New York Herald Tribune
|Owner(s)||Reid Family (1924 to 1958); John Hay Whitney (1958-1966)|
|Founder(s)||Herald -- James Gordon Bennett, Sr.; Tribune -- Horace Greeley|
(1924 -- 1946)
(1947 -- 1955)
(1955 -- 1958)
(1958 -- 1966)
|Political alignment||Rockefeller Republican|
|Ceased publication||April 24, 1966 (final edition); August 15, 1966 (paper closed after strike)|
|Headquarters||New York City|
|Sister newspapers||International Herald Tribune|
The New York Herald Tribune was a daily newspaper created in 1924 when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. It was viewed for most of its existence as the chief rival of The New York Times,2 and was widely regarded as a "newspaperman's newspaper," for both the breadth of its coverage and the quality of its writing.3 The paper won several Pulitzer Prizes during its lifetime.4
A "Republican paper, a Protestant paper and a paper more representative of the suburbs than the ethnic mix of the city,",5 the Herald Tribune, almost always referred to as the Trib,6 quickly became the major competition for the Times following its birth. The paper generally did not match the comprehensiveness of the Times' coverage, but its national, international and business coverage was generally viewed among the best in the industry4 while its writing was considered vastly superior to its rival's.78 At one time or another, the paper was home to such writers as Dorothy Thompson, Red Smith, Richard Watts, Jr., Homer Bigart, Walter Kerr, Walter Lippmann, Judith Crist, Tom Wolfe and Jimmy Breslin. Editorially, the newspaper was the voice for eastern Republicans, later referred to as Rockefeller Republicans, and espoused a pro-business, internationalist viewpoint.
The paper, first owned by the Reid family, struggled financially for most of its life and rarely generated enough profit for growth or capital improvements; the Reids subsidized the Herald Tribune through the paper's early years.9 However, it enjoyed prosperity during World War II and by the end of the conflict had pulled close to the Times in ad revenue.4 A series of disastrous business decisions in the 1940s and 50s, combined with aggressive competition from the Times and poor leadership from the Reid family, left the Herald Tribune far behind its rival.
In 1958, the Reids sold the Herald Tribune to John Hay Whitney,10 a multimillionaire Wall Street investor who was serving as ambassador to Great Britain at the time. Under his leadership, the Tribune experimented with new layouts and new approaches to reporting the news, and made important contributions to the body of New Journalism that developed in the 1960s.11 The paper steadily revived under Whitney, but a 114-day newspaper strike stopped the Herald Tribune's gains and ushered in four years of strife with labor unions, particularly the local chapter of the International Typographical Union.12 Faced with mounting losses, Whitney attempted to merge the Herald Tribune with the New York World-Telegram and the New York Journal-American in the spring of 1966; the proposed merger led to another lengthy strike, and on August 15, 1966, Whitney announced the closure of the Herald Tribune, having spent $40 million in his attempts to keep it alive.13
After the Herald Tribune closed, the Times and the Washington Post, joined by Whitney, entered an agreement to operate the International Herald Tribune, the paper's former Paris publication. The International Herald Tribune was renamed the International New York Times in 2013.14 New York magazine, created as the Herald Tribune's Sunday magazine in 1963,15 was revived by editor Clay Felker in 1968, and continues to publish today.
