9 WH 3
|Region||White County, Georgia|
|Nearest town||Helen, Georgia|
|Culture||South Appalachian Mississippian culture|
|First occupied||100 BCE|
|Period||Early Middle Woodland, Lamar Phase|
|Excavation and maintenance|
|Dates excavated||1915, 2004|
|Notable archaeologists||Frederick Webb Hodge, George H. Pepper|
|Architectural styles||platform mound|
|Number of temples||
Sautee Valley Historic District
|NRHP Reference #||86002742|
|Added to NRHP||August 20, 19861|
The Nacoochee Mound, (9WH3), is an archaeological site on the banks of the Chattahoochee River in White County, in the northeast part of the U.S. state of Georgia, at the junction of Georgia Georgia State Route 17 and Georgia State Route 75. The platform mound was totally excavated, but a reconstruction was built.2 The site is part of the Sautee Valley Historic District which was added to the National Register of Historical Places on August 20, 1986 as reference number 86002742.1 The site was built by peoples of the South Appalachian Mississippian culture (a regional variation of the Mississippian culture)3
In the 1870s mound site was owned by Captain John H. Nichols, who reported plowing up Mississippian culture stone box graves to the west of the mound. The mound itself is described in 1873 as being 16 feet (4.9 m) in height in a report on Native American sites in Georgia, a publication authored by Charles C. Jones. In 1890 Captain Nichols removed the top 2 feet (0.61 m) of the mound and built a locally famous gazebo on its new summit. The mound was formally excavated in 1915 by a team of archaeologists headed by Frederick Webb Hodge and George H. Pepper and sponsored by the Heye Foundation and the Bureau of American Ethnology.4 George Gustav Heye wrote a book about the excavation, The Nacoochee mound in Georgia, with Hodge and Pepper, which was published in 1918.5 The excavation uncovered 75 human burials, including 56 adults, seven adolescents, and four children, and eight bodies that were too degraded for their ages to be determined.4 The burials were layered, dating from different time periods. About a third of the individuals were buried with artifacts indicative of social status, including hammered copper and stone celts, conch shell beads and cups, and elaborate Mississippian culture pottery. Some later burials included glass beads and sheet brass ornaments, indicating that these were intrusive burials of 17th century Europeans.2
Test excavations at the site in 2004 by the University of Georgia Archaeology Field School resulted in evidence that the sites was occupied during the Early Middle Woodland Cartersville Phase and most intensively during the Mississippian period from 1350 to 1600 CE during the Lamar Phase. Pottery sherds characteristic of the Etowah Indian Mounds site in Cartersville, Georgia were found at the site and are evidence that the two sites were occupied during the same time period. There is a small village area in the field to the east of the mound and a much larger village area in the field to the west of the mound. Archaeological evidence suggests that Nacoochee Mound site, and a nearby mound site called the Eastwood Site (9Wh2), served as local administrative centers in the late 15th century and early 16th centuries. A bronze historical marker at the site claims it is the "ancient Cherokee town of Gauxule, visited by Hernando de Soto in 1540." Little to no evidence of Cherokee occupation was found during the 2004 test excavations and it is doubtful that they ever inhabited the site.24
The original Nacoochee Mound was partially excavated, but a reconstruction exists on the estate of former Georgia governor Lamartine Griffin Hardman, in the Nacoochee Valley in White County, two miles south of Helen.
- "National Register of Historic Places". Retrieved 2012-04-09.
- Langford, James B., Jr. (2002-08-08). "Nacoochee Mound". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. The Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
- "Southeastern Prehistory:Mississippian and Late Prehistoric Period". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
- Mark Williams (2004). "Nacoochee Revisited: The 2004 Project". University of Georgia, Lamar Institute.
- "The Nacoochee mound in Georgia (1918)". American Libraries. Internet Archive. Retrieved 2007-05-27.
- Folk Pottery Museum of Northeast Georgia
- Nacoochee Mound images, National Museum of the America Indian