Ministry of Education (Peru)

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Constitution

The Ministry of Education in Peru was created on February 4, 1837, in times of fervor caudillista and republican agitation of a country that arises to the independent life, don Andrés de Santa Cruz, Captain general and President of Bolivia, Big Pacifying Marshall of Peru, Supreme Protector of the States South and Nor Peruanos decides to create a Department with the title of Department of Public Instruction, Charity and Ecclesiastic Business.

The promulgation of the Decree

Considering:

  • I. That, for the biggest advance of the public education, to which the Government contracts the most scrupulous attention, his most determined protection, it is convenient to separate the business belonging to this branch, of which they get out of debt for the Department of the Interior.
  • The II. That for the homogeneity of this branch of the administration with the ecclesiastic business and the relative ones to the Charity, it would be suitable to assemble the three in a Department exclusively destined for his office.

It delivered a judgment:

  • Art. 1.-creates to Himself a Department with the title of Department of public Instruction, Charity and Ecclesiastic Business, for which there will serve themselves all the matters relative to these three ramifications.
  • Art. 2.-There Will be in this Department an official 1ero., the 2nd one. and one 3ero. That runs with the file and a doorman. Two of them will be extracted of the Department of the Interior and they all will enjoy equal salary that the employees in this one of the same class.
  • Art.3. - The Minister of State of the office of the Interior remains entrusted of the execution of this decree, and of ordering it to print, to publish and to circulate.

Given in the Palace protectoral of Lima, on February 4, 1837. Signed by Andrés Santa Cruz by order of S.E. José Maria Galdiano ". (It is a faithful copy of the original one that Nro appears in the " ECHO OF THE PROTECTORATE ". 50).

The Department originally called of Public Instruction, Charity and Ecclesiastic Business, is provided proudly with three employees. On the following day the chart increased with the appointment of the first Minister of the Sector, the Presbítero doctor Manuel Gaspar de Villarán and Loli. On having divided equally the 19th century, General Castilla promulgates the first Regulation of Education, which establishes the separation between public and private education, at the same time the school Guadalupe is declared National school and the professorship as public career is established.

Some additional milestones

  • Don Mariano Ignacio Prado in 1866 regulates the Higher education and Sunday free schools are established.
  • With Don José Balta in 1870, free schools settle in the capitals of districts.
  • With Manuel Pardo in 1872 and from now on, big impulse happens to the education, creating to him the Schools of Agriculture, Engineering, Industry and Fine arts.
  • Later, Mariano Ignacio Prado in 1876-1877 organizes the Normal School of Women and that of Males.
  • On having begun this century with Eduardo López de Romaña, the Organic Law of Public Instruction happens, including the Top Council of Instruction and the first Fiscal Schools are established.
  • During the successive governments, the legislation of the sector education suffers many transformations. This way, for example, in 1907, during the Government of Brown and Barreda, the Secondary Instruction is established in five years.
  • In 1935, Justice and Worship come undone of the Department of Education (Oscar R. Benavides).
  • In 1941, it is established the Day of the Teacher under the government of Manuel Prado y Ugarteche.
  • With Manuel Odría between the year 1948 and 1953, he constructs himself the building of the University Park, creates to him the system of Palms Magisteriales, and many schools and school units are constructed for men and women, as well as four military schools.
  • In the decade of the 70s, one tests a complex and ambitious project of reform that gives birth to a leafy normatividad. Big impulse happens to the Initial Education and from the 80s, also to the development of the Higher education.
  • From 1980 to 1985, there is established the so-called quinquennium of the education (the second Government of Belaúnde Terry. From 1990, there happens a new Law of the Professorship and his Regulation.
  • In 1991, when he declares himself in reorganization to all the entities of the Public Sector, there begins the rationalization of the teaching and administrative personnel of the Department
  • In 1992, there is transferred the National Institute of Educational Infrastructure (INIED) to the Department of the Presidency. There is promulgated the new Organic Law of the Department of Education, the Law of Communal Participation in the Management and Educational Administration, and the Law of Improvement of the Quality and Enlargement of the Coverage of the Peruvian Education.
  • In 1993, there are promulgated a new regulation of Organization and Functions of the Department, and the rationalization becomes effective with the cessation of workpeople of the sector, for reorganization. From then the Peruvian education has experienced big changes and enormous progresses as for infrastructure and quality, although it is still great what stays for advancing.

In the Trajectory of the Department of Education there was, for diverse political and economic circumstances, both, gaps and moments of big stellar sheen and the out-standing ministers. For example, when he was the Minister Agustín Guillermo Charún (1839), Don Benito Lazo, the doctor Manuel Pérez de Tudela in 1845, the latter author of the Record of the Independence. In 1851, during the Government of Echenique Don Bartolomé Blacksmith he was nominated an Education Secretary, and in 1867 Don Simeón Tejada was named by Don Mariano Ignacio Prado.

