Mount Gambier, South Australia

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Mount Gambier
South Australia
Mount gambier.jpg
View north across Valley Lake and Marist Park to Mount Gambier CBD and eastern urban area from Centenary Tower
Mount Gambier is located in South Australia
Mount Gambier
Mount Gambier
Coordinates 37°49′46″S 140°46′58″E / 37.82944°S 140.78278°E / -37.82944; 140.78278Coordinates: 37°49′46″S 140°46′58″E / 37.82944°S 140.78278°E / -37.82944; 140.78278
Population 25,199 (2011 census)1 (49th)
 • Density 943.7/km2 (2,444/sq mi)
Established 1854
Postcode(s) 5290,2 5291 3
Area 26.7 km2 (10.3 sq mi)
Time zone ACST (UTC+9:30)
 • Summer (DST) ACDT (UTC+10:30)
Location
LGA(s)
State electorate(s) Mount Gambier
Federal Division(s) Barker
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
18.9 °C
66 °F
8.1 °C
47 °F
708.3 mm
27.9 in

Mount Gambier is the second most populous city in South Australia with a population of 25,1991 in the urban area, or 27,7564 if associated peri-urban communities are included (2011 Census).

Located on the slopes of the mountain of the same name in the south east of the state approximately 450 kilometres south-east of the capital Adelaide and just 17 kilometres from the Victorian border, it is the most important settlement in the Limestone Coast region and the seat of government for both the City of Mount Gambier and the District Council of Grant.

The peak of the inactive volcano, the first place in South Australia named by European explorers, was sighted in 1800 by Lieutenant James Grant from the survey brig, HMS Lady Nelson, and named for Lord James Gambier, Admiral of the Fleet. The peak is marked by Centenary Tower, built in 1904 to commemorate the first sighting, and at 192 metres above sea level the landmark is the city's highest point.

The city is known for its geographical features, particularly its volcanic and limestone features, most notably its Blue Lake, parks and gardens, caves and sinkholes.

History

Before European settlement, the Buandig (or Boandik) people were the original Aboriginal inhabitants of the area. They called it 'ereng balam' or 'egree belum', meaning 'home of the eagle hawk'.5

The peak of the extinct Mount Gambier crater was sighted in 1800 by Lieutenant James Grant from the survey brig, HMS Lady Nelson, and named for Lord James Gambier, Admiral of the Fleet.

The Henty brothers who owned large holdings in Portland, Western Victoria, laid claim to the land but were forced to retreat when the lands were granted to Evelyn Sturt, the brother of the explorer Charles Sturt. Industries soon began to appear. The Post Office opened on 22 September 1846,6 John Byng built the Mount Gambier Hotel in 1847, and Dr Edward Wehl arrived in 1849 to begin a flour-milling operation.

Settlement of Gambierton in 1856 including Mitchell's Hotel

Hastings Cunningham founded "Gambierton" in 1854 by subdividing a block of 77 acres (31 ha). From 1861 to 1878 the Post Office was known by this name before reverting to Mount Gambier. Local government appeared in 1863 when Dr Wehl, who now owned a substantial millhouse on Commercial Road, was elected chairman of the District Council of Mount Gambier. In December 1864 this became the District Council of Mount Gambier West and, at the same time, a separate District Council of Mount Gambier East was formed.

Incorporation in 1876 saw a further division, with the creation of the Town Council and Mr. John Watson elected Mayor. Mount Gambier was governed in this fashion until 1932, when the District Council of East and West merged to form a single District Council of Mount Gambier once more.

