New London County, Connecticut

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New London County, Connecticut
New London County Courthouse Connecticut Superior Court.jpg
New London County Courthouse
Map of Connecticut highlighting New London County
Location in the state of Connecticut
Map of the United States highlighting Connecticut
Connecticut's location in the U.S.
Founded 1666
Seat None (formerly New London); since 1960 Connecticut counties no longer have a county government
Largest town Norwich
Area
 • Total 772 sq mi (1,999 km2)
 • Land 666 sq mi (1,725 km2)
 • Water 106 sq mi (275 km2), 13.70%
Population
 • (2010) 274,055
 • Density 412/sq mi (158.9/km²)
Congressional district 2nd

New London County is a county located in the southeastern corner of the U.S. state of Connecticut bordering Long Island Sound. As of 2010 the population was 274,055. The total area of the county is 772 square miles (2,000 km2), including inland and coastal waters.

As is the case with all eight of Connecticut's counties, there is no county government and no county seat. In Connecticut, Towns are responsible for all local government activities, including fire and rescue, snow removal and schools. In a few cases, neighboring Towns will share certain resources (e.g. water, gas, etc.). New London County is merely a group of Towns on a map; it has no governmental authority.

It contains reservations of four of the five state-recognized Native American tribes, although the Paugassett were historically located further west.

History

Southeastern New England was dominated by the powerful Pequot people at the time of English encounter; they spoke the Mohegan-Pequot language and were one of the Algonquian-speaking tribes in the coastal areas. After years of conflict, the English and their Indian allies killed many and disrupted the Pequot in the Pequot War of 1637, ending their dominance. Two descendant Pequot tribes are recognized by the state today, as are three other tribes, all descended from Algonquian peoples.

New London County was one of four original counties in Connecticut that were established on May 10, 1666, by an act of the Connecticut General Court. The act establishing the county states:

This Court orders that from the Paukatuck River wth
Norridge to ye west bounds of Homonoscet Plantation1 shalbe
for future one County, wch County is called the County of
N: London. And it is ordered that the County Court shalbe
held at N. London the first Wednesday in June and the third
Thursday in Septembr yearly.2

As established in 1666, New London County consisted of the towns of Stonington, Norwich, New London, and Saybrook. The "Homonoscet Plantation" referred to in the constituting Act was settled in March 1663, at first as Kenilworth but incorporated as the town of Killingworth in 1667.3 Several new towns were incorporated and added to New London over the next few decades: Preston in 1687, Colchester in 1699, and Lebanon in 1700. The settlements along the Quinebaug Valley were placed under New London jurisdiction in 1697 (later incorporated as Plainfield in 1699). By 1717, more towns were established in northeastern Connecticut (between the Quinebaug Valley and the Rhode Island border) and added to New London County.

Windham County was constituted from Hartford and New London counties on 12 May 1726, consisting of towns in northeastern Connecticut. New London County lost the towns of Voluntown, Pomfret, Killingly, Canterbury, Plainfield, and Lebanon to the newly formed county. In 1785, Middlesex County was constituted, consisting of towns along the lower Connecticut River Valley, taking away the towns of Killingworth and Saybrook from New London County. Several additional boundary adjustments took place in the 19th century: the establishment of the town of Marlborough in 1803, the transfer of the town of Lebanon from Windham County in 1824, and the transfer of the town of Voluntown from Windham County in 1881.4

Geography

According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 771.66 square miles (1,998.6 km2), of which 665.91 square miles (1,724.7 km2) (or 86.30%) is land and 105.75 square miles (273.9 km2) (or 13.70%) is water.5

The terrain of the county is mostly level, becoming more elevated only in its northern extreme. The highest point in the county is Gates Hill in the Town of Lebanon at approximately 660 feet (201 m) above sea level, and the lowest point is sea level.

Adjacent counties

Cities, towns, and villages*

Map of New London County, Connecticut showing cities, boroughs, towns, CDPs, and Indian Reservations

* Villages are named localities within towns, but have no separate corporate existence from the towns they are in.

Government and municipal services

As of 1960, counties in Connecticut do not have any associated county government structure. All municipal services are provided by the towns. In order to address regional issues concerning infrastructure, land use, and economic development, regional councils of governments throughout the state were established in 1989. Most of the towns of New London County are part of the Southeastern Connecticut Council of Governments, the exceptions being the towns of Lyme, Old Lyme, and Lebanon. Lyme and Old Lyme are part of the Connecticut River Estuary Regional Planning Agency, while Lebanon is part of the Windham Regional Council of Governments.

