Mizoram

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Mizoram
State
Official seal of Mizoram
Seal
Location of Mizoram in India
Location of Mizoram in India
Coordinates (Aizawl): 23°22′N 92°00′E / 23.36°N 92.0°E / 23.36; 92.0Coordinates: 23°22′N 92°00′E / 23.36°N 92.0°E / 23.36; 92.0
Country  India
Established 20 February 1987
Capital Aizawl
Largest city Aizawl
Districts 8
Government
 • Governor Vakkom Purushothaman
 • Chief Minister Pu Lalthanhawla (INC)
 • Legislature Unicameral (40 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 1
 • High Court Gauhati High Court
Area
 • Total 21,081 km2 (8,139 sq mi)
Area rank 24th
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,091,014
 • Rank 27th
 • Density 52/km2 (130/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-MZ
Literacy 91.58%1(3rd)2011 Census
Official language Mizo.2
Website mizoram.gov.in

Mizoram /mɪ.'z.'ram/ (Mizo pronunciation: /mɪ.'z.'ram/, About this sound listen ) (from mi 'people', zo 'hill', ram 'country', literally "land of the hill people" / Mizo people) is one of the Seven Sister States of the North Eastern India, sharing borders with the states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur and with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Burma. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987.3 Its capital is Aizawl.

Climate

Mizoram has a mild climate, comfortable in summer 20 to 29 °C (68 to 84 °F) and never freezing during winter, with temperatures from 7 to 21 °C (45 to 70 °F). The region is influenced by monsoons, raining heavily from May to September with little rain in the dry (cold) season. The average state rainfall is 254 centimetres (100 in) per annum. In the capital Aizawl, rainfall is about 208 centimetres (82 in) and in Lunglei, another major centre, about 350 centimetres (140 in).

Geography

Mizoram is a land of rolling hills, valleys, rivers and lakes. As many as 21 major hill ranges or peaks of different heights run through the length and breadth of the state, with plains scattered here and there. The average height of the hills to the west of the state are about 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). These gradually rise up to 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) to the east. Some areas, however, have higher ranges which go up to a height of over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). Phawngpui Tlang also known as the Blue Mountain, situated in the south-eastern part of the state, is the highest peak in Mizoram at 2,210 metres (7,250 ft).

Hills of Mamit district

The biggest river in Mizoram is Chhimtuipui, also known as Kaladan. It originates in Chin state in Burma and passes through Saiha and Lawngtlai districts in the southern tip of Mizoram, goes back to Burma's Rakhine state, and finally enters the Bay of Bengal at Akyab, which is a very popular port in Sittwe, Burma. The Indian government has invested millions of rupees to set up inland water ways along this river to trade with Burma. The project is known as the Kaladan Multi-modal Transit Transport Project. Although many more rivers and streams drain the hill ranges, the most important and useful rivers are the Tlawng, Tut, Tuirial and Tuivawl which flow through the northern territory and eventually join the Barak River in Cachar District. The Chhimtuipui which originates in Burma, is an important river in the south of Mizoram. It has four tributaries and the river is in patches. The western part is drained by river Karnaphuli (Khawthlang tuipui) and its tributaries. A number of important towns, including Chittagong in Bangladesh, are situated at the mouth of the river. Before Independence, access to other parts of the country was only possible through the river routes via Cachar in the north, and via Chittagong in the south. Entry through the latter was cut off when the subcontinent was partitioned and ceded to East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1947.

The Palak lake, the biggest in Mizoram is situated in Saiha district which is part of southern Mizoram covering 30 hectares (74 acres). It is believed that the lake was created as a result of an earthquake or a flood. The local people believe that a submerged village remains intact deep under the waters. The Tam Dil lake is a natural lake situated 85 kilometres (53 mi) from Aizawl. Legend has it that a huge mustard plant once stood in this place. When the plant was cut down, jets of water sprayed from the plant and created a pool of water, thus the lake was named Ţam Dil which means of 'lake of mustard plant'. Today the lake is an important tourist attraction and a holiday resort. The most significant lake in Mizo history, Rih Dil, is ironically located in Burma, a few kilometres from the Indo-Burma border. It was believed that the departed souls pass through this lake before making their way to Pialral or heaven. Mizoram is also called as peninsula state as it has 3 sides covered with water and one side covered with land.