On 9 December 1954, Mount Gambier was officially declared a city, and is now an important tourism centre in south-east South Australia.7

Geography

Mount Gambier and region as seen from space

Mt Gambier's urban area is located mainly along the northern slopes and plain of a maar volcano of the same name, Mount Gambier. Comprising several craters, it is part of the Newer Volcanics Province complex of volcanoes. One of these contains a huge lake of high-quality artesian drinking water which changes colour with the seasons. In winter, it is a steel grey and then changes to a spectacular cobalt blue in the summer, giving rise to its name, Blue Lake. This 70-metre deep lake also accommodates a range of unusual aquatic flora and fauna, in particular fields of large stromatolites. There are several other craters in the city including Valley Lake. The region surrounding the city also includes other volcanic features such as Mount Schank, along with many karst features such as water-filled caves and sinkholes.

The urban area extends outside of the City of Mt Gambier into the District Council of Grant where the following suburbs now exist: Suttontown, Mil Lel and Worrolong to the north of the city, Glenburnie to the east, Compton to the west, and Moorak and OB Flat to the south.8

Climate

Mount Gambier is located within a climatic transition zone between oceanic and Mediterranean climate. The town has warm dry summers and cool wet winters. July is the wettest month with an average of 99.4 mm falling on 21 days whilst February normally records the lowest rainfall with an average of 25 mm on an average 8 days. The highest ever temperature recorded in Mount Gambier was 44.9 °C on 2 February 20149 and the lowest ever temperature recorded was −3.9 °C on 20 June 1950 and 2 July 1960.10

Climate data for Mount Gambier
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 44.1
(111.4)
44.9
(112.8)
41.3
(106.3)
35.0
(95)
28.5
(83.3)
21.6
(70.9)
22.4
(72.3)
26.6
(79.9)
32.2
(90)
33.3
(91.9)
41.2
(106.2)
43.3
(109.9)
44.9
(112.8)
Average high °C (°F) 25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
23.1
(73.6)
19.4
(66.9)
16.1
(61)
13.8
(56.8)
13.1
(55.6)
14.1
(57.4)
15.8
(60.4)
17.9
(64.2)
20.3
(68.5)
22.8
(73)
18.9
(66)
Average low °C (°F) 11.1
(52)
11.6
(52.9)
10.5
(50.9)
8.7
(47.7)
7.3
(45.1)
5.8
(42.4)
5.2
(41.4)
5.5
(41.9)
6.3
(43.3)
7.1
(44.8)
8.3
(46.9)
9.9
(49.8)
8.1
(46.6)
Record low °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
2.8
(37)
0.0
(32)
−1.8
(28.8)
−2.8
(27)
−3.9
(25)
−3.9
(25)
−2.6
(27.3)
−3.4
(25.9)
−1.6
(29.1)
−0.8
(30.6)
1.2
(34.2)
−3.9
(25)
Precipitation mm (inches) 26.3
(1.035)
25.6
(1.008)
35.1
(1.382)
54.8
(2.157)
70.1
(2.76)
83.1
(3.272)
99.6
(3.921)
94.1
(3.705)
73.0
(2.874)
61.7
(2.429)
46.9
(1.846)
38.1
(1.5)
708.5
(27.894)
Source: 11

Demographics

The government in the south-east area of the state, consisting of three local councils, was based around a single administration, many residents of Victoria used to look across the border to Mount Gambier as their centre. Consequently, during the 1970s many elderly locals relocated to Victor Harbor and Moonta, both rural areas but with more resources available to cope with an ageing population. A 1976 study found that less than 10 per cent (around 160 people) of residents aged over 65 had lived in the area for less than 5 years, leading to a lack of specific aged-care facilities.12

According to the 2006 Census the population of the Mount Gambier census area was 24,905 people, making it the largest urban area in the state outside Adelaide, and the 50th largest urban area in Australia. Approximately 51.7% of the population were female, 84.9% were Australian born, over 91.5% of residents were Australian citizens and 1.6% were indigenous.

The most popular industries for employment were Log Sawmilling and Timber Dressing (8%), School Education (4.8%) and Retail Trade (3.8%), while the unemployment rate is approx. 7%. The median weekly household income is A$814 or more per week, compared with $924 in Adelaide.

