Nashik

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Nasik
नाशिक
Metropolis
Nasik city view from Pandavleni
Nasik city view from Pandavleni
Nickname(s): Wine Capital Of India/Grape City/Pilgrimage City
Nasik is located in Maharashtra
Nasik
Nasik
Coordinates: 20°00′N 73°47′E / 20.00°N 73.78°E / 20.00; 73.78Coordinates: 20°00′N 73°47′E / 20.00°N 73.78°E / 20.00; 73.78
Country  India
State Maharashtra
District Nasik
Government
 • Mayor Hon. Mr. Yatin Wagh (MNS)
Area
 • Total 360 km2 (140 sq mi)
Elevation 560 m (1,840 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,885,973
Demonym Nashikkar
Languages
 • Official Marathi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 422 0xx
Telephone code 91(253)
Vehicle registration MH 15 (Nashik), MH 41 (Malegaon), MH 51 (Nashik Rural)
Website nashik.nic.in

Nashik (Marathi: नाशीक)(pron:ˈnʌʃɪk) (About this sound pronunciation )1(also spelled as Nasik) is a city in western India in the state of Maharashtra. Nashik is located in the north-west of Maharashtra, 171 km (106 mi) from Mumbai and 210 km (130 mi) from Pune and is the administrative headquarters of the Nashik District and Nashik Division. With a population of 1.5 million, Nashik is the third largest city in Maharashtra23 and Nashik district is the eleventh most populous district in India.4Mumbai, Pune and Nashik are known as golden triangle in Maharashtra.

Nashik is said to be the abode of Lord Rama during his 14 years in exile. It is located on the banks of the Godavari which originates in the south-west of the city at Trimbakeshwar. It is one of the four places in the world where the Kumbh Mela is held making it one of the holiest Hindu cities. The city is a site for more than 100 ancient temples including the Kalaram Temple and Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple.

Nashik ranks 16th in a global study of fastest developing cities conducted by The City Mayors Foundation, an international think tank on urban affairs and has witnessed significant economic progress in the last decade. Nashik is also short listed for the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor as an investment region. The city is also known as the Wine Capital of India since it accounts to a large amount of the country's grape export and there are many vineyards in and around Nashik. It also plays an utmost important role in agriculture onion, tomatoes and many other vegetables are exported from Nasik to various parts of the world. In addition, Nashik is known for its picturesque surroundings, climate and tourism.

History

Raam, Lakshman, Sita at a Nashik Temple.
"Ram kund".

The city got its present name in 1818 when the Peshwas got control of the city.5 The Peshwa rule however, did not last long and the British captured Nashik in the very same year. In 1840, one of the first modern libraries of Maharashtra (then, the Presidency of Bombay) was founded at Nashik.

After the fall of the Satavahana empire, the Abhiras or Ahirs ruled in the north east and the Chutus in Maharashtra and Kuntala. The Puranas state that ten Abhiras ruled for, 67 years. The Nasik inscription peaks of king Madhuriputra Ishvarasena, the Abhir and a son of Shivadatla. This dynasty originated in A. D. 249-50, an era called Kalachuri or Chedi in later times.6

Some of the major events in history of Nashik in last 3 centuries were:

  • 1615 : The City was captured by Moguls from Nijamshah Sultan
  • 1634 : The City was recaptured by Shahaji Raje for his new state of Nijamshah Headqaurtered in Pemgiri(Near Sangamner)
  • 1636 : Shahaji Raje made Pact with Mogul Nashik again moved to Mogul rule
  • 1663 : Netaji Palkar recovered "Chauthai" from Nashik for Shivaji Maharaj of Pune
  • 1673 : Jadhavrao and Siddi Halal left job of Mogul and joined army of Shivaji Maharaj on Tribak Fort thus Nashik became part of Maratha rule
  • 1685 : Aurangjeb Captured Nashik City during Sambhaji Maharaj's rule.
  • 1695 : City was raided by Santaji followed by Temporary Maratha Rule
  • 1719 : Officially Shahu got right to collect "Chauthai" of City from Moguls of Delhi
  • 1725 : The city frequently camped by Marathas who heading to Malwa, Gujrat for campaigns.
  • 1734 : The 'Gulshanabad' city was given name 'NASHIK'.
  • 1862 : Nashik Road railway station was built.
  • 1864 : Nashik Municipality formed
  • 1869 : Nashik district formed.