History

The origin of the Mizos, like those of many other tribes in the northeastern India, is shrouded in mystery. The people living in the Mizo Hills were generally referred to as the cucis or kukis by their neighbouring ethnic groups which was also a term adopted by the British writers. The claim that 'The Kukis are the earliest known residents of the Mizo hills area,' must be read in this light.4 The majority of the tribes classified as "Mizo" today most likely migrated to their present territories from the neighbouring countries in several waves, starting around 1500 AD.5

Before the British Raj, the various Mizo clans lived in autonomous villages. The tribal chiefs enjoyed an eminent position in the gerontocratic Mizo society. The various clans and subclans practiced jhum cultivation, a form of subsistence agriculture. The chiefs were the absolute rulers of their respective clans' territories (ram), although they remained under the nominal political jurisdictions of the Rajas of Manipur, Tripura and Burma.6 There were many instances of tribal raids and head hunting led by the village chieftains.

The Mizo Hills formally became part of British India in 1895, and a part of the Assam province in 1895 (as the Lushai Hills District). At the time of the British conquest, there were around 60 chiefs.6 After Christian missionaries arrived with the gospel of Jesus Christ, majority of the population became Christians over a period of time.

By the time the British left India, the number of tribal chiefs had increased over 200. The educated elites among the Mizos campaigned against the tribal chiefdom under the banner of Mizo Union. As a result of their campaign, the rights of the 259 chiefs were abolished under the Assam-Lushai District (Acquisition of Chief's Rights) Act, 1954.6 The representatives of the Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council (formed in 1952) and the Mizo Union pleaded with the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) to integrate the Mizo-dominated areas of Tripura and Manipur with the District Council in Assam. The tribal leaders in the northeast were unhappy with the final SRC recommendations and met in Aizawl in 1955 to form a new political party, Eastern India Tribal Union (EITU). This group raised their demand for a separate state comprising all the hill districts of Assam. However, the demand was not accepted by the Government.

In the 1950s, the fears of Assamese hegemony and perceived lack of government concern led to growing discontent among the Mizos. The Mizos were particularly dissatisfied with the government's inadequate response to the 1959–60 mautam famine. The Mizo National Famine Front, a body formed for famine relief in 1959, later developed into a new political organisation, the Mizo National Front (MNF) in 1961.7 The Front sought sovereign independence for the Mizo territory, staging an armed insurrection with the 28 February 1966 uprising against the government. The revolt was suppressed by the Government of India, which carried out airstrikes in Aizawl and surrounding areas.89 The secessionist Mizo National Front was outlawed in 1967, as the Mizo Union and other organizations continued the demand for a separate Mizo state within the Republic of India. In 1971, the government agreed to convert the Mizo Hills into a Union Territory, which came into being as Mizoram in 1972. Following the Mizoram Peace Accord (1986) between the Government and the MNF, Mizoram was declared a full-fledged state of India in 1987.10 Mizoram got two seats in the Parliament, one each in the Lok Sabha and in the Rajya Sabha.11

Demographics

A Mizo woman in traditional attire

According to 2011 census report, Mizoram has literacy rate of 91.58%, second only to Kerala. It scores approximately 93.4% in sanitation. Mizoram also has the second-highest urbanisation rate in India with 22 towns included.12 Details are shown in the figures.1314

Sociology

The great majority of Mizoram's population consists of several ethnic tribes who are either culturally or linguistically linked. These ethnic groups are collectively known as Mizos (Mi= People, Zo= Hill). One should note that 'Mizo' is a generic term which denotes a particular group of hill people who are closely linked culturally and linguistically. Moreover these group of hill people share close physical similarities. There is an increasing unity among Mizo tribes who are spread throughout the northeastern states of India, Burma and Bangladesh. The Mizos are divided into numerous tribes; however, to name a particular tribe as the largest would be an unreliable task as no concrete census has ever been undertaken till now. In order to better understand the Mizos, substantial knowledge and understanding of the various Mizo Tribes (Tribes who fall under the term Mizo) is a requirement. The Mizos include Lushei, Paite, Lai, Mara, Ralte, Hmar, Thadou and several other. These tribes are divided into numerous clans within themselves, and these clans are further sub-divided into sub-clans, for example the Hmars are divided into Thiek, Faihriem, Lungtau, Darngawn, Khawbung, Zote etc. These clans sometimes have slight liguistics differences. The Bru(Reang), Chakma, Tanchangya, Arakanese origin, are a non-Mizo tribes living in Mizoram. The Bnei Menashe tribe claim Jewish descent. The Mizo people usually suffix their descriptive given names with their tribe.