According to the 2006 Census,1314 60.0% of residents identified themselves as being Christian. The largest denominations represented were Catholics at 21.5%, Anglicans at 11.4%, the Uniting Church at 8.6%, and Presbyterians at 6.9%. 26.9% of people claim no religion. A further 12.1% of people chose either not to state their beliefs, or did not adequately define them.

Economy

The economy of Mount Gambier is driven by all three economic sectors, though it has emerged as a regional service economy with its main industry being the service industry and its key areas of business including tourism, hospitality, retail, professional services, government administration and education. The city's historic primary industry roots including mining, agriculture and forestry continue to play a key role as well as being a major road transport and trucking centre.

Tourism

Blue Lake, Mount Gambier's most popular tourist attraction.

Tourism generates around $100 million for the Mount Gambier economy.15 The city is a major accommodation gateway for the region. Major tourism attractions include the Blue Lake and Valley Lake wildlife park and caves such as Umpherston Sinkhole, Cave Gardens and Engelbrecht Cave. Engelbrechts Cave is a popular cave diving venue. The region around Mount Gambier also has many water-filled caves and sinkholes which attract cave divers from around the globe.1617

Service industries

Mount Gambier Marketplace

As a major service centre for the region, the city has several key retail districts including the CBD centred around Commercial Street. Mount Gambier Marketplace, opened in August 2012, is one of two major shopping centres in the city, the other being Centro Mount Gambier. Major department stores include Target, Big W, Kmart, and Harvey Norman. Additionally each of the major supermarkets (Coles, Woolworths, IGA are represented. Servicing the financial sector are branches of the big four Australian retail banks (National Australia Bank, Australia and New Zealand Banking Group, Commonwealth Bank and Westpac) along with Bendigo Bank and St.George Bank and a number of smaller independent financial services firms.

Education

There are six Reception to Year 7 (R-7) Primary schools:

  • Reidy Park Primary School;
  • Mount Gambier North Primary School;
  • McDonald Park;
  • Compton Primary School;
  • Melaleuca Park; and
  • Mulga Street Primary School.

There are two Reception to Year 12 (R-12) colleges:

There are two High Schools for Year 8 to 12:

Post-secondary education is offered by the following providers:

Media

Newspapers

The local newspaper for Mount Gambier, the Limestone Coast and South East region of South Australia is The Border Watch. It is published and available in the local area every Tuesday through Friday (with the exception of some public holidays such as Christmas Day). Daily newspapers from Melbourne (Herald Sun and The Age) and Adelaide (The Advertiser) as well as national newspapers such as The Australian and The Australian Financial Review are also available in Mount Gambier and the southeast SA region. Some newspapers from nearby towns such as Millicent and Penola, specialty newspapers like the British International Express weekly newspaper, agricultural newspapers such as The Weekly Times newspaper from Victoria and The South Australian Stock Journal (published by Rural Press) and The Independent Weekly from Adelaide are also available from local newsagents.

Television

WIN Television broadcasts Nine Network programming, Channel Seven broadcasts Seven Network programming & Channel Ten broadcasts Network Ten programming. The programming schedules for these channels is the same as Channel Nine, Channel Seven and Channel Ten in Adelaide, with local commercials inserted and some variations for coverage of Australian Football League or National Rugby League matches, state and national news and current affairs programs, some lifestyle and light entertainment shows and infomercials. As of February 2013, there are no local news programs for the Mount Gambier area since the closure of WIN Television's news operation.

On Friday 11 November 2011, WIN Television commenced transmission of the digital TV multi-channels ONE, Eleven, GO!, GEM (an acronym of General Entertainment and Movies), 7Two (an acronym of "72") and 7mate for Mount Gambier and the surrounding South East region of South Australia.22

Due to the close proximity to the Victoria/South Australia state border, most people in Mount Gambier and some adjacent areas of southeast South Australia can receive television services from Western Victoria. These channels are broadcast from the Mount Dundas transmitter near the town of Cavendish, Victoria. The transmitter site is located approximately 100 kilometres northeast of Mount Gambier and broadcasts all the television channels from Western Victoria including Prime7 Television (AMV), WIN Television Victoria (VTV), Southern Cross Ten (BCV), the ABC and SBS Victorian services) as well as the digital free-to-air multi-channels that are also now available from the Mount Burr transmitter, north west of Mount Gambier.

