|Developer(s)||Mozilla Foundation and contributors
|Initial release||September 23, 2002|
|Stable release||2) [±]|
|Preview release||29.0 Beta 9 (April 18, 201434) [±]|
|Operating system||Windows, OS X, Linux, Android,8 Firefox OS, FreeBSD,9 NetBSD,10 OpenBSD, OpenIndiana11|
|Size||22 MB: Windows1213
44 MB: OS X12
27–28 MB: Linux12
22 MB: Android14
510 MB: source code12
|Available in||79 languages15|
mobile web browser
|Standard(s)||HTML5, CSS3, RSS, Atom|
|Origins and lineage|
Mozilla Firefox (known simply as Firefox) is a free and open-source17 web browser developed for Windows, OS X, and Linux, with a mobile version for Android, by the Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards.18
As of February 2014[update], Firefox has between 12% and 22% of worldwide usage, making it the third most popular web browser, according to different sources.19202122 According to Mozilla, Firefox counts over 450 million users around the world.23 The browser has had particular success in Indonesia, Iran, Germany, and Poland, where it is the most popular browser with 55%,24 46%,25 43%,26 and 41%27 of the market share, respectively.
- 1 History
- 2 Features
- 3 Release history
- 4 System requirements
- 5 Licensing
- 6 Trademark and logo
- 7 Promotion
- 8 Performance
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The Firefox project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt and Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser.28 To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite.29 On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird.30
The Firefox project has undergone several name changes. Originally titled Phoenix, it was renamed because of trademark problems with Phoenix Technologies. The replacement name, Firebird, provoked an intense response from the Firebird database software project.3132 In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser should always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion. After further pressure, on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox,33 often referred to as Firefox. Mozilla prefers the Firefox abbreviation Fx or fx, though it is often abbreviated as FF.34 The Firefox project went through many versions before they released version 1.0 on November 9, 2004.
Features include tabbed browsing, spell checking, incremental find, live bookmarking, Smart Bookmarks, a download manager, private browsing, location-aware browsing (also known as "geolocation") based on a Google service35 and an integrated search system that uses Google by default in most localizations. Functions can be added through extensions, created by third-party developers,36 of which there is a wide selection, a feature that has attracted many of Firefox's users.
Firefox has passed the Acid2 standards-compliance test since version 3.0.43 Mozilla had originally stated that they did not intend for Firefox to pass the Acid3 test fully because they believed that the SVG fonts part of the test had become outdated and irrelevant, due to WOFF being agreed upon as a standard by all major browser makers.44 Because the SVG font tests were removed from the Acid3 test in September 2011, Firefox 4 and greater scored 100/100.4546
Firefox uses a sandbox security model,49 and limits scripts from accessing data from other web sites based on the same-origin policy.50 It uses SSL/TLS to protect communications with web servers using strong cryptography when using the HTTPS protocol.51 It also provides support for web applications to use smartcards for authentication purposes.52
The Mozilla Foundation offers a "bug bounty" (up to 3000 USD cash reward and a Mozilla T-shirt) to researchers who discover severe security holes in Firefox.53 Official guidelines for handling security vulnerabilities discourage early disclosure of vulnerabilities so as not to give potential attackers an advantage in creating exploits.54
Because Firefox generally has fewer publicly known unpatched security vulnerabilities than Internet Explorer (see Comparison of web browsers), improved security is often cited as a reason to switch from Internet Explorer to Firefox.55565758 The Washington Post reports that exploit code for known critical unpatched security vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer was available for 284 days in 2006. In comparison, exploit code for known, critical security vulnerabilities in Firefox was available for 9 days before Mozilla issued a patch to remedy the problem.59
A 2006 Symantec study showed that, although Firefox had surpassed other browsers in the number of vendor-confirmed vulnerabilities that year through September, these vulnerabilities were patched far more quickly than those found in other browsers – Firefox's vulnerabilities were fixed on average one day after the exploit code was made available, as compared to nine days for Internet Explorer.60 Symantec later clarified their statement, saying that Firefox still had fewer security vulnerabilities than Internet Explorer, as counted by security researchers.61
In 2010 a study of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) based on data compiled from the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) Firefox was listed as the 5th most vulnerable desktop software, Internet Explorer ranked 8th, and Google Chrome as 1st.62
InfoWorld has cited security experts saying that as Firefox becomes more popular, more vulnerabilities will be found,63 a claim that Mitchell Baker, president of the Mozilla Foundation, has denied: "There is this idea that market share alone will make you have more vulnerabilities. It is not relational at all."64
In October 2009, Microsoft's security engineers acknowledged that Firefox was vulnerable since February of that year due to a .NET Framework 3.5 SP1 Windows Update that silently installed a buggy 'Windows Presentation Foundation' plug-in into Firefox.65 This vulnerability has since been patched by Microsoft.66
As of February 11, 2011, Firefox 3.6 had no known unpatched security vulnerabilities according to Secunia.67 Internet Explorer 8 had five unpatched security vulnerabilities, the worst being rated "Less Critical" by Secunia.68
On January 28, 2013, Mozilla was recognized as the most trusted internet company for privacy in 2012.70 This study was performed by Ponemon Institute and was a result of a survey from more than 100,000 consumers in the United States.
