepatitis. The disease has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China.37 About a third of the world's population, more than 2 billion people, have been infected with HBV.38 Transmission of HBV results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood. Possible forms of transmission include (but are not limited to) unprotected sexual contact, blood transfusions, re-use of contaminated needles and syringes, and vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth. HBV can also be transmitted between family members within households, possibly by contact of non-intact skin or mucous membrane with secretions or saliva containing the virus.3940 However, at least 30% of reported hepatitis B cases among adults cannot be associated with an identifiable risk factor.41
Other sexually transmitted infections
MSM have an increased incidence and prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and syphilis.42 This follows an increase in Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among men who have sex with men in the U.S.43
Syphilis (caused by infection with Treponema pallidum) is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore; these occur mainly on the external genitals, or in the vagina, anus, or rectum.44 Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth.44 Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.44 In 2006, 64% of the reported cases in the United States were among men who have sex with men.44 This is consistent with a rise in the incidence of Syphilis among MSM in other developed nations, attributed by Australian and UK authors to increased rates of unprotected sex among MSM.4546
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus that most sexually active people in the U.S. will have at some time in their lives.47 It is passed on through genital contact and is also found on areas that condoms do not cover.47 Most men who get HPV of any type never develop any symptoms or health problems.47 Some types of HPV can cause genital warts, penile cancer, or anal cancer.47 MSM and men with compromised immune systems are more likely than other men to develop anal cancer.47 Men with HIV are also more likely to get severe cases of genital warts that are hard to treat.474849
Though not commonly associated as an STI, giardiasis is common among gay men,50 and it can be responsible for severe weight loss and death for individuals who have compromised immune systems, especially HIV.51
- Down-low (sexual slang)
- Prison sexuality
- MSM blood donor controversy
- Sexual orientation identity
- Terminology of homosexuality
- Women who have sex with women
- Rape of males by males
- "UNAIDS: Men who have sex with men". UNAIDS. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
- Young RM, Meyer IH (July 2005). "The trouble with "MSM" and "WSW": erasure of the sexual-minority person in public health discourse". Am J Public Health 95 (7): 1144–1149. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.046714. PMC 1449332. PMID 15961753.
- Glick M, Muzyka BC, Salkin LM, Lurie D (May 1994). "Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis: a marker for immune deterioration and a predictor for the diagnosis of AIDS". J. Periodontol. 65 (5): 393–7. PMID 7913962.
- A review of knowledge about the sexual networks and behaviors of men who have sex with men in Asia. Dowsett, Grierson and McNally.dead link
- "MSM in Africa: highly stigmatized, vulnerable and in need of urgent HIV prevention".
- "Criminalizing high-risk groups such as MSM".
- Operario D, Burton J, Underhill K, Sevelius J (January 2008). "Men who have sex with transgender women: challenges to category-based HIV prevention". AIDS Behav 12 (1): 18–26. doi:10.1007/s10461-007-9303-y. PMID 17705095.
- Greenwood, Cseneca; Mario Ruberte (April 9, 2004). "African American Community and HIV (Slide 14 mentions TG women)" (ppt). East Bay AIDS Education and Training Center. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
- Operario D, Burton J (April 2000). "HIV-related tuberculosis in a transgender network—Baltimore, Maryland, and New York City area, 1998–2000". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49 (15): 317–20. PMID 10858008.
- Between Men – HIV/STI prevention for men who have sex with men. p. 3.
- Mosher, William D.; Anjani Chandra and Jo Jones (September 15, 2005). "Sexual Behavior and Selected Health Measures: Men and Women 15–44 Years of Age, United States, 2002". Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics (362): 2. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- Dr. John Dean and Dr. David Delvin. "Anal sex". Netdoctor.co.uk. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
- "Not all gay men have anal sex". Go Ask Alice!. May 10, 1996 (Last Updated/Reviewed on June 13, 2008). Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Steven Gregory Underwood (2003). Gay men and anal eroticism: tops, bottoms, and versatiles. Psychology Press. p. 225 pages. ISBN 1-56023-375-3,. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- Joe Perez (2006). Rising Up. Lulu.com. pp. 190–192. ISBN 1-4116-9173-3,. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- Sexual Behavior Does Not Explain Varying HIV Rates Among Gay And Straight Men
- Schlager, Neil, ed. (1998). Gay & Lesbian Almanac. St. James Press. ISBN 1-55862-358-2, p. 152.
- Goodreau SM, Golden MR (October 2007). "Biological and demographic causes of high HIV and sexually transmitted disease prevalence in men who have sex with men". Sex Transm Infect 83 (6): 458–462. doi:10.1136/sti.2007.025627. PMC 2598698. PMID 17855487.
- Center for Disease Control; "Can I get HIV from anal sex?"
- Sepkowitz KA (June 2001). "AIDS—the first 20 years". N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (23): 1764–1772. doi:10.1056/NEJM200106073442306. PMID 11396444.
