|Part of a series on|
Misandry // is the hatred or dislike of boys and/or men.12 Misandry can be manifested in numerous ways that have their parallel in misogyny including sexual discrimination, denigration of men, violence against men, and sexual objectification of men. Warren Farrell has written of how men are uniquely marginalized in what he calls their 'disposability', the manner in which the most dangerous of societies' jobs throughout history, particularly soldiering, have been left for men to perform. The female counterpart of misandry is misogyny, the hatred or dislike of women; the antonym of misandry is philandry, the love or fondness of men.
The word Misandry can be traced back to at least 1871, when it was used in The Spectator magazine.3 It appeared in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.) in 1952. Misandry is formed from the Greek misos (μῖσος, "hatred") and anēr, andros (ἀνήρ, gen. ἀνδρός; "man").4
The most significant point of contact, however, between Eteocles and the suppliant Danaids is, in fact, their extreme positions with regard to the opposite sex: the misogyny of Eteocles' outburst against all women of whatever variety (Se. 181-202) has its counterpart in the seeming misandry of the Danaids, who although opposed to their Egyptian cousins in particular (marriage with them is incestuous, they are violent men) often extend their objections to include the race of males as a whole and view their cause as a passionate contest between the sexes (cf. Su. 29, 393, 487, 818, 951).5
In his book, Gender and Judaism: The Transformation of Tradition, Harry Brod, a Professor of Philosophy and Humanities in the Department of Philosophy and Religion at the University of Northern Iowa, writes:
In the introduction to The Great Comic Book Heroes, Jules Feiffer writes that this is Superman's joke on the rest of us. Clark is Superman's vision of what other men are really like. We are scared, incompetent, and powerless, particularly around women. Though Feiffer took the joke good-naturedly, a more cynical response would see here the Kryptonian's misanthropy, his misandry embodied in Clark and his misogyny in his wish that Lois be enamored of Clark (much like Oberon takes out hostility toward Titania by having her fall in love with an ass in Shakespeare's Midsummer-Night's Dream).6
Writer Warren Farrell compared the dehumanizing stereotyping of men to the dehumanization of American slaves, stating that the male role in most traditional societies is similar to the role of the second class slave, while the female role is similar to the first class slave. The second class slave would labor outside, while the first class slave worked in the home.8
In the past quarter century, we exposed biases against other races and called it racism, and we exposed biases against women and called it sexism. Biases against men we call humor.—Warren Farrell, Women Can't Hear What Men Don't Say
Religious Studies professors Paul Nathanson and Katherine Young made similar comparisons in their 2001, three-book series Beyond the Fall of Man,9 which treats misandry as a form of prejudice and discrimination that has become institutionalized in North American society.
In the 2007 book International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities, Marc A. Ouellette directly contrasted misandry and misogyny, arguing that "misandry lacks the systemic, transhistoric, institutionalized, and legislated antipathy of misogyny."10 Anthropologist David D. Gilmore argues that while misogyny is a "near-universal phenomenon" there is no male equivalent to misogyny. He writes:
Man hating among women has no popular name because it has never (at least not until recently) achieved apotheosis as a social fact, that is, it has never been ratified into public, culturally recognized and approved institutions (...) As a cultural institution, misogyny therefore seems to stand alone as a gender-based phobia, unreciprocated.11
Gilmore also states that neologisms like misandry refer "not to the hatred of men as men, but to the hatred of men's traditional male role" and a "culture of machismo". Therefore, he argues, misandry is "different from the intensely ad feminam aspect of misogyny that targets women no matter what they believe or do".11
Academic Alice Echols, in her 1989 book Daring To Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975, argued that radical feminist Valerie Solanas, best known for her attempted murder of Andy Warhol in 1968, displayed an extreme level of misandry compared to other radical feminists of the time in her tract, The SCUM Manifesto. Echols stated,
Solanas's unabashed misandry—especially her belief in men's biological inferiority—her endorsement of relationships between 'independent women,' and her dismissal of sex as 'the refuge of the mindless' contravened the sort of radical feminism which prevailed in most women's groups across the country.12
Paul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young argued that "ideological feminism" has imposed misandry on culture.15 Their 2001 book, Spreading Misandry, analyzed "pop cultural artifacts and productions from the 1990s" from movies to greeting cards for what they considered to be pervasive messages of hatred toward men. Legalizing Misandry (2005), the second in the series, gave similar attention to laws in North America.
In 2002, pundit Charlotte Hays wrote "that the anti-male philosophy of radical feminism has filtered into the culture at large is incontestable; indeed, this attitude has become so pervasive that we hardly notice it any longer".16
Sociologist Anthony Synnott argues that the reality of misandry is undeniable when one looks to cultural, academic, and media depictions of men. He states that "misandry is everywhere, culturally acceptable, even normative, largely invisible, taught directly and indirectly by men and women, blind to reality, very damaging and dangerous to men and women in different ways and de-humanizing."17 He also criticizes modern scholarship on men as "dehumanizing" and lacking in awareness of statistical reality.