In February 2013, plans were announced for Firefox 22 to disable third-party cookies by default. However, the introduction of the feature has since been delayed so Mozilla developers can "collect and analyze data on the effect of blocking some third-party cookies." Mozilla has also collaborated with Stanford University's "Cookie Clearinghouse" project to develop a blacklist and whitelist of sites that will be used in the filter.7172
Firefox is a widely localized web browser. The first official release in November 2004 was available in 24 different languages and for 28 locales, including British English/American English, European Spanish/Argentine Spanish and Chinese in Traditional Chinese characters/Simplified Chinese characters.77 The currently supported 24.4.0esr and 28.0 versions are available in 89 locales (79 languages).15
Firefox for desktop is available and supported for Windows, OS X, and Linux. Firefox for mobile is available for Android. In September 2013, the Windows 8 Touch interface, optimized for touchscreen use, was introduced on the "Aurora" release channel. However, the project has since been cancelled as of March 2014, citing a lack of user adoption of the beta versions.787980
Firefox 23 on OS X Mountain Lion
Mozilla provides development builds of Firefox in the following channels: "Beta", "Aurora", and "Nightly". As of 22 March 2014[update], Firefox 29 beta is in the "Beta" channel, Firefox 30 alpha is in the "Aurora" channel, and Firefox 31 pre-alpha is in the "Nightly" channel.81
Firefox for mobile, codenamed Fennec, is a web browser for smaller non-PC devices, mobile phones and PDAs. It was first released for the Nokia Maemo operating system (specifically the Nokia N900) on January 28, 2010.82 Version 4 for Android and Maemo was released on March 29, 2011.83 The browser's version number was bumped from version 2 to version 4 to synchronize with all future desktop releases of Firefox since the rendering engines used in both browsers are the same.84 Version 7 was the last release for Maemo on the N900.85 The user interface is completely redesigned and optimized for small screens, the controls are hidden away so that only the web content is shown on screen, and it uses touchscreen interaction methods. It includes the Awesomebar, tabbed browsing, Add-on support, password manager, location-aware browsing, and the ability to synchronize with the user's computer Firefox browser using Firefox Sync.86
Firefox ESR is a version of Firefox for organizations and other adopters who need extended support for mass deployments, with each ESR release being supported for approximately one year.87 Unlike the regular ("rapid") releases, the ESR will not be updated with new features and performance enhancements every six weeks, but rather is updated with only high-risk/high-impact security fixes or major stability fixes with point releases, until the end of the ESR cycle.88 Firefox has had 3 Extended Support Releases thus far: 10.x, 17.x, and 24.x - these came out on the same day as the corresponding rapid release versions, and shared the same feature set as the rapid release versions as well.