Radio

ABC
Commercial

Some ABC radio services can also be received from the nearby town of Naracoorte and from Western Victoria.

Arts and Culture

Main Corner and former town hall

The city's Civic Centre, situated around Cave Gardens is the hub of the city's arts, it includes the Riddoch Art Gallery, South Australia's major regional art gallery located in the adaptively reused old town hall complex.24 The complex was extended in 2011 to include "The Corner", a modern building which includes a theatre. Nearby is the public library and old post office.

Music

Every year the town and the surrounding area, hosts nearly 3,000 young people for the Generations in Jazz Festival. Jazz artists like James Morrison, Daryl Somers, Ross Irwin, James Muller and Graeme Lyall travel to perform and adjudicate the stage band competition. Special guests have included Gordon Goodwin and his Big Phat Band

Sport

There is only one national sporting side which is the Mount Gambier Pioneers. The Pioneers entered the South Eastern Basketball League in 1988 and currently play in the SEABL (South East Australian Basketball League). The Pioneers play at the Icehouse (Mount Gambier Basketball Stadium) which seats over 1,000 people and is also home to the Mount Gambier Basketball Association. The Pioneers have had one championship which occurred in 2003, the side was rated second in the top 5 sides to have ever played in the league by a group of special selectors. In 2013 the current President Neal Boase, Head Coach Richard Hill and Club Captain Matt Sutton will lead the team into its 26th season in the SEABL, with two imports including NBL starter Brad Hill and US import Titus Robinson. The Mount Gambier Pioneers have commenced their 26th season in the South East Australian Basketball League, with anniversary celebration preparations well under way for the 10 year re-union of the 2003 championship.

There are four Australian rules football teams competing in the Western Border Football League: North Gambier, East Gambier, South Gambier and West Gambier. They have produced such AFL players as Nick Daffycitation needed and Matthew Clarke.citation needed

There is also a range of different sporting leagues and clubs in Mount Gambier and surrounding regions, including soccer, netball, basketball, tennis, hockey, cricket, swimming, cycling, triathlon,25 rifle, gun and pistol shooting and golf.26

Motor sport is also popular, with the main facilities being the McNamara Park road racing circuit, and the Borderline Speedway, a 372 metres (407 yd) dirt track oval speedway nicknamed "The Bullring". Borderline Speedway hosts an annual Sprintcar event called the "Kings Challenge", first run in 1995 and is held in January each year a week before the Grand Annual Sprintcar Classic in nearby Warrnambool (Victoria), and two weeks before the Australian Sprintcar Championship. Borderline has played host to many Australian and South Australian speedway championships throughout its over 50 year history and is regarded as one of the best run and promoted speedways in Australia. The speedway is currently managed and promoted by former star sprintcar driver, Mount Gambier native Bill Barrows.27

Mount Gambier is the home of "The Alex Roberts 100 Mile Classic", a cycling event that lays claim to the longest continuing open cycling event in South Australia. The event held annually by the Mount Gambier Cycling Club.25

Mount Gambier Gift

The 120m Mount Gambier Gift held annually on the first Saturday in December at Vansittart Oval is the 2nd richest professional footrace in South Australia. Resurrected in 2001 the athletic carnival includes races from 70m to 1600m and attracts athletes from all over Australia, mostly from South Australia and Victoria. Of the eleven Mount Gambier athletic carnivals held to date, three Victorians have won the 120 m Gift. On 3 December 2011, 21-year-old Wallace Long-Scafidi won the Gift for the second year in a row.28 The race was not held in 2012, but is expected to resume in 2013.29