Judicial

The geographic area of the county is coterminous with the New London judicial district, with the superior courts located in the cities of New London and Norwich.

Law enforcement

Law enforcement within the geographic area of the county is provided by the respective town police departments. Prior to 2000, a County Sheriff's Department existed for the purpose of executing judicial warrants, prisoner transport, and court security. These responsibilities have now been taken over by the Connecticut State Marshal System.

Fire protection

Fire protection in the county is provided by the towns. Several towns also have fire districts that provide services to a section of the town.

Water service

Water service to 12 of the 21 towns of New London County is provided by a regional non-profit public corporation known as the Southeastern Water Authority. The Southeastern Water Authority supplies water to participating towns within New London County and is one of only two such county-wide public water service providers in the state. Seven towns receive water service from one or more private corporations. The city of Norwich and most of the town of Groton provide for their own water service.

Garbage disposal

Several towns in New London County have organized the Southeastern Connecticut Regional Resources Recovery Authority. The participating towns are East Lyme, Griswold, Groton, Ledyard, Montville, New London, North Stonington, Norwich, Preston, Sprague, Stonington, and Waterford.

Education

Education in the county area is usually provided by the individual town governments. The less populated towns of Lyme and Old Lyme have joined together to form a single, regional school district (Region 18).

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 32,918
1800 34,888 6.0%
1810 34,707 −0.5%
1820 35,943 3.6%
1830 42,201 17.4%
1840 44,463 5.4%
1850 51,821 16.5%
1860 61,731 19.1%
1870 66,570 7.8%
1880 73,152 9.9%
1890 76,634 4.8%
1900 82,758 8.0%
1910 91,253 10.3%
1920 104,611 14.6%
1930 118,966 13.7%
1940 125,224 5.3%
1950 144,821 15.6%
1960 185,745 28.3%
1970 230,654 24.2%
1980 238,409 3.4%
1990 254,957 6.9%
2000 259,088 1.6%
2010 274,055 5.8%
Est. 2012 274,170 0.0%
U.S. Decennial Census6
2012 Estimate7

As of the census8 of 2000, there were 259,088 people, 99,835 households, and 67,188 families residing in the county. The population density was 389 people per square mile (150/km²). There were 110,674 housing units at an average density of 166 per square mile (64/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 87.00% White, 5.29% Black or African American, 0.96% Native American, 1.96% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.05% from other races, and 2.68% from two or more races. 5.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 13.8% were of Irish, 12.7% Italian, 10.8% English, 7.9% German, 7.1% Polish and 6.4% French ancestry according to their self-identification in the Census 2000. 90.1% spoke English, 4.5% Spanish and 1.1% French as their first language.

There were 99,835 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.50% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.70% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the county the population was spread out with 24.40% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, and 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $50,646, and the median income for a family was $59,857. Males had a median income of $41,292 versus $30,525 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,678. About 4.50% of families and 6.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.80% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over.

Demographic breakdown by town

Income

Data is from the 2010 United States Census and the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.910

Rank Town Per capita
income
Median
household
income
Median
family
income
Population Number of
households
1 Lyme Town $64,506 $88,500 $98,500 2,406 1,033
2 Stonington Borough $64,224 $74,583 $96,667 929 531
3 Old Lyme Town $52,037 $92,024 $107,174 7,603 3,172
4 Stonington Town $42,184 $72,445 $86,029 18,545 8,115
5 Salem Town $41,414 $95,000 $106,875 4,151 1,525
6 North Stonington Town $39,588 $88,869 $96,125 5,297 2,052
7 Bozrah Town $38,339 $75,000 $99,625 2,627 1,007
8 Waterford Town $37,690 $69,810 $91,893 19,517 8,005
9 Ledyard Town $37,663 $85,321 $97,152 15,051 5,634
10 East Lyme Town $37,019 $79,815 $102,864 19,159 7,192
11 Colchester Town $35,479 $92,431 $101,860 16,068 5,915
12 Lebanon Town $34,608 $72,431 $80,566 7,308 2,644
13 Lisbon Town $33,685 $77,872 $86,469 4,338 1,659
14 Preston Town $32,956 $77,377 $86,435 4,726 1,869
15 Voluntown Town $32,760 $73,980 $76,197 2,603 1,002
16 Franklin Town $31,518 $74,226 $87,237 1,922 729
17 Sprague Town $31,226 $68,241 $78,438 2,984 1,135
18 Groton Town $31,110 $56,904 $67,465 40,115 15,809
19 Griswold Town $29,421 $59,295 $75,870 11,951 4,646
20 Groton City $28,872 $49,464 $52,366 10,389 4,182
21 Montville Town $28,492 $65,349 $80,156 19,571 6,942
22 Norwich City $26,702 $52,186 $62,616 40,493 16,599
23 Jewett City Borough $23,876 $39,334 $55,781 3,487 1,466
24 New London City $21,110 $43,551 $49,811 27,620 10,373