Ministers of education

Minister Party Start President
Ernesto Montagne Markholz General EP September 12, 1935 Óscar R. Benavides
Óscar Arrús April 19, 1939
Pedro M. Oliveira December 8, 1939 Manuel Prado Ugarteche
Mariano Lino Cornejo April 28, 1943
Enrique Laroza 1943
Jorge Basadre Grohmann Independiente July 28, 1945 José L. Bustamante y Rivero
Luis E. Valcárcel October 7, 1945
Cristóbal de Losada y Puga January 11, 1947
Óscar Torres M. October 30, 1947
Honorio Delgado Espinoza June 17, 1948
Juan Mendoza Rodríguez General EP November 1, 1948 Manuel A. Odría (Ochenio)
Alfonso Balaguer Regalado Capitán de Navío (r) December 18, 1952
Carlos González Iglesias January 29, 1954
Carlos Rodríguez Pastor September 15, 1955
Mariano Iberico Rodríguez December 2, 1955
Juan Mendoza Rodríguez General EP December 24, 1955
Jorge Basadre Grohmann Independiente July 28, 1956 Manuel Prado Ugarteche
Enrique Labarthe 1957
Jorge Basadre Grohmann 1958
Ulises Montoya N. 1958
Emilio Romero Padilla October 17, 1958
José Rubio Rolando July 26, 1959
Alfredo Parra Carreño June 6, 1960
Alfonso Villanueva Pinillas May 2, 1961
Darío Acevedo Criado November 19, 1961
Franklin Pease Olivera Vicealmirante AP July 18, 1962 Junta Militar de Gobierno
Francisco Miró Quesada Cantuarias Acción Popular July 28, 1963 Fernando Belaunde Terry
Ernesto Montagne Sánchez General EP October 3, 1964
Carlos Cueto Fernandini Acción Popular July 30, 1965
José Navarro Grau Acción Popular September 15, 1965
Carlos Cueto Fernandini Acción Popular 15 de abril de 1966
Enrique Tola Mendoza Acción Popular 27 de enero de 1967
Octavio Mongrut Muñoz Acción Popular 6 de septiembre de 1967
José Jiménez Borja Acción Popular 1 de junio de 1968
Augusto Tamayo Vargas 2 de octubre de 1968
Alfredo Arrisueño Cornejo General EP 3 de octubre de 1968 Juan Velasco Alvarado
Alfredo Carpio Becerra General EP 27 de abril de 1971
Ramón Humberto Miranda Ampuero General EP 1 de febrero de 1975
Otto Eléspuru Revoredo General EP 1 de enero de 1977 Francisco Morales Bermúdez
José Francisco Guabloche Rodríguez General EP 16 de septiembre de 1978
Luis Felipe Alarco Larraburre Acción Popular 28 de julio de 1980 Fernando Belaunde Terry
José Benavides Muñoz Acción Popular 4 de febrero de 1981
Patricio Ricketts Rey de Castro 15 de agosto de 1983
Valentín Paniagua Acción Popular 10 de abril de 1984
Andrés Cardó Franco Acción Popular 12 de octubre de 1984
Grover Pango Vildoso Partido Aprista 28 de julio de 1985 Alan García
Mercedes Cabanillas Partido Aprista 29 de junio de 1987
Efraín Orbegozo Partido Aprista 28 de agosto de 1988
Mercedes Cabanillas Partido Aprista 9 de mayo de 1990
Gloria Helfer Palacios Izquierda Unida 28 de julio de 1990 Alberto Fujimori
Óscar de la Puente Raygada 12 de diciembre de 1990
Augusto Antoniolli Vásquez 7 de noviembre de 1991
Alberto Varillas Montenegro 9 de mayo de 1991
Raúl Vittor Alfaro 19 de agosto de 1993
Jorge Trelles Montero 18 de febrero de 1994
Pedro Villena Hidalgo 13 de octubre de 1994
Dante Córdova Blanco 8 de junio de 1995
Domingo Palermo Cabrejos 11 de abril de 1996
Felipe Ignacio García Escudero 6 de enero de 1999
Federico Salas Guevara Schultz 29 de julio del 2000
Marcial Rubio Correa 25 de noviembre de 2000 Valentín Paniagua
Nicolás Lynch Gamero Independiente 28 de julio de 2001 Alejandro Toledo
Gerardo Ayzanoa del Carpio Perú Posible 21 de julio de 2002
Carlos Malpica Faustor Independiente 28 de junio de 2003
Javier Sota Nadal 16 de febrero de 2004
José Antonio Chang Escobedo Partido Aprista 28 de julio de 2006 Alan García
Víctor Raúl Díaz Chávez Partido Aprista 19 de marzo de 2011
Patricia Salas O'Brien 28 de julio de 2011 Ollanta Humala







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