Winners
  • 2011 Wallace Long-Scafidi (SA)
  • 2010 Wallace Long-Scafidi (SA)
  • 2009 Shaun Hargreaves (Vic)
  • 2008 Aaron Rouge-Serrett (Vic)
  • 2007 Dale Woodhams (SA)
  • 2006 Keith Sheehy (SA)
  • 2005 Keith Sheehy (SA)
  • 2004 Andrew Steele (SA)
  • 2003 Chris Burckhardt (SA)
  • 2002 Matthew Callard (Vic)
  • 2001 Shane McKenzie (SA)

Notable persons

Governance

City of Mount Gambier Council Chambers and offices

Council Chamber in the Civic Centre at 10 Watson Terrace, Mount Gambier is the seat of local government for the City of Mount Gambier.36 The council was created in 1932 when the District Council of Mount Gambier West and District Council of Mount Gambier East merged to become the District Council of Mount Gambier which was later proclaimed a city in 9 December 1954. The city consists of a mayor and ten councillors, elected equally from the East and West wards once every four years by postal voting. As of November 2007, the Mayor of Mount Gambier council is Steve Perryman. The local government area is situated entirely within the District Council of Grant and due to the city's growth there have been ongoing talks of amalgamation, the most recent boundary changes taking place in 2010.37

Law and order for the Limestone Coast region is maintained via the Mount Gambier Police Complex at 42 Bay Road Mount Gambier, the Mount Gambier Magistrates Court at 41 Bay Road Mount Gambier and the Mount Gambier Prison at Moorak south of the city.383940

In state politics, Mount Gambier is located in the Legislative Assembly district of Electoral district of Mount Gambier, which has been held since 2010 by Independent member Don Pegler.

In federal politics, Mount Gambier is located in a single House of Representatives division—the Division of Barker which has been represented by Tony Pasin since 2013. It is a safe Liberal Party of Australia seat.

Infrastructure

Health

The city has a major regional hospital, Mount Gambier Hospital out of which operates the Mount Gambier and Districts Health Service. Additionally there are a number of private health services including the Mount Gambier Private Hospital.

Utilities

The city's main catchment is the Blue Lake, the volcano lake is both a tourist attraction and the city's main reservoir. Water supply, sewage collection and disposal are provided by South East Catchment Water Management Board.

Transport

Mount Gambier sits on a number of highways which connect the city to other major towns in the region, as well as to Adelaide and Melbourne.

Before conversion of the Melbourne-Adelaide railway to standard gauge in 1995, Mount Gambier was connected to Adelaide on the broad gauge network via Naracoorte, Bordertown and Tailem Bend. Normal commercial passenger services to Adelaide ceased in 1990, while limited freight services operated until the line was disconnected from the national network.

The Limestone Coast Railway, operated tourist services on the abandoned lines from Mount Gambier to Penola and Coonawarra for a number of years with retired suburban railcars. However due to increased insurance costs they were forced to cease services in 2006.

Mount Gambier Airport is located a few kilometres north of the city via the Riddoch Highway.41 The city is served only by Regional Express, which flies Saab 340 aircraft to Adelaide and Melbourne a number of times a day. The airport was once the main base of O'Connor Airlines, which also flew to Adelaide and Melbourne. However the company ceased trading in December 2007.

Premier Stateliner operates to Mount Gambier from Adelaide. One Daily service operates via Kingston SE and Millicent, while another Daily service operates via Keith and Naracoorte. V/Line operates a daily interstate coach service from Mount Gambier to Warnambool, with an interchange at Warnambool for a rail service to Melbourne.42

