Turkish Armed Forces
|Turkish Armed Forces
Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri
Seal of the Turkish Armed Forces
|Founded||May 3, 19201|
Branches under the Ministry of the Interior during peacetime:
|Supreme Military Commander||President Abdullah Gül|
|Minister of National Defence||İsmet Yılmaz|
|Chief of the General Staff||Necdet Özel|
|Conscription||6-12 months depending on education level|
|Active personnel||471,075 Main branches2
5,324 Coast Guard2
|Budget||$18.2 billion in 2013 (ranked 15th) 3|
|Percent of GDP||2.4% (2011)|
Gölcük Naval Shipyard
|Foreign suppliers|| United States
|Annual imports||$1,269 billion (2012)4|
|Annual exports||$1,262 billion (2012)5|
|History||Military history of Turkey|
The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. They consist of the Army, the Navy (including naval aviation and naval infantry), and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard, both of which have law enforcement and military functions, operate as components of the internal security forces in peacetime, and are subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. In wartime, they are subordinate to the Army and Navy. The President of Turkey is the military's overall head.
The current Chief of the General Staff is General Necdet Özel. The Chief of the General Staff is the Commander of the Armed Forces. In wartime, he acts as the Commander in Chief on behalf of the President of Turkey, who represents the Supreme Military Command of the TAF on behalf of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.6 Commanding the Armed Forces and establishing the policies and programs related with the preparation for combat of personnel, intelligence, operations, organization, training and logistic services are the responsibilities of the General Staff. Furthermore, the General Staff coordinates the military relations of TAF with NATO member states and other friendly nations.
After becoming a member of NATO on 18 February 1952, Turkey initiated a comprehensive modernization program for its Armed Forces. The Turkish Army sent troops to fight in Korea, where they played pivotal roles at some points. Towards the end of the 1980s, a second restructuring process was initiated. The TAF participate in European Union battlegroups under control of the European Council, as a part of the Italian-Romanian-Turkish Battlegroup, which will be on standby for duty during June–December 2010. It also contributes operational staff to the Eurocorps multinational army corps initiative of the EU and NATO.
- 1 History
- 2 Today
- 3 Role of the military in Turkish politics
- 4 Medals and awards
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
After the end of World War I, many Ottoman military personnel escaped from Rumelia to Anatolia in order to take part in the national movement. During the War of Independence, on May 3, 1920, Birinci Ferik Mustafa Fevzi Pasha (Çakmak) was appointed the Minister of National Defence, Mirliva İsmet Pasha (İnönü) was appointed the Minister of the Chief of General Staff of the government of the Grand National Assembly (GNA).1 But on 3 August 1921, the GNA resigned İsmet Pasha from the Minister of National Defence because of his failure at Eskişehir-Kütahya and on 5 August, just before the Battle of Sakarya, appointed the chairman of GNA Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Atatürk) to the commander-in-chief of the Army of the GNA. Turkey won the War of Independence in 1922.
Turkey remained neutral until the final stages of World War II. In the initial stage of World War II, Turkey signed a treaty of mutual assistance with Great Britain and France.7 But after the fall of France, the Turkish government tried to maintain an equal distance with both the Allies and the Axis. Following Germany's occupation of the Balkan states, upon which the Axis became neighbours with Turkey in Thrace and the eastern islands of the Aegean Sea, Turkey signed a Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression with Germany on June 18, 1941.