Nashik also participated in the freedom struggle of India. On December 21, 1909, 17-year-old Anant Kanhere shot the Collector of Nashik, Jackson in a theatre named Vijayanand theatre, where he had gone to see a play Sharada.7 Jackson died on the spot. The people involved in the incident, Anant Laxman Kanhere, Krishnaji Gopal Karve and Vinayak Ramchandra Deshpande were sentenced to death by hanging and were hanged soon after.8

In 1930, the Nashik Satyagraha was launched under the leadership of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar for the entry of Dalits in Kalaram temple. In 1931, a meeting of the Bombay Province Charmkar Parishad was organised in Nashik to work out the Chambhars' position with regard to the Second Round Table Conference in which Babasaheb was going to participate. In 1932, Babasaheb organized his temple entry movement for the abolition of untouchability in Nashik.

On October 31, 1955, the Government of India inaugurated a press in Nashik for printing government stationery.

Mythology

According to Ramayana, Lord Rama, the King of Ayodhya, made Nashik his home during his 14 years in exile. At the same place Lakshmana, cut off the nose of Surpanakha and thus this place was named as "Nasik"(in Sanskrit Nasika means nose). Several other references to the Ramayana can be found in Nashik, which includes the Sita Gumpha caves, from where Sita, Lord Rama's wife, was abducted by Ravana.

Panchavati

Panchavati has significant religious significance for Hindus with a temple complex on the bend of the Godavari river, which includes Kalaram Temple.9 It is a pilgrimage site,10 with the Kumbh Mela, the largest peaceful gathering in the world – involving over 100 million people in 2013, taking place here once every twelve years in rotation with Haridwar, Allahabad, and Ujjain.11

In Hindu theology, as outlined in the epic Ramayana, Panchavati was the place in the forest of Dandakaranya (Danda Kingdom), where Rama built his home along with his wife Sita and brother Lakshman during their period of exile in the wilderness. Panchavati literally means "a garden of five banyan trees". These trees are said to have been there during the exile of Lord Rama.12 There is a place called Tapovan where Lakshmana, the brother of Rama, cut off the nose of Surpanakha, the sister of Ravana, when she attempted to kill Sita. The entire Aranya Kanda (book of the forest) of Ramayana is set in Panchavati.

Geography

Trimbakeshwar Temple near Nashik (source of the Godavari River)

Nashik is located in northern Maharashtra at 600 m (2,000 ft)13 from the mean sea level. The river Godavari originates 24 km (15 mi) from Nashik and flows along the northern boundary of the city through the old residential settlement in the city. Nashik lies on western edge of the Deccan Plateau which is a volcanic formation.14 The soil here is primarily black which is favorable for agriculture. Trimbakeshwar is about 30 km (19 mi) from the city, from where river Godavari originates. The total land area of the city is about 259.13 km2 (100.05 sq mi)15 which makes it the third largest urban area of Maharashtra after Mumbai Metropolitan Region and the Pune and Pimpri Chinchwad Urban Region (together as second).

Climate

Climate data for Nashik City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29
(84)
31
(88)
32
(90)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(90)
28
(82)
27
(81)
29
(84)
32
(90)
31
(88)
29
(84)
30.5
(86.9)
Average low °C (°F) 10
(50)
12
(54)
16
(61)
20
(68)
22
(72)
23
(73)
22
(72)
21
(70)
21
(70)
18
(64)
14
(57)
12
(54)
17.6
(63.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 1.1
(0.043)
0.4
(0.016)
3.4
(0.134)
6.7
(0.264)
16.2
(0.638)
98.1
(3.862)
206.4
(8.126)
134.6
(5.299)
146.1
(5.752)
49.0
(1.929)
21.3
(0.839)
7.2
(0.283)
690.5
(27.185)
Source: wunderground. com16

Demographics

Religions in Nashik
Religion Percent
Hindu
  
64.0%
Muslim
  
23.0%
Buddhist
  
10.0%
Jain
  
1.5%
Other†
  
1.5%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikh (1.0%), Christian (<0.5%).