Music

Mizo traditional tunes are very soft and gentle, with locals claiming that they can be sung the whole night without the slightest fatigue. The guitar is a popular instrument and Mizos enjoy country style music. Within the church services are drums, commonly used and known locally as "khuang". The "Khuang" is made from wood and animal hide and are often beaten enough to instigate a trance like state with worshipers as they dance in a circular fashion. Mizos enjoy singing and even without musical instruments, they enthusiastically sing together, clapping hands or by using other rhythmic methods. Informal instruments are called chhepchher. The early Mizos were close to nature and music is still an essential part of the cultural life. Whilst gospel music remains an integral part of Mizo culture, Western influence is evident from the contemporary music scene as young people experiment with rock, metal, rap, pop and hip-hop.

Mizo life

Cheraw a popular dance of the state

The fabric of social life in the Mizo society has undergone tremendous change over the last few years. Previously the village and the clan formed units of Mizo society. The Mizo code of ethics focused on "Tlawmngaihna", an untranslatable term meaning that it was the obligation of all members of society to be hospitable, kind, unselfish, and helpful to others. Tlawmngaihna to a Mizo stands for that compelling moral force which finds expression in self-sacrifice for the service of others. The old belief, Pathian, is still used to mean God. Mizos often gather together to help in disaster management like landslides or famine.

Mizos are a close-knit society with no class distinction. Ninety per cent are cultivators, and the village functions as a large family. Birth, marriage, and death in the village are important occasions and the whole village would typically become involved. When there is a death, the whole local community, as well as all family members of the deceased, mourn together in the residence of the deceased. This particular process of mourning together lasts anywhere from a few weeks to over 3 months.

There are a few community establishments in urban centres that frequently arrange various social events, musical concerts, comedy shows, reality TV shows, discussion groups and scientific or technological conferences. However, generally speaking the region is lacking in Western-style social meeting establishments. Much of the social life often revolves around church. An active church life is perhaps one of the reasons why Mizos are such a tight-knit community.

Media and communication

See also Newspapers in Mizoram.

Mizoram’s media is growing quickly. Internet access is average, and private television cable channels are popular. Doordarshan, the national television service of India provides terrestrial broadcasting services and All India Radio broadcast programmes related to the indigenous culture and local news. Broadband access is available. In addition to these, there are several websites in local dialects. Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Mizoram; local newspapers include Vanglaini and The Zozam Times.

Languages

Mizo is the official language and the most widely used language for verbal interactions, but English, being important for education, administration, formalities and governance, is widely used. The Duhlian dialect, also known as the Lusei, was the first language of Mizoram and has come to be known as the Mizo language. The language is mixed with other dialects like the Hmar, Mara, Lai, Paite, Gangte, etc. Christian missionaries developed the Mizo script. Writing is a combination of the Roman script and Hunterian transliteration methodology with prominent traces of a phonetics-based spelling system. There are 25 letters in the alphabet: A, AW, B, CH, D, E, F, G, NG, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, Ṭ, U, V, Z. Mizo is one of the languages with official status in India (at the state level). Hindi is a compulsory subject for all students up to eighth standard and has a growing usage.16 The Nepali is also spoken by the Nepali immigrants in the state.

Religion

The majority (87%) of Mizos are Christian17 in various denominations, predominantly Presbyterian. Hindus form a small minority (3.6%) and there are also around 8.3% Buddhists according to the 2001 census, mostly made up from Chakma settlers of Burmese Arakanese origin.17 There are about 8,000 mostly ethnic Mizo, followers of the Judaic group Bnei Menashe, who claim descent from the biblical Menasseh. Muslims make up about 1.1% of the state population. Most Muslims in Mizoram are ethnic Rohingya. The number of Nonreligious, Atheists and Agnostics is 661.