Firefox source code may be compiled for various operating systems; however, officially distributed binaries are meant for the following:
|Windows||Linux desktop||OS X||Android90|
|CPU||Pentium 4 or newer with SSE2||Any Intel CPU||ARMv7 CPU
(ARMv6 also works91)
|Memory (RAM)||512 MB||384 MB|
|Hard disk drive free space||200 MB||24 MB|
|Operating system version||XP SP2 (desktop)
Server 2003 SP1 (server)
|Kernel 2.2.14 or newer with:||OS X 10.6 or newer||2.2 or newer90|
Display size (on mobile) must be at least 320 pixels high and 240 pixels wide.90
|Operating system||Latest stable version||Support status|
|Microsoft Windows||XP SP2/SP3 / 2003 SP1/SP2/R2 / Vista /
2008 / 7 / 2008R2 / 8 / 8.1 / 2012
|28.0 and 24.4.0esr92||2004–present|
|2000 / XP RTM/SP1 / 2003 RTM||10.0.12esr93 and 12.0||2004–2013|
|NT 4 / 98 / ME||188.8.131.52||2004–2008|
|OS X||10.6 – 10.9||28.0 and 24.4.0esr92||2009–present|
|10.5 (Intel)||10.0.12esr and 16.0.294||2007–2013|
|10.4 – 10.5 (PPC)||3.6.289596||2005–2012|
|10.2 – 10.3||184.108.40.206||2004–2008|
|10.0 – 10.1||1.0.8||2004–2006|
|Linux||Desktop kernel 2.2.14 and newercitation needed
(with some libraries92)
|28.0 (i686), 28.0 (x86_64),97 24.4.0esr (i686) and 24.4.0esr (x86_64)98||2004–present|
|Android 2.2 and newer||28.0.1||2010–present|
- FreeBSD provides a regularly updated port9 of Firefox.
- Firefox 3.5.9 is the last version to work on HP-UX 11i, as packaged by Hewlett-Packard.99
- Firefox 2.0 has been ported to RISC OS (i.e. not supported by Mozilla).100101102103
- In March 2014, Firefox for Metro project has been cancelled, although there is a beta release.104
|Operating system||32-bit support||64-bit support|
- ^[a] Linux: Mozilla made Firefox for 64-bit Linux a priority with the release of Firefox 4, labeling it as tier 1 priority.81106 Since being labeled tier 1, Mozilla has been providing official 64-bit releases for its browser for Linux.107108 Vendor-backed 64-bit support has existed for Linux distributions such as Novell-Suse Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and Ubuntu prior to Mozilla's support of 64-bit, even though vendors were faced with the challenge of having to turn off the 64-bit JIT compiler due to its instability prior to Firefox 4.109110111
- ^[b] OS X: The official releases of Firefox for OS X are universal builds that include both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of the browser in one package, and have been this way since Firefox 4. A typical browsing session uses a combination of the 64-bit browser process and a 32-bit plugin process, because some popular plugins still are 32-bit.112
- ^[c] Windows: The 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows Vista and Windows 7 can be used to run 32-bit Firefox.89 Mozilla does not currently support Win64 because many plug-ins do not yet support Win64 and other issues.81 Mozilla provides 64-bit versions for their Firefox nightly builds, however, the builds are not considered stable by Mozilla.113114 In late 2012, Mozilla announced 64-bit Windows builds would be stopped105 but later reversed the decision.115
Firefox source code is free software, with most of it being released under the Mozilla Public License (MPL).16 This license permits anyone to view, modify, and/or redistribute the source code, and several publicly released applications have been built on it; for example, Netscape, Flock, Miro, Iceweasel, and Songbird make use of code from Firefox.