According to the Census of India, 2011, Nashik had a population of 1,480,769. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Nashik had an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 64%; male literacy was 80%, and female literacy was 66%. In Nashik, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. In the same year (census year 2001) the Nashik Urban Agglomeration had a population of 1,152,326 and thus it was the fourth largest urban area of Maharashtra State after Mumbai, Pune and Nagpur. The projected population of Nashik urban agglomeration (which includes abutting urban areas like Deolali) as on 11 November 2012 is 1,562,769.17

Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism and Jainism are four major religions in Nashik with 64.0%, 23.0%, 10.0% and 1.5% of the population following them. And others are 1.5% 52.5% of Nashik's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Administration

Nashik is the headquarters of Nashik District and is also the headquarters of Nashik Revenue Division of Maharashtra. (Maharashtra has a total of 6 Revenue divisions). The city is administered by the Nashik Municipal Corporation which came into existence in 1982 by combining Nashik Municipality and surrounding civic bodies i.e. Nashik Road Municipality. A planned area18 was introduced in Nashik which was designed and executed by CIDCO (New Nashik)which is now administered by the Nashik Municipal Corporation.

Deolali, which is also a part of the Nashik urban agglomeration, has a separate civic body called the Deolali Cantonment Board.

Environment

Solid Waste Management Project

In the entire Nashik Municipal Corporation area about 225 MT of solid waste is generated per day. Unlike other Indian cities, this garbage is collected by vehicles titled 'Ghantagadi' (meaning the vehicle with a bell); a system which has resulted into a 'garbage dump free' city. Smaller versions of the ghantagadi ply in the congested old city areas. A plant has been set by the Nashik Municipal Corporation near Pandav Leni (Pandavleni Caves) to process the garbage and convert into compost.19

Rain Water Harvesting

The Nashik Municipal Corporation has made it mandatory for new constructions in the city to install a rain water harvesting system without which a completion certificate is not granted to the construction. This measure is expected to help recharge the aquifers and augment the ground water level in the city.20

Kumbh mela: 1989 Kumbhmela
Nashik-Mumbai NH3
Godapark: a pedestrian street near Godavari River

Kumbh Mela

Nashik host one of the largest religious gathering in the world known as Maha Kumbh. Kumbh mela (festival) is celebrated once in twelve years. The Ardh (half) Kumbh Mela is celebrated every six years at Haridwar and Allahabad, the Purna (complete) Kumbh takes place every twelve years at four places in Allahabad, Haridwar, Ujjain, and Nashik. Previous kumbh mela was in year 2003. Next kumbh mela will be held from August 15 to September 13 in 2015.

Economy

Industry

Shalimar market, one of the busiest commercial areas of nashik

Major industries

There is a Hindustan Aeronautics Limited aircraft manufacturing plant located 10 mi (16 km) from Nashik,21 which employs about 7000 people.Hal is one of the largest employers in nasik city and there is further scope of aerospace manufacturing development with the liberalization of defence policy of the government. The Currency Note Press and Indian Security Press are located in Nashik Road, where Indian currency and government stamp papers are printed respectively.22 Manufacturers who have set up plants in the Nashik MIDC area include: Bosch India, Mahindra and Mahindra, CEAT, Thyssen Krupp, Epcos, Atlas Copco, Crompton Greaves, ABB, GlaxoSmithKline, Cipla, L&T, Schneider Electric, Jindal Steel, Lear Corporation, Kirloskar, IBP, Coca Cola, Siemens, Shalimar Paints.citation needed

Nashik is also emerging as a business process outsourcing (BPO/IT) destination and is on a list of the emerging Tier II cities for BPO/IT companies.citation needed There are some renowned IT companies in Nashik like Datamatics, Winjit Technologies, Tecsys Solutions Pvt. Ltd, Netwin Systems & Software (I) Pvt Ltd, gloStream, Garyhat Vision Technologies Pvt Ltd., RackMyServer, ESDS Software Solutions Pvt Ltd, Aress Software & Education Technologies (P) Ltd, WNS Global Services, ZTEK Consulting Pvt.Ltd.etc. Currently there is one private IT park called Vascon,23 and another under construction at Ambad named Anand Mahindra IT Park.citation needed. Accenture is setting up its new unit in Nashik, which will be functional in few months.18 new IT companies have also started construction in Nashik.