Religion in Mizoram
Religion Percentage
Christianity
  
86.97%
Buddhist
  
7.93%
Hinduism
  
3.55%
Islam
  
1.13%
Mizo Religion
  
0.15%
Judaism
  
0.10%
Others
  
0.17%

Christianity

ATC, Mizoram

The major Christian denomination is Mizoram Presbyterian Church which was established by a Welsh Missionary Rev. D.E. Jones. It is one of the constituted bodies of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of India, which has its headquarters at Shillong in Meghalaya (India). The administration of the Presbyterian Church is highly centralised in the Synod, with its office at Aizawl. The financial operation, personnel (including selection of missionaries), administration, management and operation of the church are directly or indirectly controlled by the Synod. Other Christian churches include the Baptist Church of Mizoram, United Pentecostal Church, the Salvation Army, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, Kohhran Thianghlim, Roman Catholic, Lairam Isua Krista Baptist Kohhran (LIKBK), Congregational Church of India (Maraland), Evangelical Church of Maraland, Independent Church of India (ICI) and Evangelical Free Church of India (EFCI).

Buddhism

According to 2001 census report there are more than 70,494 people who follow Buddhism in Mizoram. The Chakmas and Tongchangya or Tanchangya have been Buddhist since historical times and there are approximately one hundred monasteries (known as vihara in Pali) in Mizoram. Of the many schools of Buddhism that existed in ancient times only Theravada Buddhism exists in Mizoram

Hinduism

According to the 2001 census, there were 31,562 Hindus in Mizoram. Out of this, 26,448 were non-indigenous and 5,114 were indigenous tribal. Earlier there were significant Hindu population among the Reang (Bru) communities, but after the ethnic riots of 1990s, most of them migrated to Tripura and Assam (According to the 1991 census, 90% of all indigenous Hindus of Mizoram were Reang. Hindu population among the Mizo tribe is negligible, with only 2,616 Hindus out of a population of 646,117 (0.40%). A total of 1,666 Hindus from the Reang community remained in Mizoram at the time of 2001 Census.

Others

There are also a few Mizos who practice Judaism (866 according to the 2001 census) and a modernised traditional Mizo religion called Hnam sakhua, which puts a particular emphasis on Mizo culture and seeks to revive traditional Mizo values, while at the same time attacking the influence brought about by Christianity on Mizo people.18

A total of 1,367 people practiced the Mizo religion according to the 2001 census. This number included, in addition to the original Mizo religion (755 people), adherents of other tribal religions such as Lalchhungkua (279), Lalhnam (122), and Nunna Lalchhungkua (211).19

Education

Until 1894, when the missionaries introduced elementary education, Mizos were illiterate without any written language. The first primary school was set up in 1898 at Aizawl. In 1901 it was thought that literacy was only 0.9% but by 2005 census had reached 89%. Today Mizoram is second only to Kerala for literacy in India at 95%.20 There are several educational establishments under the umbrella of the Ministry of Education, including universities, colleges and other institutions. Within Mizoram University, there are 29 undergraduate colleges including 2 professional institutions affiliated with the university. The total enrollment in these institutions is approximately 5200 students. Other well known institutes are National Institute of Technology Mizoram, ICFAI University, Mizoram, College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram and Regional Institute of Paramedical and Nursing Aizawl

Politics

Originally land tenure was invested with the head of the tribe or chief assisted by a council that ruled locally. After annexation by the British in the 1890s, Mizoram was administered as the Lushai Hills district of Assam. The colonial power introduced inner line regulation, restricting access to any outsiders. It was renamed as the district of Mizo Hills within Assam State in 1954 and in the same year the Young Mizo Association was formed which is still an important institution in Mizoram. In order to protect ethno-cultural identity, and with various political differences, friction developed with mainland India and insurgency started with an armed revolt in 1966. The region was subsequently declared Mizoram after the insurgency, receiving status as a union territory in 1972. It became a state of India in 1986, formalised the following year.

Administration

After the 1986 signing of the historic memorandum of settlement between the Government of India and the Mizo National Front, Mizoram was granted statehood on 20 February 1987 (as per the Statehood Act of 1986). Mizoram became the 23rd state of the Indian Union.

Districts of Mizoram

The Mizoram State Legislative Assembly has 40 seats and the Village Councils are the grassroots of democracy and leadership in Mizoram.