The New York Herald was founded on May 6, 1835 by James Gordon Bennett, a Scottish immigrant who came to the United States at age 24.16 Bennett, a firm Democrat, had established a name in the newspaper business in the 1820s with dispatches sent from Washington to the New York Enquirer, most sharply critical of President John Quincy Adams and Secretary of state Henry Clay; one historian called Bennett "the first real Washington reporter."17 Bennett was also a pioneer in crime reporting; while writing about a murder trial in 1830, the Attorney General of Massachusetts attempted to restrict the coverage of the newspapers: Bennett criticized the move as an "old, worm-eaten, Gothic dogma of the Courts . . . to consider the publicity given to every event by the Press, as destructive to the interests of law and justice."18 The fight over access eventually overshadowed the trial itself.19
Bennett founded the New York Globe in 1832 to promote the re-election of Andrew Jackson to the White House, but the paper quickly folded after the election. After a few years of journalistic piecework, he founded the Herald in 1835 as a penny newspaper, similar in some respects to Benjamin Day's Sun but with a strong emphasis on crime and financial coverage; the Herald "carried the most authentic and thorough list of market prices published anywhere; for these alone it commanded attention in financial circles."20 Bennett, who wrote much of the newspaper himself, "perfected the fresh, pointed prose practiced in the French press at its best."20 The publisher's coverage of the 1836 murder of Helen Jewett—which, for the first time in the American press, included excerpts from the murder victim's correspondence—made Bennett "the best known, if most notorious . . . journalist in the country."21
Bennett put his profits back into his newspaper, establishing a Washington bureau and recruiting correspondents in Europe to provide the "first systematic foreign coverage" in an American newspaper.22 By 1839, the Herald's circulation exceeded The London Times and was considered the most comprehensive newspaper in the country.23 When the Mexican-American War broke out in 1846, the Herald assigned a reporter to the conflict—the only newspaper in New York to do so—and used the telegraph, then a new technology, to not only beat competitors with news but provide Washington policymakers with the first reports from the conflict.24 During the American Civil War, Bennett kept at least 24 correspondents in the field, opened a Southern desk and had reporters comb the hospitals to develop lists of casualties and deliver messages from the wounded to their families.25
The New York Tribune was founded by Horace Greeley in 1841. Greeley, a native of New Hampshire, had begun publishing a weekly paper called The New-Yorker (unrelated to today's magazine of the same name) in 1834, which won attention for its political reporting and editorials.26 Joining the Whig Party, Greeley published The Jeffersonian, which helped elect William H. Seward Governor of New York State in 1838, and then the Log Cabin, which advocated for the election of William Henry Harrison in the 1840 preidential election, attained a circulation of 80,000 and—unlike The New-Yorker or The Jeffersonian—turned a small profit.27
With Whigs in power, Greeley saw the opportunity to launch a daily penny newspaper for their constituency. The New York Tribune launched on April 10, 1841. Unlike the Herald or the Sun, it generally shied about from graphic crime coverage;28 Greeley saw his newspaper as having a moral mission to uplift society, and frequently focused his energies on the newspaper's editorials -- "weapons . . . in a ceaseless war to improve society"29—and political coverage. While a lifelong opponent of slavery and, for time, the leading American exponent of socialism,30 Greeley's attitudes were never exactly fixed: "The result was a potpourri of philosophical inconsistencies and contradictions that undermined Greeley's effectiveness as both logician and polemicist."31 However, his moralism appealed to rural America; with six months of beginning the Tribune, Greeley combined The New-Yorker and The Log Cabin into a new publication, the Weekly Tribune. The weekly version circulated nationwide, serving as a digest of news melded with agriculture tips. Offering prizes like strawberry plants and gold pens to salesmen, the Weekly Tribune reached a circulation of 50,000 within 10 years, outpacing the Herald's weekly edition.32
The Tribune lacked the Herald's resources when it came to covering the Civil War, but the paper's correspondents "were far less concerned with scoring beats than getting it right,"33 and provided arguably the best breaking news coverage of the Battle of Antietam in 1862.34 The Tribune's ranks included Henry Raymond, who later founded The New York Times, and Charles Dana, who would later edit and partly own The Sun for nearly three decades. Dana served as second-in-command to Greeley, but Greeley abruptly fired him in 1862, after years of personality conflicts between the two men.35 Raymond, who felt he was "overused and underpaid" as a reporter on the Tribune staff, later served in the New York State Assembly and, with the backing of bankers in Albany, founded the Times in 1851, which quickly became a rival for the Whig readership that Greeley cultivated.36