There are two thermal power plants, the Nashik Thermal Power Station24 and the Indiabulls Power Ltd Sinnar.25 Also, Suzlon energy has wind power generation in Sinnar.

There is also has some textile industry, e.g. carpet weaving in remote areas like Surgana Block,citation needed with export quality carpets prepared in and around Umbarthan.citation needed NABARD has selected Yeola Block for development of Paithani Cluster.26

Nashik also has 36 world class wineries out of 74 in Maharashtra.citation needed Nashik is known as the "wine capital of India".27 Nashik has also many liquor manufacturing factories, such as United Spirits Ltd, Pernod-Ricard, and Sula Wines.

Agriculture

Nashik is famous for grapes, onions, and tomatoes. Nashik was famous for its table grapes for a very long time. Also Known As Wine Capital Of India, In early 1925, the Table Grape revolution was started in Ojhar, a small town near Nashik. Today, table grapes are being exported to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia.28

Bajra is important crop of the District. However other crops like wheat, paddy and other cereals are also grown in various parts of the District. Paddy is mainly grown in Tribal belt i.e. Igatpuri, Peth, and Surgana Blocks. Vegetables and onion were main cash crops for last 30 years. Because of variety of vegetables and its supply to Mumbai, the District was known as Backyard of Mumbai. After establishment of sugar factories, Sugarcane has acquired important position in the agriculture economy of the District. One sugar factory under private sector at Ravalgaon and other sugar factories under co-operative sector at Niphad, Ranwad, Palse, Materewadi and Vithewadi are functioning in the District. Economic development in the rural area with speed started only after establishment of sugar factories. The Government has granted permission for starting four sugar factories under private sector as a result of the liberalisation. One sugar factory in private sector has started functioning in Satana Block (Dwarkadhish) This development was however concentrated around the existing sugar factories. Since last 20 years grapes have acquired dominance on the agricultural economy of District. Due to water shortage in Kalwan, Deola, Baglan and Malegaon blocks the farmers have shifted to pomegranate from sugar cane and grape crops. Some progressive farmers are cultivating flowers in greenhouses.

Cuisine

Nashik traditionally boasts of a Maharashtrian cuisine with influences from Khandesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat. The modern city however offers a range of restaurants with cuisines ranging from Punjabi, South Indian to Chinese and European cuisines. Variety of decent hotels in Nashik city serve food ranging from regions' spicy fare to international cuisine.

Sports

Cricket is the most popular sport in Nashik. The old city also patronizes traditional Maharashtrian sports like Kabbaddi and Kho Kho. There Are many big stadiums in Nashik City like Chhatrapati Raje Sambaji Stadium, Golf Ground, YCMOU, RYK College, KTHM College. The Nashik Gymkhana is the principal place for playing formal sports and also to get formal training. Three swimming pools at Ashwin Nagar, Trimbak Road and Nashik Road are run by the Civil administration. Gulf Cup Dirt Track Racing took place in the city in 2011. In September 2012 WISA motor rally was conducted in the city. Also from the last 4 years a Nasik Premier League is being conducted replicating the Indian Premier League.

Education

Nashik has been the educational hub of North Maharashtra. The city has two state-run universities, the Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University and the Maharashtra University of Health Sciences. Colleges in Nashik are affiliated to Pune University.Pune university has announced setting up of an additional campus in nashik which is to be located on dindori road and spread over 100 acres of land.Today the city houses a large number of private and governmental educational institutions offering higher education in Medicine, Engineering & Technology, Architecture, Pharmacy, Military Management among others. Bhonsala Military School is the oldest residential school in Nashik. Indian Railway has also established its Advanced Training Institute for electrical engineers namely, Indian Railway Institute of Electrical Engineers IREEN here at Nashik. Nashik is also home to private institutions such as Divyadaan: Salesian Institute of Philosophy on Don Bosco Marg off College Road, Sacred Heart Sisters of Sacred Heart Convent High School lies here. Various Colleges like Gokhale Education Society, Matoshri Education Society and KTHM College are located here. Nashik also hosts one of the most prominent B-schools in the country:29 Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management (SIOM), a unique institution for Engineers, that offers management programs in operations under the banner of Symbiosis International University which is ranked 66th in India.30