There are three Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) for ethnic tribes in Mizoram, namely Chakma Autonomous District Council (in the southern part of state, bordering Bangladesh), Lai Autonomous District Council (LADC) for Lai people in Southern part of the state, and Mara Autonomous District Council (MADC) for Mara people in the southern-eastern corner.21

Economy

Mizoram is one of the fastest growing economies among the states of India with a per capita income of Rs 50,021. Mizoram had the second-highest GSDP growth during the 11th Five-Year Plan (2007–12) in Northeast India at 11 per cent exceeding the target of 7.8 per cent which is also much higher than the national average of 7.9 per cent. During the 10th Five-Year Plan (2002–7), the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) was expected to grow at around 5.3 per cent but grew at 5.7 per cent. The biggest contributors to GSDP growth are Agriculture, Public Administration and Construction work.22 Tertiary sector of service sector continued to have the contribution to the GSDP with its share hovering between 58 per cent and 60 per cent during the past half a decade.23

Agriculture

Around 60 per cent of the population of the state depended on agriculture, the sector's contribution to the GSDP was only 19.84 per cent during the same period and that of the industry was 20.20 per cent. The Economic Survey indicated that 32 per cent of the cultivated area was under jhum and only 20 per cent of the demand for rice could be met within the state while a total of 14,28,600 tonnes of rice was lifted by the state government from outside. More than 70% of the total population is engaged in some form of agriculture. The age-old practice of Jhum is being discouraged by the state government with schemes like the New Land Use Policy a Policy to help farmers move away from the traditional slash-and-burn method of cultivation.24 Recently, Mizoram Government has entered into a new venture wherein Oil Palm and Jatropha cultivation, for biofuels is being promoted.25

Industry

Mizoram faces difficulties in the advancement of industries. Lack of dependable surface transport and poor accessibility is one of the major drawbacks. Other problems faced by the state were the poor mineral resources, non-availability of good infrastructure and communication facilities, shortage of capital and lack of modern skills. A Software Technology Park is however being established in Mizoram University campus.26 A steel plant is also being established in Mizoram.27

Macro-economic trend

Below is a chart of trends in gross state product of Mizoram at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian rupees.28

Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 680
1985 1,810
1990 3,410
1995 9,370
2000 17,690

Energy sector

Mizoram is not self-sufficient in power. Despite having a potential of 4500 MW in hydropower, it is yet to be developed.29 Some communities use solar power – at least for light. There are 22 diesel power stations for power backup (26.14 MW)and 9 mini/micro hydel (hydroelectric) plants producing 8.25 MW. As per the 16th Electric Power Survey of India under CEA, Government of India, the restricted peak load demand of the state during the 2002–2003 year is 102 MW. Serlui B Dam, a 12 MW hydel project near Kolasib is currently being used by the State Government. Tuirial Dam, a 64 MW capacity hydel dam is currently under construction and is expected to be completed by 2013. An MoU has been signed for Bairabi Dam and Tlawng Dam by Government of India on 10 August 2012.30

Transport infrastructure

  • Road Network: Mizoram has a road network of around 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) or minor or village roads and a small number of national highways. The village roads are primarily single lane or unmetalled tracks that are typically lightly trafficked. The State is connected to the Indian network through National Highway 54. Another highway, NH-150 connects the state with Seling Mizoram to Imphal Manipur and NH-40A links the State with Tripura. A road between Champhai and Tiddim in Burma has been proposed but the Burmese authorities are unwilling to complete the link.
  • Airport: Mizoram has an airport, Lengpui Airport, near Aizawl and this is linked from Kolkata – a 40-minute flight. Inclement weather conditions mean that at certain times the flights are unreliable. Mizoram can also be reached from Kolkata via Silchar Airport, which is about 200 kilometres (120 mi), around 6 hours) from Aizawl.
  • Railway: There is a rail link at Bairabi rail station but it is primarily for goods traffic. The nearest practical station to Mizoram is at Silchar in Assam, some 6 hours drive from Aizawl. Bairabi is about 110 kilometres (68 mi) and Silchar is about 180 kilometres (110 mi) from the state capital. The Government is now planning to start a broad gauge Bairabi Sairang Railway connection for better connectivity in the state.
  • Helicopter: A Helicopter service by Pawan Hans has been started which connects the Aizawl with Lunglei, Lawngtlai, Saiha, Chawngte, Serchhip, Champhai, Kolasib, Khawzawl and Hnahthial.3132
  • Water Ways: Mizoram is in the process of developing water ways with the port of Akyab Sittwe in Burma along Chhimtuipui River. India is investing $103 million to develop the Sittwe port on Burma's northern coast, about 160 kilometres (99 mi) from Mizoram. State Peace and Development Council of Burma has committed $10 million for the venture, which is part of the Kaladan Multi-modal Transit Transport Project, though the connection is arguably of limited use.33