After the German-Soviet War broke out, the Turkish government sent a military delegation of observers under Lieutenant General Ali Fuat Erden to the German Eastern Front and Germany.8 After the German retreat from the Caucasus, the Turkish government got closer with the Allies and Winston Churchill secretly met with İsmet İnönü at the Yenice Train Station near Adana on 30 January 1943, with the intent of persuading Turkey to join the war on the side of the Allies. A few days before the start of Operation Zitadelle in July 1943, the Turkish government sent a military delegation under General Cemil Cahit Toydemir to Belgorod and observed the exercises of the 503rd Heavy Panzer Battalion and its equipment.9 But after the failure of Operation Zitadelle, the Turkish government participated in the Second Cairo Conference in December 1943, where Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and İsmet İnönü reached an agreement on issues regarding Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies. On 23 February 1945, Turkey joined the Allies by declaring war against Germany and Japan, after it was announced at the Yalta Conference that only the states which were formally at war with Germany and Japan by 1 March 1945 would be admitted to the United Nations.10
Turkey participated in the Korean War as a member state of the United Nations and sent the Turkish Brigade to South Korea, which suffered 731 losses in combat. On 18 February 1952, Turkey became a member of NATO.11 The Korean government donated a war memorial for the Turkish soldiers who fought and died in Korea. The Korean pagoda is in Ankara and it was donated in 1973 for the 50th anniversary of the Turkish Republic.
On 20 July 1974, the TAF launched an amphibious and airborne assault operation on Cyprus, in response to the 1974 Cypriot coup d'état which had been staged by EOKA-B and the Cypriot National Guard against president Makarios III with the intention of annexing the island to Greece; but the military intervention ended up with Turkey occupying a considerable area on the northern part of Cyprus and helping to establish a local government of Turkish Cypriots there, which has thus far been recognized only by Turkey. The intervention came after more than a decade of intercommunal violence (1963–1974) between the island's Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, resulting from the constitutional breakdown of 1963. Turkey invoked its role as a guarantor under the Treaty of Guarantee in justification for the military intervention.12 Turkish forces landed on the island in two waves, securing 37% of the island's territory in the northeast for the Turkish Cypriots, who had been isolated in small enclaves across the island prior to the military intervention.131415
In the aftermath, the Turkish Cypriots declared a separate political entity in the form of the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus in 1975; and in 1983 made a unilateral declaration of independence as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which was recognized only by Turkey. The United Nations continues to recognize the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus according to the terms of its independence in 1960. The conflict continues to overshadow Turkish relations with Greece and with the European Union. In 2004, during the referendum for the Annan Plan for Cyprus (a United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute) 76% of the Greek Cypriots rejected the proposal, while 65% of the Turkish Cypriots accepted it.
The TAF are in a protracted campaign against the PKK (recognized as a terrorist organization by the United States, the European Union and NATO)1617181920 which has involved frequent forays into neighbouring Iraq.
During the 1980s and 1990s many Kurdish rural communities were uprooted in an effort to limit the PKK's base of logistical support.21 These actions by the TAF had resulted by the mid-1990s in more than 3,000 Kurdish villages being deserted while according to official figures 378,335 Kurdish people had been displaced and rendered homeless.21
After the 2003 Istanbul Bombings were linked to Al-Qaeda, Turkey deployed troops to Afghanistan to fight Taliban forces and Al-Qaeda operatives, with the hopes of dismantling both groups. Turkey's responsibilities include providing security in Kabul (it currently leads Regional Command Capital), as well as in Wardak Province, where it leads PRT Maidan Shahr. Turkey was once the third largest contingent within the International Security Assistance Force. Turkey's troops are not engaged in combat operations and Ankara has long resisted pressure from Washington to offer more combat troops. According to the Washington Post, in December 2009, after US President Barack Obama announced he would deploy 30,000 more U.S. soldiers, and that Washington wants others to follow suit, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan reacted with the message that Turkey would not contribute additional troops to Afghanistan. "Turkey has already done what it can do by boosting its contingent of soldiers there to 1,750 from around 700 without being asked", said Erdoğan, who stressed that Turkey would continue its training of Afghan security forces.
The TAF have performed "Disaster Relief Operations," as in the 1999 İzmit earthquake in the Marmara region of Turkey. Apart from contributing to NATO, the Turkish Navy also contributes to the Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group, which was created in early 2001 by Turkey, Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia and Ukraine for search and rescue and other humanitarian operations in the Black Sea.