Wendy McElroy, an individualist feminist,18 wrote in 2001 that some feminists "have redefined the view of the movement of the opposite sex" as "a hot anger toward men seems to have turned into a cold hatred."19 She argued it was a misandrist position to consider men, as a class, to be irreformable or rapists. McElroy stated "a new ideology has come to the forefront... radical or gender, feminism," one that has "joined hands with [the] political correctness movement that condemns the panorama of western civilization as sexist and racist: the product of 'dead white males'."20
- Boys are stupid, throw rocks at them! controversy
- Female chauvinism
- Men's movement
- Men's rights
- Violence against men
- Women's studies
- Review of novel "Blanche Seymour", The Spectator, London, Apr. 1, 1871, p. 389]
- Oxford Dictionaries http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/misandry
- Zeitlin, Froma I. (April 1, 1990). Patterns of Gender in Aeschylean Drama: Seven against Thebes and the Danaid Trilogy (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-21. Princeton University, paper given at the Department of Classics, University of California, Berkeley
- Gender and Judaism: The Transformation of Tradition, Harry Brod
- Emphasis added. Julie M. Thompson, Mommy Queerest: Contemporary Rhetorics of Lesbian Maternal Identity, (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002).
- Warren Farrell "The Myth of Male Power," Berkeley Publishing Group, 1996.
- (Nathanson & Young 2001, pp. 4–6) "The same problem that long prevented mutual respect between Jews and Christians, the teaching of contempt, now prevents mutual respect between men and women."
- Flood, Michael, ed. (2007-07-18). International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities. et al. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-33343-1.
- Gilmore, David G. Misogyny: The Male Malady. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009, pp. 10–13, ISBN 978-0-8122-1770-4.
- Echols, Nicole. Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989, pp. 104-105, ISBN 978-0-8166-1786-9.
- Castro, Ginette. "American Feminism: A Contemporary History". New York: New York University Press, 1990, p. 73, ISBN 978-0-8147-1435-5.
- Smith, Patricia Juliana. The Queer Sixties. New York: Routledge, 1999, p. 68, ISBN 978-0-415-92168-8.
- (Nathanson & Young 2001, p. xiv) "[ideological feminism,] one form of feminism—one that has had a great deal of influence, whether directly or indirectly, on both popular culture and elite culture—is profoundly misandric".
- Hays, Charlotte. 'The Worse Half.' National Review 11 March 2002.
- Why Some People Have Issues With Men: Misandry, Psychology Today, October 6, 2010
- The Independent Institute
- (McElroy 2001, p. 5)
- (McElroy 2001, pp. 4–6)
- Benatar, D. (2012), The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys, Malden; Wiley-Blackwell.
- Hooks, Bell., (2005), The Will To Change: Men, Masculinity and Love, New York; Washington Square Press.
- Sommers, Christina Hoff (1995) [First published 1994]. Who Stole Feminism? How Women Have Betrayed Women. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80156-6.
- Farrell, Warren (2001) [First published 1993]. The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex. Berkley Trade. ISBN 0-425-18144-8.
- Ferguson, Frances; Bloch, R. Howard (1989). Misogyny, Misandry, and Misanthropy. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06546-8.
- Levine, Judith (1992). My Enemy, My Love: Man-Hating and Ambivalence in Women's Lives. Da Capo Press. ISBN 1-56025-568-4.
- McElroy, Wendy (2001). Sexual Correctness: The Gender-Feminist Attack on Women. Harper Paperbacks. New York: McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-1144-9.
- Synnott, Anthony (2009), Re-Thinking Men: Heroes, Villains and Victims, Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 1409491951.
- Nathanson, Paul; Young, Katherine R. (2001). Spreading Misandry: The Teaching of Contempt for Men in Popular Culture. Harper Paperbacks. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-3099-1.
- Nathanson, Paul; Young, Katherine R. (2006). Legalizing Misandry: From Public Shame to Systemic Discrimination Against Men. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2862-8.
- Schwartz, Howard (2003). The Revolt of the Primitive: An Inquiry into the Roots of Political Correctness (Revised ed.). Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-7658-0537-5.
- Bailée, Susan; Sommers, Christina Hoff (2001). "Misandry in the Classroom". The Hudson Review (The Hudson Review, Inc.) 54 (1): 148–54. doi:10.2307/3852834. JSTOR 3852834. "My rough-and-tumble first grader, Mark, came home from school yesterday and nonchalantly told me a story about his day that set me shivering"
- Leader, Richard (2007). "Misandry: From the Dictionary of Fools". Adonis Mirror. Retrieved 2007-12-28. article critical of the use of the term
- Wilson, Robert Anton (April 1996). "Androphobia: The only respectable bigotry". The Backlash!. Shameless Men Press. Retrieved 2007-12-28.