Transport

The NH 3 Flyover (India's second largest road bridge)

Roads

Nashik is on the intersection of two National Highways: the Mumbai–Agra Highway NH-3 and the Nashik–Pune Highway NH-50. Apart from these, other major cities like Aurangabad are connected via a state highway which is also 4 lane highway. Nashik is easily accessible by road from Gujarat state in western India. There are other numerous State Highways which offer very good road connectivity to Nashik. Nasik is well connected to Mumbai through Mumbai Nashik Expressway which is a part of Mumbai-Agra Highway (NH3)connects Dhule and Indore to the city on the other side of the highway. Pune is connected through NH 50 which is to be upgraded into a four lane road soon. City offers best and modern Road infrastructure

Public Transport

MSRTC Shivneri bus

Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs cheaper transport service for intercity, interstate, interstate travel. It has Three bus stations in Nashik: Nashik Bus Sthanak (CBS-1) at Thakkar bazar, Mahamarg bus stand and old CBS. Its services include semiluxury 2+2 NEEM AARAAM, Parivartan 2+2, Asiad 2+2, and ordinary ST 2+3. Bus services are available for big cities in and around the states like Indore, Amravati, Pune, Aurangabad, Shirdi, Mumbai, Nanded, Nagpur, Akola, Jalgaon, Bhusawal, Latur, Buldhana, Washim, Sangli, Satara, Kolhapur, Ratnagiri, Yavatmal, Ahmednagar, Osmanabad, Solapur, Pandharpur, Surat, Ahmadabad, Vadodara etc.

Nashik city bus service

Nashik city bus service is available from various area in nashik city. it has one depot in Panchvati. City bus service run by MSRTC under the JNNURM.

Gujarat State road transport corporation (GSRTC) also runs from nashik and shirdi for various city in Gujarat. Its service include ordinary services. Bus services are available for Gujarat state like Ahmadabad, Surat, Rajkot, Bhavnagar, Patan, Palanpur, Gondal, Amreli, Junagad, Rajpipla, Vadodara, Vapi, Valsad, Navsari.

Rajasthan State road transport corporation (RSRTC) Rajasthan state road transport also provide bus service for Udaipur from shirdi.

Karnataka state road transport corporation (KSRTC) Karnataka state road transport also provide bus service to various cities in karnataka like Bidar, Gulbarga, Belgam, Hubli, Bijapur etc. from Nashik and Trymbekashwar.

Railways

Nashik Road Railway Station is the major railway station in the city which is around 10 km (6.2 mi) from the central area of the city. Deolali railway station is around 20 km from the city which serves the military cantonment area. Nashik Road railway station is an important railway station for Central Railway it generates highest revenue in Bhusawal division.Manmad railway station comes under Nasik district and serves huge importance for visitors travelling towards Shirdi from North and South India.Igatpuri railway station is another major railway station where DC to AC conversion of electric lines are carried out by changing the engine.It has four major platforms. the fourth platform is announced recently

Nashik Road falls on the Mumbai–Bhusawal route of the Central Railways. Nashik is directly connected to various major cities in India like Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata, Nagpur, Kanpur, Guwahati etc. There are a few trains connecting Southern and Northern parts of India which travel via Nashik.

Nashik will also be getting a rail connectivity to Pune through Nashik Pune Rail line and to Indore by Manmad Indore Rail Line and a new platform as announced in Rail Budget debate recently.

Tram

Nashik was one of the few cities to have tramway in India. It operated for few years in the pre-independence era.

Airways

Nashik Domestic Terminal Inauguration

Nashik's Ozar Airport (IATA: ISKICAO: VAOZ) is located at a distance of 20 km (12 mi) from the city center. The new airport terminal at Ozar was inaugurated by Minister Praful Patel on 3 March 2014. This will boost the connectivity and tourism. The flights will soon start from the new terminal. Nashik also has another airport, namely Gandhinagar Airport (IATA: VANR), with a shorter runway, and hence unfit for modern-day passenger aircraft. The government run Vayudoot used to operate a service to Mumbai from, that airport during the 1980s. A military airport is present in Deolali Cantonment.It will carry only domestic flights till date.