According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), in 2010 the Turkish Armed Forces had an active strength of around 510,000 personnel. In addition, it was estimated that there were 378,700 reserve personnel and 152,200 paramilitary personnel (Turkish Gendarmerie and Turkish Coast Guard), giving a combined active and reserve strength of around 1,041,900 personnel.22 In 2010, the defence budget amounted to 26 billion liras.23 The Law on the Court of Accounts was supposed to initiate external ex-post audits of armed forces' expenditure and pave the way for audits of extra budgetary resources earmarked for the defence sector, including the Defence Industry Support Fund.24 However, the Ministry of Defense has not provided the necessary information,25 so the armed forces expenditure is not being properly checked.
In 1998, Turkey announced a programme of modernisation worth US$160 billion over a twenty-year period in various projects including tanks, fighter jets, helicopters, submarines, warships and assault rifles.26 Turkey is a Level 3 contributor to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) programme.27 The final goal of Turkey is to produce new-generation indigenous military equipment and to become increasingly self-sufficient in terms of military technologies.
Havelsan of Turkey and Boeing of the United States are in the process of developing a next-generation, high-altitude ballistic missile defence shield. Turkey has chosen the Chinese defense firm CPMIEC to co-produce a $4 billion long-range air and missile system.
The General Staff of the Republic of Turkey presides over the Armed Forces of the Republic of Turkey, comprising the Army, Navy and Air Force. The General Command of the Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard, which operate as parts of the internal security forces in peacetime, are subordinate to the Army and Navy Commands, respectively, in wartime, and both have law enforcement and military functions.
Also the General Staff is in command of the Special Forces Command, as it not aligned to any force command in TSK. The Maroon Berets get orders directly from General Staff of the Republic of Turkey.28
The Turkish Land Forces can trace its origins from remnants of Ottoman forces during the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I. When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues formed the Grand National Assembly (GNA) in Ankara on April 23, 1920, the Kâzım Karabekir's XV Corps was the only corps which had any combat value.29 On November 8, 1920, the GNA decided to establish a standing army (Düzenli ordu) instead of irregular troops (the Kuva-yi Milliye, Kuva-yi Seyyare, etc.)30 The army of the government of the GNA won the Turkish War of Independence in 1922.
As of 2006, the Turkish Army had 1,300 troops deployed in northern Iraq, according to documents released as part of the United States diplomatic cables leak.31 The Turkish Army also maintains around 17,500 troops in Northern Cyprus, as part of the Cyprus Turkish Peace Force (Kıbrıs Türk Barış Kuvvetleri, or KTBK.)32
The Turkish Naval Forces is the naval warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Force. The Turkish Navy maintains several Marines and Special Operations units. The Amphibious Marines Brigade (Amfibi Deniz Piyade Tugayı) based in Foça near İzmir consists of 4,500 men, three amphibious battalions, an MBT battalion, an artillery battalion, a support battalion and other company-sized units.33 The Su Altı Taarruz (S.A.T. - Underwater Attack) is dedicated to missions including the acquisition of military intelligence, amphibious assault, counter-terrorism and VIP protection; while the Su Altı Savunma (S.A.S. - Underwater Defense) is dedicated to coastal defense operations (such as clearing mines or unexploded torpedoes) and disabling enemy vessels or weapons with underwater operations; as well as counter-terrorism and VIP protection missions.33
The Turkish Air Force is the aerial warfare and youngest service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. It is primarily responsible for the protection and sovereignty of Turkish airspace but also provides air-power to the other service branches. Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands.34 A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force in case of a nuclear conflict, but their use requires the approval of NATO.35
The Air Force took part in the Operation Deliberate Force of 1995 and Operation Allied Force of 1999, and later participated in the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina, employing two squadrons (one in the Ghedi fighter wing, and after 2000 one in the Aviano fighter wing.)36 They returned to Turkey in 2001. In 2006, 4 Turkish F-16 fighter jets were deployed for NATO's Baltic Air Policing operation.
