Music of North Korea
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After the division of Korea in 1945, Korea was split, into the Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea and the Republic of Korea or South Korea. Revolutionary song-writing traditions were channeled into support for the state, eventually becoming a style of patriotic song called taejung kayo in the 1980s1 combining classical and Korean traditional musical forms.2
Many North Korean pop songs are usually performed by a young female singer with an electric ensemble, percussionist, and accompanying singers and dancers. Some North Korean pop songs such as Hwiparam (Whistle) have become popular in South Korea.3 They are primarily influenced by Korean pop music and songs have titles like "Don't Ask My Name", "Our Life Is Precisely a Song", "We Shall Hold Bayonets More Firmly", "The Joy of Bumper Harvest Overflows Amidst the Song of Mechanisation",4 and "The Dear General Uses Distance-Shrinking Magic" (Chukjibeop)."5 Songs like "We are One" and "Reunification Rainbow" sing of the hopes for Korean reunification. In 2012, North Korea's first girl band, the Moranbong Band, made their world debut.6 They are a group of five North Korean women who were hand-selected by Kim Jong Un.7
BBC radio disc jockey Andy Kershaw noted, on a visit to North Korea, that the only recordings available were by the pop singers Jon Hye-yong, Kim Kwang-suk, Jo Kum-hwa, and Ri Pun-hui, and the groups Wangjaesan Light Music Band, the Mansudae Art Troupe, and the Pochonbo Electronic Ensemble, who play in a style Kershaw refers to as "light instrumental with popular vocal".4 There is also the State Symphony Orchestra, the Sea of Blood Opera Company, two choruses, an orchestra and an ensemble dedicated to Isang Yun's compositions, all in Pyongyang. The Pyongyang Film Studios also produces many instrumental songs for its films, and several programs on Korean Central Television have music made and performed by the Central Radio and Television Orchestra.
- Song and Dance Ensemble of the Korean People's Army
- Korean People's Army State Merited Chorus and Ensemble
- Song and Dance Ensemble of the Korean People's Navy
- Song and Dance Ensemble of the Korean People's Air Force
- Song and Dance Ensemble of the Department of People's Security of the DPRK
- Central Military Band of the Department of the People's Armed Forces of the DPRK
- Women's Military Marching Band of the Department of People's Security of the DPRK
- Unhasu National Orchestra
- State Symphony Orchestra of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
- Isang Yun Symphony Orchestra
- Pochonbo Electronic Ensemble
- Wangjaesan Light Music Band and Wangjaesan Dance Troupe
- Moranbong Band
- Musical groups under the Mansudae Art Troupe
- MAT Merited Women's Instrumental Ensmeble
- MAT Samjiyon Band
- Central Radio and Television Orchestra
- Pyongyang Film Studios Orchestra
- Phibada Opera Troupe8
North Korean music, like any general Korean music, includes kinds of both folk and classical, courtly music, including genres like sanjo, pansori, and nongak. Pansori is long vocal and percussive music played by one singer and one drummer. The lyrics tell one of five different stories, but is individualized by each performer, often with updated jokes and audience participation. Nongak is a rural form of percussion music, typically played by twenty to thirty performers. Sanjo is entirely instrumental that shifts rhythms and melodic modes during the song. Instruments include the changgo drum set against a melodic instrument, such as the gayageum or ajaeng.4
North Korean music follows the principles of Juche (self-reliance) ideology. The characteristic marchlike, upbeat music of North Korea is carefully composed, rarely individually performed, and its lyrics and imagery have a clear socialist content. Some religious or original folk music may still exist in North Korea, but reliable sources are absent in the west.
The most common music genre is a type of patriotic song known as taejung kayo, which developed in the 1980s. The songs are generally sung by female performers with accompanying bands or choirs accompanied by a large orchestra (either Western style or a hybrid of western and traditional) or concert band. The composition and performance of all music in North Korea is controlled by the state, and all lyrics are optimistic. Much music is composed for movies, and the works of the Korean composer Isang Yun (1917-1995), who spent much of his life in Germany, are popular in North Korea.
In North Korea, traditional instruments have been adapted in order to allow them to compete with Western instruments. Many older musical forms remain and are used in both traditional performances that have been attuned to the ideas and the way of life of the modern North Korean communist state and to accompany modern songs in praise of Kim ll-sung, his son and successor, Kim Jong-il, and Kim Jong-un from 2012 onward, plus songs that wish for a reunited Korea, thus creating a mix of traditional and Western music that is truly North Korean, a unique variant of Korean music as a whole mixing the old and the new.
The modern Ongnyugeum zithers and the Sohaegeum four stringed fiddle are North Korean modernized versions of traditional Korean musical instruments, both used in traditional and modern musical forms.
- "Pop music of Asia". IIAS Newsletter Online. Retrieved September 27, 2005.
- Provine, Rob, Hwang, Okon and Kershaw, Andy. "Our Life Is Precisely a Song". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 160-169. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
- Wangjaesan Light Music Band, "The General Uses Warp. Korean Central Television
- Stage Art of DPRK Improved in 2012
- Korean Central Television: Testcard Music Compilation in DPRKMusicChannel
- BBC Radio 3 Audio (75 minutes): Kershaw in North Korea, part 1. Accessed November 25, 2010.
- BBC Radio 3 Audio (90 minutes): Kershaw in North Korea, part 2. Accessed November 25, 2010.
- North Korean TV Segments - includes many North Korean music videos of old folk tunes, instrumentals, very talented children performing song and dance and propaganda tunes.
- Kim Jong-il Janggunui Norae - example of North Korean Music, with lyrics (in Korean) and mp3 recordings: (External; licensed for non-commercial use.)