Music of Bangladesh

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Music of Bangladesh
Paban Das Baul at Nine Lives concert, 2009.jpg
Genres
Specific forms
Religious music
Ethnic music
Traditional music
Media and performance
Music awards
Music festivals
Music media

Radio

Television

Internet

Nationalistic and patriotic songs
National anthem Amar Sonar Bangla
Other Chol Chol Chol
Amar Bhaier Rokte Rangano
Regional music
Related areas
Other regions

The music of Bengaladesh, also referred to as Bangladeshi music, comprises a long tradition of religious and secular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium. Composed with lyrics in the Bengali language, Bengali music spans a wide variety of styles. In Bangladesh music has served the purpose of documenting the lives of the people and was widely patronized by the rulers.

Classical

Nazrul sangeet origins from the works of Kazi Nazrul Islam

Bangladeshi classical music is based on modes called ragas (rag, in Bengali). All traditional Bengali music tend to be based on various variations of Hindustani Classical Music. Rabindra sangeet (based on the work of the Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore) is one of the best-known genres of Bengali music outside Bangladesh.

Folk

Painting depicting Hason Raja.

Bengali folk has become an important musical influences in the lives of Bengalis on both sides of the (West Bengal-Bangladesh) border. Among these are Lalon Fokir, Radharaman Dutta, Hason Raja, Khursheed Nurali (Sheerazi), Ramesh Shill and Abbas Uddin. All folk songs are characterised by simple musical structure and words. Before the advent of radio, entertainment in the rural areas relied to a large extent on stage performances by folk singers. After the arrival of new communication and digital media, many folk songs were modernised and incorporated into modern songs (Adhunik songeet).

Folk music can be classified into several sub-genres:

  • Baul: mainly inspired by Lalon Fokir and almost exclusively performed by hermits.
  • Bhandari: devotional music from the South (mainly Chittagong).
  • Bhatiali: music of fishermen and boatman, almost always tied by a common raga (mode), sung solo.
  • Bhawaiya: song of bullock-cart drivers of the North (Rangpur).
  • Dhamail: a form of folk music and dance originated in Sylhet, Bangladesh. It is practiced in the erstwhile district of Sylhet in Bangladesh and in areas influenced by the Sylheti culture such as Cachar, parts of Shillong, Karimganj and Hailakandi Districts of Assam, parts of Tripura in India.
  • Ghazal: Popularity of folk music of Sufi genres: introduction of philosophy and religion in music.
  • Gombhira: song (originating in Chapai Nawabganj, in the Northwest) performed with a particular distinctive rhythm and dance with two performers, always personifying a man and his grand father, discussing a topic to raise social awareness.
  • Hason Raja: devotional songs written by music composer Hason Raja (from Sylhet, northeastern side of Bangladesh near Assam) that was recently repopularised as dance music.
  • Jari: songs involving musical battle between two groups
  • Jatra Pala: songs associated exclusively with plays (performed on-stage). Usually involves colourful presentations of historical themes.
  • Kirtan: devotional song depicting love of Hindu god Krishno and his (best-known) wife, Radha.
  • Kavigan: poems sung with simple music usually presented on stage as a musical battle between poets.
  • Lalon: best known of all folk songs and the most import sub-genre of Baul songs, almost entirely attributed to spiritual writer and composer, Lalon Fokir of Kushtia. He is known to all in wast Bengal of India too.(Western Bangladesh, near the border with West Bengal).
  • Sari: sung especially by boatmen. It is often known as workmen's song as well.
  • Shyama Sangeet: a genre of Bengali devotional songs dedicated to the Hindu goddess Shyama or Kali which is a form of supreme universal mother-goddess Durga or parvati. It is also known as Shaktagiti or Durgastuti.1

Baul

Baul is the most commonly known category of Bangladeshi folk songs. It is mostly performed by hermits who are followers of Sufism in Bangladesh. Present day Sufis earn mainly from performing their music. Baul songs incorporate simple words expressing songs with deeper meanings involving creation, society, lifestyle and human emotions. The songs are performed with very little musical support to the main carrier, the vocal.

Instruments used include the Ektara ("one-string"), Dotara ("two-strings"), ba(n)shi (country flute made from bamboo)) and cymbals. In recent timeswhen?, Baul geeti has lost popularity, due to urbanisation and westernisation.

Adhunik

Adhunik sangeet literally means "modern songs". Although, to outsiders, this may seem like an ambiguous nomenclature, it has particular motivations.

Bengali music traditionally has been classified mainly by the region of origin and the creators of the musical genre, such as Nazrul geeti (written and composed by Kazi Nazrul Islam), ghombhira (unique to a specific area in Bangladesh), etc. However, this prevented the ability to classify any music that failed to fit into any of the classes. In the period just before Indian independence, several new minor musical genres emerged, mainly in the form of playback songs for movies. A miscellaneous category, Adhunik sangeet, was created, since, at that time, this music was "modern".

Rabindra Sangeet

Rabindra Sangeet (Bengali: রবীন্দ্রসঙ্গীত Robindro shonggit, Bengali pronunciation: [ɾobind̪ɾo ʃoŋɡit̪]), also known as Tagore Songs, are songs written and composed by Rabindranath Tagore. They have distinctive characteristics in the music of Bengal, popular in India and Bangladesh.2 "Sangeet" means music, "Rabindra Sangeet" means Songs of Rabindra.

Rabindra Sangeet used Indian classical music and traditional folk music as sources.3

Nazrul Geeti

Nazrul Geeti or Nazrul Sangeet, literally "music of Nazrul," are songs written and composed by Kazi Nazrul Islam, a Bengali poet and national poet of Bangladesh and active revolutionary during the Indian Independence Movement. Nazrul Sangeet incorporate revolutionary notions as well as more spiritual, philosophical and romantic themes.

Modern music and western influence

Modernisation of Bengali music occurred at different times and, for the most part, independent of western influence. Most notable of these changes were:

Film music

The film industry of Bangladesh supported music by according reverence to classical music while utilizing the western orchestration to support melodies.

Rock music

Bangladeshi rock was introduced as a genre by Azam Khan, Souls, Miles, Nagar Baul, Warfaze, RockStrata, LRB and Ark.

Bengali rock songs became particularly popular following albums:

  • Warfaze :(Obak Bhalobasha) (Alo),
  • Ark: (Tajmohol),(Janmabhumi),(Shadhinota),
  • Nagar Baul :(Thik ache bondhu),
  • Miles: (Prottasha) etc. in 1900s.

The first female rock singer of Bangladesh was the popular young teenage singer Tishma.

Fusion

Fusion, traditional music with Western instrumentation to revitalize and re-popularize Bengali music. Joler Gaan and Lampost are one of the best popular Fusion bands in Bangladesh.

Instruments

Common instruments are:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Shyamasangit". Banglapedia. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  2. ^ Ghosh, p. xiii
  3. ^ Huke, Robert E. (2009). "West Bengal". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 

External links








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