The Turkish Coast Guard is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces and was established in 1859. Affiliated with the Guarding Administration (Ottoman Turkish: Muhafaza Memurluğu), the Coast Guard is responsible for controlling the maritime jurisdiction areas and coasts of Turkiye and fighting all kind of illegal action in the responsibility area. Turkish Coast Guard is also the main Search and Rescue Coordination Authority in Turkish SAR Zone. During peacetime, it is under the command of the Turkish Interior Ministry. However, during emergency and war time it falls under the command of the Turkish Navy.
The Turkish Gendarmerie is responsible for maintaining law and order in rural areas which do not fall under the jurisdiction of regular police forces. The Gendarmerie has around 200,000 active personnel. The Jandarma Özel Harekat (Gendarmerie Special Operations Command) units of the Turkish Gendarmerie are trained for riot control, urban warfare and counter-terrorism warfare. The Turkish Coast Guard is responsible for maintaining law and order in the Turkish territorial waters. It has around 2,200 active personnel. It is responsible to the Interior Ministry during peace time. In peacetime, the Grendarmerie and the Coast Guard fall under the control of the Ministry of the Interior, not the Turkish Armed Forces.
After the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk prohibited the political activities of officers in active service with the Military Penal Code numbered 1632 and dated 22 May 1930 (Askeri Ceza Kanunu).37 However, after the coups d'état in 1960, the Millî Birlik Komitesi (National Unity Committee) established the Inner Service Act of the Turkish Armed Forces (Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri İç Hizmet Kanunu) on 4 January 1961 to legitimize their military interventions in politics. In subsequent coup d'états and coup d'état attempts, they show reasons to justify their political activities especially with the article 35 and 85 of this act.38
The Turkish military perceived itself as the guardian of Kemalist ideology, the official state ideology, especially of the secular aspects of Kemalism. The TAF still maintains an important degree of influence over the decision making process regarding issues related to Turkish national security, albeit decreased in the past decades, via the National Security Council.
The military had a record of intervening in politics, removing elected governments four times in the past. Indeed, it assumed power for several periods in the latter half of the 20th century. It executed coups d'état in 1960 (27 May Coup), in 1971 (12 March Coup), and in 1980 (12 September Coup). Most recently, it maneuvered the removal of an Islamic-oriented prime minister, Necmettin Erbakan in 1997 (28 February Process).39 The military executed the first democratically elected prime minister Adnan Menderes.40
On April 27, 2007, in advance of the November 4, 2007 presidential election, and in reaction to the politics of Abdullah Gül, who has a past record of involvement in Islamist political movements and banned Islamist parties such as the Welfare Party, the army issued a statement of its interests. It said that the army is a party to "arguments" regarding secularism; that Islamism ran counter to the secular nature of Turkey, and to the legacy of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The Army's statement ended with a clear warning that the TAF stood ready to intervene if the secular nature of the Turkish Constitution is compromised, stating that "the Turkish Armed Forces maintain their sound determination to carry out their duties stemming from laws to protect the unchangeable characteristics of the Republic of Turkey. Their loyalty to this determination is absolute."41
Contrary to outsider expectations, the Turkish populace was not uniformly averse to coups; many welcomed the ejection of governments they perceived as unconstitutional.42 Members of the military must also comply with the traditions of secularism, according to the US Commission on International Religious Freedom report in 2008, members who performed prayers or had wives who wore the headscarf, have been charged with “lack of discipline”.43
Paradoxically, the military was an important force in Turkey’s Westernization but now represents an obstacle to Turkey’s desire to join the EU. Most surveys show trust in the military declining - from an average 90% in 2002 to 60% in 2011.40
Over a hundred people, including several generals, have been detained or questioned since July 2008 with respect to so-called organisation Ergenekon, an alleged clandestine, ultra-nationalist44 organization with ties to members of the country's military and security forces.45 The group is accused of terrorism in Turkey. These accusing claims are reported, even while the trials are going on, mostly in the counter-secular and Islamist media organs.