In the past, Firefox was licensed solely under the MPL, then version 1.1,116 which the Free Software Foundation criticized for being weak copyleft; the license permitted, in limited ways, proprietary derivative works. Additionally, code only licensed under MPL 1.1 could not legally be linked with code under the GPL.117118 To address these concerns, Mozilla re-licensed most of Firefox under the tri-license scheme of MPL 1.1, GPL 2.0, or LGPL 2.1. Since the re-licensing, developers were free to choose the license under which they received most of the code, to suit their intended use: GPL or LGPL linking and derivative works when one of those licenses is chosen, or MPL use (including the possibility of proprietary derivative works) if they chose the MPL.116 However, on January 3, 2012, Mozilla released the GPL-compatible MPL 2.0,119 and with the release of Firefox 13 on June 5, 2012, Mozilla used it to replace the tri-licensing scheme.120
The name "Mozilla Firefox" is a registered trademark; along with the official Firefox logo, it may only be used under certain terms and conditions. Anyone may redistribute the official binaries in unmodified form and use the Firefox name and branding for such distribution, but restrictions are placed on distributions which modify the underlying source code.121 The name "Firefox" derives from a nickname of the red panda.122
Mozilla has placed the Firefox logo files under open-source licenses,123124 but its trademark guidelines do not allow displaying altered125 or similar logos126 in contexts where trademark law applies.
There has been some controversy over the Mozilla Foundation's intentions in stopping certain open source distributions from using the "Firefox" trademark.17 Mozilla Foundation Chairperson Mitchell Baker explained in an interview in 2007 that distributions could freely use the Firefox trademark if they did not modify source-code, and that the Mozilla Foundation's only concern was with users getting a consistent experience when they used "Firefox".127
To allow distributions of the code without using the official branding, the Firefox source code contains a "branding switch". This switch allows the code to be compiled without the official logo and name, for example to produce a derivative work unencumbered by restrictions on the Firefox trademark (this is also often used for alphas of future Firefox versions). In the unbranded compilation the trademarked logo and name are replaced with a freely distributable generic globe logo and the name of the release series from which the modified version was derived.
Distributing modified versions of Firefox under the "Firefox" name requires explicit approval from Mozilla for the changes made to the underlying code, and requires the use of all of the official branding. For example, it is not permissible to use the name "Firefox" without also using the official logo. When the Debian project decided to stop using the official Firefox logo in 2006 (because Mozilla's copyright restrictions at the time were incompatible with Debian's guidelines), they were told by a representative of the Mozilla Foundation that this was not acceptable, and were asked either to comply with the published trademark guidelines or cease using the "Firefox" name in their distribution.128 Ultimately, Debian switched to branding their modified version of Firefox "Iceweasel", along with other Mozilla software.
Early Firebird and Phoenix releases of Firefox were considered to have reasonable visual designs. Yet when compared to many other professional software packages it fell short. In October 2003, professional interface designer Steven Garrity wrote an article covering everything he considered to be wrong with Mozilla's visual identity.129 The page received a great deal of attention; the majority of criticism leveled at the article fell along the lines of "where's the patch?"citation needed
Shortly afterwards, the Mozilla Foundation invited Garrity to head up the new visual identity team. The release of Firefox 0.8 in February 2004 saw the introduction of the new branding efforts. Included were new icon designs by silverorange, a group of web developers with a long-standing relationship with Mozilla. The final renderings are by Jon Hicks, who had worked on Camino.131132 The logo was later revised and updated, fixing several flaws found when it was enlarged.133
The animal shown in the logo is a stylized fox, although "firefox" is usually a common name for the red panda. The panda, according to Hicks, "didn't really conjure up the right imagery" and wasn't widely known.132 Mozilla chose the logo to make an impression while not shouting out with overdone artwork. It had to stand out in the user's mind, be easy for others to remember, and stand out without causing too much distraction when seen among other icons.
The Firefox icon is a trademark used to designate the official Mozilla build of the Firefox software and builds of official distribution partners.134 For this reason software distributors who distribute modified versions of Firefox do not use the icon.