Nashik Domestic Airport

Metro Train

Greater Nasik Metro is a proposed metro railway project which will connect city neighborhoods Igatpuri, Ozar, Deolali to Nasik city.

Tourism

Aerial view of Nashik from the Pandavleni Caves

There are a number of notable places in or near Nashik, including the Gargoti Museum, which has a collection of zeolites (micro porous crystalline solids), and is located 32 km (20 mi) from Nashik in a town called Sinnar. There is also the Coin Museum, founded in 1980, which has a collection about the Indian currency system, including coins, moulds, dyes, replicas and photographs. About 30 km (19 mi) from Nashik is the Dugarwadi waterfall. Nashik is also called as pilgirmage city. Nashik is one of the places where Kumbh Mela is held. There are holy temples like Shree KalaRam Mandir, Trimbakeshwar Temple, Saptshrungi Gad, Gondeshwar Temple, Shree Sunder Narayan Temple, Mukti Dham, Bhakti Dham, Shree Kapaleshwar Mahadev, Shree Laxmi Narayan Temple, Shree Someshwar Temple, Shree Ved Temple and Dutondya Maruti. The other major tourist attraction includes Artillery Centre, NandurMadhmeshwar, Dhammagiri, Saputara, Bhandardara & Kalsubai Peak, Chamber Caves, Shree Godavari Ramkund, Sita Gumpha (Cave), Pandav Caves (Pandav Lani), Godavari Ghat, Ramkund, Dadasaheb Phalke Memorial (Smarak), Veer Savarkar Smarak, Dudhasagar Waterfalls, Jawhar, Blue Lagoon Water Park, Shrine of the Infant Jesus and Sula Vineyard.

Cellular Services

The mobile service providers are Vodafone, Airtel, BSNL Mobile, Reliance GSM, Reliance CDMA, Idea Cellular, Tata DoCoMo GSM, Tata DoCoMo CDMA, Aircel, Uninor and T24.

Cinema, Shopping and Entertainment

Multiplex Location
CineMAX Regimental Plaza, Nashik Road
The Zone, College Road
City Center Mall
INOX (Fame Cinemas) Old Vijay Mamta Theatre, Nashik-Pune Road
BIG Cinemas Purab Paschim Plaza, Trimurti Chowk
Damodar Cinemas Main Road, Shalimar, Nashik
Vijyanand Cinemas Main Road, Shalimar, Nashik
Mahalaskshmi Cinemas Dindori Road, Panchavati, Nashik
Anuradha Cinemas Nashik Road
Mall Location
City Center Mall Untawadi, Nashik
Big Bazaar College Road, Nashik
Pinnacle Mall Trimbak Road, Nashik
Manish Plaza Gangapur Road, Nashik
Big Bazaar Nashik Road, Nashik

Drama Theaters

Drama Theaters Location
Kalidas Kalamandir Near Shalimar Chowk, Nashik
Dadasaheb Gaikwad Sabhagruh Bhabha Nagar, Mumbai Naka
Pasrashuram Saikhedkar Natyagriha Shalimar, Tilak Path
Paluskar Sabhagriha Near Indrakund, Panchavati
Kusumagraj Pratishthan Near Vidya Vikas Circle, Gangapur Road
I.M.A. Hall Next to Moharir Auto, Shalimar Chowk

Notable people

Media

Newspapers

Nashik has a number of print publications which include: Marathi dailies like Sakal, Lokmat, Tarun Bharat, Deshonatti, Maharashtra Times and Loksatta. Hindi newspapers such as a Nav-Bharat and Lokmat Samachar. Newspapers published in English and circulated in Nashik are, The Punya nagari, Gavkari etc. The Indian Express, The Times Of India, The Economic Times and Lokmat Times are English newspapers.

Radio

There are five FM stations broadcasting from Nashik: Radio Mirchi, Red FM 93.5 All India Radio, 94.3 FMGyanVani, Vividh Bharati,

References

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  11. ^ Spinney, Laura. "At Largest Religious Festival, Some Abandon Elderly". National Geographic. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  12. ^ Asian Educational Services (1904). The Great Temples of India, Ceylon, and Burma. Asian Educational Services. p. 27. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
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  30. ^ http://pagalguy.com/rankings/2012

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