- Weiss RA (May 1993). "How does HIV cause AIDS?". Science 260 (5112): 1273–1279. doi:10.1126/science.8493571. PMID 8493571.
- Cecil, Russell (1988). Textbook of Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders. pp. 1523, 1799. ISBN 0-7216-1848-0.
- "2009 AIDS epidemic update". Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization. November 2009. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- Men who have sex with men, HIV and AIDS
- Consumer Affairs Branch (CBER) (2013-03-18). "Blood Donations from Men Who Have Sex with Other Men Questions and Answers". Fda.gov. Retrieved 2013-05-17.
- "Few Americans with HIV have virus under control". MSNBC.com News Services. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- "1 in 5 men who have sex with men have HIV, nearly half don't know it". USA Today. September 23, 2011. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
- HIV more prevalent among black MSM despite fewer risk behaviors
- "Explaining disparities in HIV infection among black and white men who have sex with men: a meta-analysis of HIV risk behaviors". AIDS: Official Journal of the International AIDS Society. October 2007.
- Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report Summarizes Opinion Pieces on U.S. AIDS Epidemic – The Body
- "2005 report".
- Paddock, Catharine (June 27, 2008). "HIV Rising Among Young Gay Men In The US". Medical News Today.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (June 2008). "Trends in HIV/AIDS diagnoses among men who have sex with men—33 States, 2001–2006". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57 (25): 681–6. PMID 18583954.
- "New HIV diagnoses rising in New York City among young men who have sex with men".
- "HIV rates skyrocketing among men who have sex with men".
- Williams R (2006). "Global challenges in liver disease". Hepatology 44 (3): 521–526. doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687.
- "WHO | Hepatitis B".
- Petersen NJ, Barrett DH, Bond WW, Berquist KR, Favero MS, Bender TR, Maynard JE (1976). "Hepatitis B surface antigen in saliva, impetiginous lesions, and the environment in two remote Alaskan villages". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32 (4): 572–4. PMC 170308. PMID 791124.
- "Hepatitis B – the facts".
- Shapiro CN (1993). "Epidemiology of hepatitis B". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12 (5): 433–437. doi:10.1097/00006454-199305000-00036. PMID 8392167.
- "Risky Sexual Behavior Among MSM In Europe Increasing Number Of Syphilis Cases, Health Officials Say".
- STD Surveillance 2006: Men Who Have Sex With Men, Center for Disease Control
- Syphilis & MSM (Men Who Have Sex With Men) – CDC Fact Sheet, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Christopher K Fairley, Jane S Hocking and Nicholas Medland. "Syphilis: back on the rise, but not unstoppable". Medical Journal of Australia 2005; 183 (4): 172–173
- M Hourihan, H Wheeler, R Houghton, B T Goh (2004). "Lessons from the syphilis outbreak in homosexual men in east London". Sex Transm Infect 80 (6): 509–511. doi:10.1136/sti.2004.011023. PMC 1744940. PMID 15572625
- "STD Facts – HPV and Men". Retrieved August 17, 2007.
- Frisch M, Smith E, Grulich A, Johansen C (2003). "Cancer in a population-based cohort of men and women in registered homosexual partnerships". Am. J. Epidemiol. 157 (11): 966–972. doi:10.1093/aje/kwg067. PMID 12777359. "However, the risk for invasive anal squamous carcinoma, which is believed to be caused by certain types of sexually transmitted human papilloma viruses, notably type 16, was significantly 31-fold elevated at a crude incidence of 25.6 per 100,000 person-years."
- Chin-Hong PV, Vittinghoff E, Cranston RD et al. (2005). "Age-related prevalence of anal cancer precursors in homosexual men: the EXPLORE study". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 97 (12): 896–905. doi:10.1093/jnci/dji163. PMID 15956651.
- "Factsheet - Health Protection Surveillance Centre". Ndsc.ie. Retrieved 2013-05-17.
- "Giardia in Drinking Water Giardiasis Waterborne Disease". Water-research.net. Retrieved 2013-05-17.
- Assessment of sexual health needs of males who have sex with males in Laos and Thailand. Naz Foundation International 
- Gay Guise: What to do when your client has sex with men and is not gay, 2007 July/August Psychotherapy Networker
- Boellstorff, Tom (2004). "Playing Back the Nation: Waria, Indonesian Transvestites". Cultural Anthropology (American Anthropological Association) 19.2: 159. ISSN 0886-7356. OCLC 98072867. Archived from the original on April 1, 2004
- Zhongxin, S; Farrer, J; Choi, K H (2006). "Sexual Identity Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shanghai". China Perspectives 64: 2–12. ISSN 1011-2006. OCLC 197632333. Archived from the original on March 9, 2008
- UNESCO (2006). UNESCO guidelines on language and content in HIV- and AIDS-related materials. UNESCO, Education Sector, Div. for the Coordination of UN Priorities in Education, Section on HIV and AIDS. OCLC 123125234
- CDC: HIV/AIDS among Men Who Have Sex with Men
- MSM and HIV research and needs assessments from AIDSPortal