Tourism

Vantawng waterfall

Mizoram is considered by many as a beautiful place due to its dramatic landscape and pleasant climate. There have been many attempts to increase revenue through tourism but many potential tourists find the lack of amenities to be a hurdle. However, the State continues to promote itself and many projects have been initiated. The tourism ministry continues to maintain or upgrade its tourist lodges throughout the state. Foreign tourists are required to obtain an 'inner line permit' under the special permit before visiting. The permit can be obtained from Indian missions abroad for a limited number of days or direct from Mizoram Government authorities within India. The state is rich in bird diversity, which has the potentiality to make it a major birding destination.34 For Mrs Hume's Pheasant Syrmaticus humiae, Mizoram is a stronghold.35 There is also a rare record of the Wild Water Buffalo from the state.36 There are several records of the Sumatran rhinoceros from Mizoram, then Lushai Hills.37 The small population of wild elephants can be seen in Ngengpui and Dampa Sanctuaries.38

Alcohol prohibition

In 1996 the Government of Mizoram banned liquor. The church leaders (Mizoram Kohhran Hruaitute Committee) continue to argue that state government should keep the ban, and not seek to amend the law, as others have argued.39

Rat plague

Every 48 years, the Mautam bamboo blooms and its high-protein seeds lead to an explosion in the Black Rat population in the jungle, a.k.a. rat flood, which historically has destroyed entire villages' food supply when the rats move on to farm fields. The plague "in 1958–59, provoked a rural uprising that saw the indigenous Mizo people launch a violent 20-year rebellion against the federal government that was only finally resolved in 1986."40

See also

References

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  3. ^ "Mizoram To Be 23rd State Of India, Tribal Customs Protected". APN News. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Chatterjee, Suhas (1994). Making of Mizoram: Role of Laldenga. M.D. Publications. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-85880-38-9. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
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  13. ^ "Classification of urban areas and rural areas in Mizoram" (PDF). The Mizoram Gazette. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
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  15. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census. India: Ministry of Finance. Retrieved 18 December 2008. 
  16. ^ "It’s time to learn Hindi in Mizoram". indegenousherald.com (Agartala). July 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  17. ^ a b "Mizoram", Population by religious communities, IN: Census, 2001 .
  18. ^ "Zo sakhaw thuthlungpui". Hnam sakhua. 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  19. ^ Table ST-14a, Indian Census 2001
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  22. ^ "Mizoram GSDP a thang chak NLUP inrêlbawlna sum a tam lo". Vanglaini. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
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  25. ^ "Mizoram soon to have an Oil Palm industry". The Northeast Times. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  26. ^ "Northeast's fourth software technology park in Mizoram". Assam Tribune. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  27. ^ "Mizoram steel plant ready to roll". WebIndia. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  28. ^ "M/O Statistics & PI", Press Release and statements, National Accounts Division .
  29. ^ "Mizoram has 4500 MW of hydro-power potential". NewzFirst. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  30. ^ Lalfakzuala. "Bairabi Dam Project 80MW leh Tlawng Hep 55MW Tan Mou Ziakfel". DIPR Mizoram. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  31. ^ "Mizorama helicopter service Tur chief minister in Hawng". Mizoram DIPR. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  32. ^ "Nilaini atangin ‘Helicopter Service". The Zozam Times. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  33. ^ "Govt to spend $100 million on linking Mizoram to Burma", Financial Express .
  34. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2008) A pocket guide to the birds of Mizoram. Gibbon Books & The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North East India, Guwahati, IN. 122pp. [Supported by Oriental Bird Club, UK]
  35. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2002). Survey of Mrs Hume's pheasant in North East India. Technical Report No. 5. The Rhino Foundation for Nature in NE India, Guwahati, IN. 30pp. [Final report to the Oriental Bird Club, UK]
  36. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2010). The vanishing herds: wild water buffalo. Gibbon Books & The Rhino Foundation for Nature in NE India, Guwahati, IN. 184pp. [Supported by CEPF & Taiwan Forestry Bureau]
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  38. ^ Choudhury, AU (2001), "The wild elephant Elephas maximus in Mizoram", J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc 98 (3): 439–41 .
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  40. ^ "Indian farmers braced for rat plague", The daily Telegraph (UK) .

Further reading

1. Zoramdinthara, Dr., Mizo Fiction: Emergence and Development. Ruby Press & Co. (New Delhi). 2013. ISBN 978-93-82395-16-4

External links








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