After the Civil War, Bennett turned over daily operations of the Herald to his son James Gordon Bennett, Jr., and lived in seclusion until 1872.37 That year, Greeley, who had been an early supporter of the Republican Party, had called for reconciliation of North and South following the war and criticized Radical Reconstruction. Gradually becoming disenchanted with Ulysses S. Grant, Greeley became the surprise nominee of the Liberal Republican faction of the party (and the Democrats) in the 1872 presidential election. The editor had left daily operations of the Tribune to his protege, Whitelaw Reid; he attempted to resume his job after the election, but was badly hurt by a piece (intended humorously) that said Greeley's defeat would chase political office seekers from the Tribune and allow the staff to "manage our own newspaper without being called aside every hour to help lazy people whom we don't know and . . . benefit people who don't deserve assistance."38 The piece was widely (and incorrectly) attributed to Greeley as a sign of bitterness at the outcome; Reid refused to print Greeley's furious disclaimer of the piece, and by the end of the month, Greeley had died.39
Both newspapers went into gradual decline under their new proprietors. James Gordon Bennett, Jr. -- "a swaggering, precociously dissolute lout who rarely stifled an impulse"40—had a mercurial reign. He launched the New York Telegram, an evening paper, in the late 1860s37 and kept the Herald the most comprehensive source of news among the city's newspapers. Bennett also bankrolled Henry Morton Stanley's trek through Africa to find David Livingstone,41 and scooped the competition on the Battle of Little Big Horn.41 However, Bennett ruled his paper with a heavy hand, telling his executives at one point that he was the "only reader of this paper:" "I am the only one to be pleased. If I want it turned upside down, it must be turned upside down. I want one feature article a day. If I say the feature is black beetles, black beetles it's going to be."42 In 1874, the Herald ran the infamous New York Zoo hoax, where the front page of the newspaper was devoted entirely to fabricated story of animals getting loose at the Central Park Zoo.43
Whitelaw Reid, who won control of the Tribune in part due to the likely assistance of financier Jay Gould,44 turned the newspaper into an orthodox Republican organ, wearing "its stubborn editorial and typographical conservatism . . . as a badge of honor."45 Reid's hostility to labor led him to bankroll development of the linotype machine in 1886, which quickly spread throughout the industry.46 However, his day-to-day involvement in the operations of the Tribune declined after 1888, when he was appointed Minister to France and largely focused on his political career; Reid even missed a large-scale 50th anniversary party for the Tribune in 1891.47
The Herald was the largest circulation newspaper in New York City until 1884. Joseph Pulitzer, who came from St. Louis and purchased the World in 1882, aggressively marketed a mix of crime stories and social reform editorials to a predominantly immigrant audience, and saw his circulation quickly surpass those of more established publishers.48 Bennett, who had moved permanently to Paris in 1877 after publicly urinating in the fireplace or piano of his fiancee's parents (the exact location differed in witnesses' memories)43 spent the Herald's still sizeable profits on his own lifestyle; the Herald's circulation fell below 100,000.49 The arrival of William Randolph Hearst, who purchased the New York Journal in 1895, spurred Bennett to revitalize the paper; the Herald competed keenly with the World and the Journal during coverage of the Spanish-American War, and managed to send circulation over 500,000. The Tribune largely relied on wire copy for its coverage.50
Reid, who helped negotiate the treaty that ended the war51 had by 1901 become completely disengaged from the Tribune's daily operations. The paper was no longer profitable, and the Reids largely viewed the paper as a "private charity case."52 By 1908, the Tribune was losing almost $3,000 a week.53
The Herald also saw its reputation for comprehensiveness challenged by the Times, purchased by Chattanooga Times publisher Adolph Ochs in 1896, a few weeks before the paper would have likely closed its doors.54 Ochs, turning the once-Republican Times into an independent Democratic newspaper,55 refocused the newspaper's coverage on commerce, quickly developing a reputation as the "businessman's bible."56 When the Times began turning a profit in 1899, Ochs began reinvesting the profits make into the newspaper toward news coverage, quickly giving the Times the reputation as the most complete newspaper in the city.57 Bennett, who viewed the Herald as a means of supporting his lifestyle, allowed it to decline well below 100,000 circulation by 1912.58
The Herald suffered a fatal blow in 1907. Bennett hated Hearst and attacked the latter's run for Congress in 1902 and for governor in 1906. The Herald's coverage of Hearst's gubernatorial campaign was particularly vicious.59 Hearst, seeking revenge, sent a reporter to investigate the Herald's personal columns, which, in veiled language, advertised the service of prostitutes.60 The resulting investigation, published in the Journal, led to Bennett's conviction on charges of sending obscene matter through the mails. The publisher was ordered to pay a $25,000 fine, and the Herald "suffered a blow in prestige and circulation from which it never really recovered."61