Race

Data is from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates, "Race alone or in combination with one or more other races."11

Rank Town Population White Black Asian American
Indian
Other Hispanic
1 Groton Town 40,190 83.9% 9.1% 6.1% 2.4% 4.8% 9.4%
2 Norwich City 40,085 74.5% 14.5% 8.3% 2.2% 5.6% 10.0%
3 New London City 27,550 64.5% 20.4% 5.0% 2.5% 13.5% 27.7%
4 Montville Town 19,505 82.8% 6.2% 7.1% 4.0% 3.8% 6.8%
5 Waterford Town 19,451 92.9% 3.7% 3.5% 0.4% 1.7% 4.1%
6 East Lyme Town 19,080 85.9% 5.8% 5.5% 1.1% 4.1% 6.7%
7 Stonington Town 18,482 96.0% 2.2% 2.2% 0.7% 1.3% 2.7%
8 Colchester Town 15,929 97.3% 3.3% 0.6% 0.8% 0.3% 3.8%
9 Ledyard Town 15,016 91.7% 2.3% 5.2% 4.4% 0.9% 4.0%
10 Griswold Town 11,837 94.6% 2.3% 3.3% 0.7% 0.9% 5.2%
11 Groton City 10,305 78.8% 14.9% 6.3% 2.5% 5.2% 11.0%
12 Old Lyme Town 7,583 99.1% 0.5% 0.8% 1.5% 0.3% 1.5%
13 Lebanon Town 7,268 98.5% 1.1% 2.3% 2.1% 0.6% 3.9%
14 North Stonington Town 5,272 96.6% 1.9% 1.1% 0.9% 0.5% 3.5%
15 Preston Town 4,729 89.8% 1.6% 8.5% 3.3% 1.0% 2.5%
16 Lisbon Town 4,322 96.8% 2.3% 1.9% 3.6% 0.0% 0.2%
17 Salem Town 4,118 94.3% 1.0% 6.7% 1.8% 0.5% 4.8%
18 Jewett City Borough 3,445 86.8% 6.6% 8.4% 0.5% 1.2% 8.2%
19 Sprague Town 2,983 90.5% 0.6% 6.1% 0.0% 2.7% 2.7%
20 Bozrah Town 2,603 94.7% 2.9% 1.6% 1.5% 1.0% 2.7%
21 Voluntown Town 2,603 98.4% 2.6% 1.2% 5.1% 0.2% 1.1%
22 Lyme Town 2,327 97.6% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 2.8% 1.5%
23 Franklin Town 1,958 98.8% 0.1% 0.2% 3.9% 0.2% 2.1%
24 Stonington Borough 1,069 98.4% 0.8% 0.7% 0.0% 0.1% 3.2%

See also

References

  1. ^ The Hammonasset River still bears this Pequot placename.
  2. ^ "CCR: Volume 02, Page 39". Retrieved 2008-06-17. dead link
  3. ^ Frances Manwaring Caulkins, History of New London, Connecticut: From the first survey of the coast in 1612, to 1852 (New Haven) 1852, p. 249: "New London County extended from Pawkatuck River to the west bounds of Hammonasset Plantation (Killingworth,) including all the eastern parts of the colony".
  4. ^ Newberry Library -- Connecticut Atlas of Historical County Boundaries
  5. ^ "Census 2000 U.S. Gazetteer Files: Counties". United States Census. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  6. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Census.gov. Retrieved July 17, 2013. 
  8. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  9. ^ "SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  10. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  11. ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-08. 

External links

Coordinates: 41°28′N 72°06′W / 41.47°N 72.10°W / 41.47; -72.10








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