Logo used for Firefox 23 and after since August 6, 2013135
The Aurora logo, used to represent an alpha release
||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Many refs are dead; section is outdated (SFX is dead); this appears like a list. (September 2013)|
The rapid adoption of Firefox, 100 million downloads in its first year of availability,136 followed a series of aggressive marketing campaigns starting in 2004 with a series of events Blake Ross and Asa Dotzler called "marketing weeks".137
Firefox continued to heavily market itself by releasing a marketing portal dubbed "Spread Firefox" (SFX) on September 12, 2004,138 It debuted along with the Firefox Preview Release, creating a centralized space for the discussion of various marketing techniques. A two-page ad in the December 16 edition of the New York Times, placed by Mozilla Foundation in coordination with Spread Firefox, featured the names of the thousands of people worldwide who contributed to the Mozilla Foundation's fundraising campaign to support the launch of the Firefox 1.0 web browser.139 SFX portal enhanced the "Get Firefox" button program, giving users "referrer points" as an incentive. The site lists the top 250 referrers. From time to time, the SFX team or SFX members launch marketing events organized at the Spread Firefox website. As a part of the Spread Firefox campaign, there was an attempt to break the world download record with the release of Firefox 3.140 This resulted in an official certified Guinness world record, with over eight million downloads.141
In celebration of the third anniversary of the founding of the Mozilla Foundation, the "World Firefox Day" campaign was established on July 15, 2006,142143 and ran until September 15, 2006.144 Participants registered themselves and a friend on the website for nomination to have their names displayed on the Firefox Friends Wall, a digital wall that will be displayed at the headquarters of the Mozilla Foundation.
In December 2007, Mozilla launched Live Chat, a service allowing users to seek technical support from volunteers. Because Live chat is kept running by volunteers, it is only available when they are online.145
In February 2011, Mozilla announced that it would be retiring Spread Firefox (SFX). Three months later, in May 2011, Mozilla officially closed Spread Firefox. Mozilla wrote that "there are currently plans to create a new iteration of this website [Spread Firefox] at a later date."148
|This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (August 2013)|
In December 2005, Internet Week ran an article in which many readers reported high memory usage in Firefox 1.5.149 Mozilla developers said that the higher memory use of Firefox 1.5 was at least partially due to the new fast backwards-and-forwards (FastBack) feature.150 Other known causes of memory problems were malfunctioning extensions such as Google Toolbar and some older versions of AdBlock,151 or plug-ins, such as older versions of Adobe Acrobat Reader.152 When PC Magazine compared memory usage of Firefox 2, Opera 9, and Internet Explorer 7, they found that Firefox used approximately as much memory as the other two browsers.153
Softpedia noted that Firefox 1.5 took longer to start up than other browsers,154 which was confirmed by further speed tests.155 IE 6 launched more swiftly than Firefox 1.5 on Windows XP since many of its components were built into the OS and loaded during system startup. As a workaround for the issue, a preloader application was created that loaded components of Firefox on startup, similar to Internet Explorer.156 A Windows Vista feature called SuperFetch performs a similar task of preloading Firefox if it is used often enough.
Tests performed by PC World and Zimbra in 2006 indicated that Firefox 2 used less memory than Internet Explorer 7.157158 Firefox 3 used less memory than Internet Explorer 7, Opera 9.50 Beta, Safari 3.1 Beta, and Firefox 2 in tests performed by Mozilla, CyberNet, and The Browser World.159160161 In mid-2009, Betanews benchmarked Firefox 3.5 and declared that it performed "nearly ten times better on XP than Microsoft Internet Explorer 7".162
Downloads have continued at an increasing rate since Firefox 1.0 was released in November 2004, and as of July 31, 2009 Firefox had already been downloaded over one billion times.165 This number does not include downloads using software updates or those from third-party websites.166 They do not represent a user count, as one download may be installed on many machines, one person may download the software multiple times, or the software may be obtained from a third party. According to Mozilla, Firefox has more than 450 million users as of October 2012[update].23167
Firefox was the second-most used web browser until December 2011, when Google Chrome surpassed it.169
As of February 2014[update], Firefox was the third most widely used browser, with approximately 20% of worldwide usage share of web browsers.192122 According to StatCounter, Firefox usage peaked in November 2009 and usage share remained stagnant until October 2010 when it lost market share, a trend that continued for over a year. Its first consistent gains in usage share since September 2010 occurred in February through May 2012 before declining to its lowest in October 2013 before then recovering slightly.21
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|Find more about Firefox at Wikipedia's sister projects|
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- Official website for end-users
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