References

  1. ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Mount Gambier". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  2. ^ Australia Post – Postcode: Mount Gambier, SA (25 June 2008)
  3. ^ Australia Post – Postcode: Mount Gambier West, Mount Gambier East, SA (25 June 2008)
  4. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics > Mount Gambier - Significant Urban Area 25 January 2014
  5. ^ "Other information". Place Names Online. Government of South Australia Land Services Group. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2006-10-22. 
  6. ^ Premier Postal History. "Post Office List". Retrieved 2008-04-11. 
  7. ^ smh.com.au – Travel / Mount Gambier(28 June 2008)
  8. ^ "Council Area Map". District Council of Grant. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Bureau of Meteorology > Mount Gambier, South Australia, January 2014 Daily Weather Observations Accessed 2 February 2014.
  10. ^ Climate of Mt Gambier. bom.gov.au
  11. ^ "BOM – Mt. Gambier climate". 
  12. ^ Radford, Anthony J. (1981). "Community Action: A Rural Survey and Its Outcome". In Howe, Anna b. Towards an older Australia: Readings in Social Gerontology. St Lucia, QLD: University of Queensland Press. pp. 196–204. ISBN 0-7022-1534-1. 
  13. ^ 2006 Census Table : Mount Gambier (C) (Statistical Local Area). Censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  14. ^ 2006 Census Table : Mount Gambier (C) (Statistical Local Area). Censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  15. ^ Mount Gambier Tourism. Mount Gambier Tourism. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  16. ^ "Engelbrechts East Cave - 5L019". Richard "Harry" Harris. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  17. ^ "Engelbrechts West Cave 5L20". Richard "Harry" Harris. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  18. ^ "Mount Gambier Campus Courses". TAFE SA. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  19. ^ "Mount Gambier Regional Centre". University of South Australia. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  20. ^ "Bachelor of Forest Science and Management". Southern Cross University. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  21. ^ "Flinders University Rural Clinical School". Flinders University. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  22. ^ Get ready for multichannels in regional SA. wintv.com.au
  23. ^ "Rhema FM Live" (104.9 FM): http://www.rhemafmlive.com.au/ and http://www.rhemafmlive.com.au/content/what-is-rhema-fm-live.php
  24. ^ http://www.riddochartgallery.org.au/
  25. ^ a b Mount Gambier Cycling and Triathlon Club. Mgcatc.com. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  26. ^ Mount Gambier Golf Club. Mtgambiergc.com.au. Retrieved on 2012-06-27.
  27. ^ Borderline Speedway official site
  28. ^ "Long-Scafidi wins best gift in history". ABC News Online (Australian Broadcasting Authority). 6 December 2010. 
  29. ^ The Gift Carnival scrapped. The Border Watch, 27 November 2012. Accessed 5 August 2013.
  30. ^ Halls Motorsport Web Page Sprintcar race team
  31. ^ Mt Gambier business magnate Allan Scott dies The Advertiser, 27 October 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  32. ^ Sams, Christine (18 October 2009). "Kasey tunes up to become queen of the kids". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  33. ^ McFarlane, Ian (2004) [1999]. "Encyclopedia entry for 'Dave Graney 'n' the Coral Snakes'". Encyclopedia of Australian Rock and Pop. St Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-072-1. Archived from the original on 30 September 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2010.  Note: [On-line] version updated from 1999 book.
  34. ^ Sexton, Christopher. "Helpmann, Sir Robert Murray (1909–1986)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  35. ^ Tony Pasin. Liberal Party of Australia. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  36. ^ http://www.mountgambier.sa.gov.au/council_meetings.asp?id=33&p=1
  37. ^ http://iken.collaborynth.com.au/consolidation-local-government-fresh-look-city-mount-gambier-and-district-council-grant
  38. ^ "Limestone Coast Local Service Area". South Australia Police. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  39. ^ "Mount Gambier (Magistrates Court)". Courts Administration Authority of South Australia. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  40. ^ "MOUNT GAMBIER PRISON". DEPARTMENT FOR CORRECTIONAL SERVICES. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  41. ^ "Airport". District Council of Grant. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  42. ^ "Vline – Rail & Coach Timetables – Interstate Journeys". Retrieved 2009-06-20. 

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