On 22 February 2010 more than 40 officers were arrested and then formally charged with attempting to overthrow the government with respect to so-called "Sledgehammer" plot. They include four admirals, a general and two colonels, some of them retired, including former commanders of the Turkish navy and air force (three days later, the former commanders of the navy and air force were released). Partially as a result, the Washington Post reported in April 2010 that the military's power had decreased.46
On the eve of the Supreme Military Council of August 2011, the Chief of Staff, along with the Army, Navy, and Air Force commanders, requested their retirement. Appointment of the force commanders in the Supreme Military Council meeting without any delay affirmed the government's control over the appointment of top-level commanders. However, promotions continue to be determined by the General Staff with limited civilian control. The European Commission, in its 2011 regular yearly report on Turkey's progress towards EU accession, said that '..Further reforms on the composition and powers of the Supreme Military Council, particularly on the legal basis of promotions, still need to materialise.'47 The service branch commanders continue to report to the Prime Minister instead of the Defence Minister. Following the crisis, Eric Edelman, a former American ambassador to Turkey and number two at the Pentagon under George W. Bush, described the TAF as "a broken and rudderless institution".48
- Turkish Armed Forces Medal of Honor
- Turkish Armed Forces Medal of Distinguished Service
- Turkish Armed Forces Medal of Distinguished Courage and Self-Sacrifice
- Turkish Armed Forces Medal of Bravery and Valour
- Turkish Armed Forces State Medal of Honor
- Village guard system
- Conscription in Turkey
- List of Chiefs of the Turkish General Staff
- Military equipment of Turkey
- Harp Akademileri Komutanlığı, Harp Akademilerinin 120 Yılı, İstanbul, 1968, p. 26, 46.
- "TSK Mevcut Personel Sayısını açıkladı". Turkish Armed Forces. Aktif Haber. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- SIPRI Yearbook 2013 - 15 countries with the highest military expenditure in 2012
- "TIV of arms imports to Turkey, 2008-2009". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "SSM Performance Report". Undersecretariat for Defense Industries. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Federal Research Division, Turkey: A Country Study, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-1-4191-9126-8, p. 337.
- See Murat Metin Hakki, SURVIVING THE PRESSURE OF THE SUPERPOWERS: AN ANALYSIS OF TURKISH NEUTRALITY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR, Chronicon 3 (1999 - 2007) 44 – 62, Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Harvard University, www.ucc.ie/chronicon/3/hakkfra.html, ISSN 1393-5259
- Hüseyin Hüsnü Emir Erkilet, Şark cephesinde gördüklerim, Hilmi Kitabevi, 1943.
- Johannes Glasneck, Inge Kircheisen, Türkei und Afghanistan, Dt. V. d. Wissenschaften, 1968, p. 139.
- Mustafa Aydın, SAM, "Turkish Foreign Policy: Framework and Analysis", Center for Strategic Research, 2004, p. 47.
- For some of the NATO command structure discussions re entry of Turkey, see Sean Maloney, Securing Command of the Sea, Masters' thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1992
- How Did the Situation Change after July 1974 ?, Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Welz, Gisela. Divided Cyprus: Modernity, History, and an Island in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-253-21851-9.
- Carpenter, Ted Galen (2000). NATO's Empty Victory: A Postmortem on the Balkan War. Washington, D.C: Cato Institute. p. 36. ISBN 1-882577-85-X.
- Carpenter, Ted Galen (2002). Peace and Freedom: Foreign Policy for a Constitutional Republic. Washington, D.C: Cato Institute. p. 187. ISBN 1-930865-34-1.
- Home >> World UPDATED: 10:30, December 20, 2005 NATO chief declares PKK terrorist group
- The EU's list of terrorist groups
- Council Decision 2011/70/CFSP of 31 January 2011 updating the list of persons, groups and entities subject to Articles 2, 3 and 4 of Common Position 2001/931/CFSP on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism - Official Journal L 028 , 02/02/2011 P. 0057 - 0059
- "NATO chief declares PKK terrorist group". Xinhua. 2005-12-20.
- European Union List of Terrorist Organisations, Council of the european union, updated Council Decision 2011/70/CFSP of 31 January 2011
- "Still critical". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2009-01-11. "The Security forces have been accused by some circles as having forcibly displaced Kurdish rural communities during the 1980s and 1990s in order to combat the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) who use the region as a base for attacks on Turkish territory insurgency, which drew its membership and logistical support from the local impoverished population. Accusations of indiscriminatory use of force followed, asserting that the Turkish security forces had failed to distinguish between the armed terrorists and the local civilian financial support...The operations were marked by scores of “disappearances” and extrajudicial executions. By the mid-1990s, more than 3,000 villages had been virtually wiped from the map, and, according to official figures, 378,335 Kurdish villagers had been displaced and left homeless"
- IISS 2010, pp. 164–168
- "SIPRI Publications". Milexdata.sipri.org. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- "Lack of comprehensive audits casts shadow over security spending". Zaman.
- Economist Intelligence Unit:Turkey, p.22 (2005)
- US Department of Defense (2002-07-11). "DoD, Turkey sign Joint Strike Fighter Agreement". US Department of Defense. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
- Onlar TSK'nın bel kemiği - Sabah - HaberPlus - Gündem - 09 Aralık 2013. Sabah (2011-10-26). Retrieved on 2013-12-09.
- Sina Akşin, Essays in Ottoman-Turkish Political History, Isis Press, 2000, p. 44.
- Suat İlhan, Atatürk ve Askerlik: Düşünce ve Uygulamaları, Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi, 1990, p. 88. (Turkish)
- "paragraph 10". Wikileaks.ch. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- U.S. Library of Congress: "Cyprus: Forces in the Turkish-Administered Area"
- Ray Bonds, David Miller, Illustrated Directory of Special Forces, Zenith Imprint, 2003, p. 99.
- Der Spiegel: Foreign Minister Wants US Nukes out of Germany (2009-04-10)
- NRDC: U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe • Hans M. Kristensen / Natural Resources Defense Council, 2005.
- 1980-today in the official website of the Turkish Air Force
- Askeri Ceza Kanunu, Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Turkey, 22 May 1930.
- Fikret Bila, "Çare ihtilal değil, komutanın konuşması", Milliyet, 4 Oct. 2007.
- "The World Factbook - Turkey". Central Intelligence Agency.
- Tuysuz, Gul; Tavernise, Sabrina (2011-07-29). "Top Generals Quit in Group, Stunning Turks". New York Times., July 29, 2011, New York Times.
- "Excerpts of Turkish army statement". BBC News. 2007-04-28. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
- Lt. Col. Patrick F. Gillis (2004-05-03). "U.S.-Turkish Relations: The Road to Improving a Troubled Strategic Partnership". U.S. Army War College. p. 4. "In all of these 'coups' the majority of the Turkish public accepted the military’s actions because they felt they were necessary for the well being of the state and because the military did not seek to impose permanent military governance"
- Other countries under review: kazakhstan, malaysia, and turkey United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. 2008. Retrieved on 2009-05-02.
- "State connections to murder of journalist Hrant Dink being ignored, warns BIANET, IPS Communication Foundation (BIANET), 2008". Ifex.org. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- Acar, Erkan (2008-09-06). "Ergenekon has links to security and judiciary bodies". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2008-09-06.dead link
- Zacharia, Janine (2010-04-11). "In Turkey, military's power over secular democracy slips". The Washington Post.
- page 14
- "Turkey’s army: At ease". The Economist. 2011-08-06. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) (2010-02-03). The Military Balance 2010. London: Routledge. ISBN 1-85743-557-5.
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- Birler, Hayri (1997-02-07). "The Coup Primer". Turkish Daily News. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
- Gareth Jenkins, 'Power and unaccountability in the Turkish security forces,' Conflict, Security, and Development, Volume 1, Issue 1.