Whitelaw Reid died in 1912 and was succeeded as publisher by his son, Ogden Mills Reid. The younger Reid, an "affable but lackluster" person who had barely graduated from college,62 began working at the Tribune in 1908 as a reporter and won the loyalty of the staff with his good nature and eagerness to learn.63 Quickly moved through the ranks—he became managing editor in 1912—Reid oversaw the Tribune's thorough coverage of the sinking of the Titanic,64 ushering a revival of the newspaper's fortunes. Reid's role in this is unclear: While personally popular with the staff and willing to fight for his reporters in court,65 he was at best an adequate manager. The paper continued to lose money, and was saved from bankruptcy only by the generosity of Elisabeth Mills Reid, Ogden's mother.66 However, he encouraged light touches at the previously somber Tribune, creating an environment where "the windows were opened and the suffocating solemnity of the place was aired out."66 Inheriting a newspaper whose circulation may have fallen to 25,000 daily—no higher than the circulation in 187266—the Tribune's readership had jumped to 130,000 by 1924.67
Reid's wife, Helen Rogers Reid, had a far more decisive impact on the newspaper. Taking over the newspaper's advertising department in 1919, Helen Reid reorganized the faltering department, aggressively pursuing advertisers and selling them on the "wealth, position and power" of the Tribune's readership.68 In her first two years on the job, the Tribune's annual advertising revenues jumped from $1.7 million to $4.3 million, "with circulation responsible for no more than 10 percent of the increase."69 Reid's efforts helped cut the newspaper's dependence on subsidies from the family fortune and pushed it toward a paying track. Reid also encouraged the development of women's features at the newspaper, and helped established a "home institute" that tested recipes and household products.70
The Herald's freefall continued in the new decade. With the outbreak of World War I, Bennett devoted most of his attention to the Paris Herald, doing his first newspaper reporting at the age of 73 and keeping the publication alive despite wartime censorship.71 The New York paper, however, was in freefall, and posted a loss in 1917. The next year, Bennett died, having taken some $30 million out of the lifetime profits of the Herald.71 Two years later, the Herald newspapers were sold to Frank Munsey for $4 million.
Munsey had won the enmity of many journalists with his buying, selling and consolidation of newspapers, and the Herald became part of Munsey's moves. The publisher merged the morning Sun (which he had purchased in 1916) into the Herald and attempted to revive the newspaper through his financial resources, hoping to establish the Herald as the pre-eminent Republican newspaper within the city.67 To achieve that end, he approached Elisabeth Mills Reid in early 1924 with a proposal to purchase the Tribune—the only other Republican newspaper in New York—and merge it with the Herald.72 The elder Reid, however, refused to sell, saying only that she would buy the Herald. The two sides negotiated through the winter and spring. Munsey approached Ogden Reid with a proposal to swap the profitable evening Sun with the Tribune, which Reid refused.73 The Reids countered with an offer of $5 million for the Herald and the Paris Herald, which Munsey agreed to on March 17, 1924.74
The move surprised the journalism community, which had expected Munsey to purchase the Tribune. The Herald management informed its staff of the sale in a brief note posted on a bulletin board; reading it, one reporter remarked "Jonah just swallowed the whale."74
The merged paper, which published its first edition on March 19, was named the New York Herald New York Tribune until May 31, 1926, when the more familiar New York Herald Tribune was substituted.75 Apart from the Herald's radio magazine, weather listings and other features, "the merged paper was, with very few changes, the Tribune intact."76 Only 25 Herald reporters were hired at the new paper; 600 people lost their jobs as a result of the merger.74 Within a year, the merged paper's circulation reached 275,000.76
The newly merged paper was not profitable, and the Reid family had to subsidize the paper in its first few years of existence. But the Herald Tribune quickly began establishing a reputation as a "newspaperman's newspaper", with literary writing encouraged by city editor Stanley Walker. After losing $650,000 in 1932 (equivalent to approximately $11,235,488 in 2014 dollars77), the Herald Tribune turned a marginal profit the following year, and would remain relatively healthy for the next two decades. Unlike other pro-Republican papers, such as Hearst's New York Journal-American or the Chicago Tribune, which held an isolationist and pro-German stance, the Herald-Tribune was more supportive of the British and the French.
After the death of publisher Ogden Mills Reid in 1947, the Herald Tribune, despite some star writers and columnists, went into a decline under his widow, Helen Rogers Reid, and sons, Whitelaw Reid II and Ogden R. Reid (later a congressman). Many of the staff felt there was too much focus on circulation at the expense of the paper's editorial standards, for example the new push for puzzle contests such as Tangle Town, which was given credit for a rise in weekday circulation of 60,000 to bring the total to over 400,000.7879 Its Paris edition became the home-town newspaper of Americans in postwar Europe, while nurturing the careers of expatriate journalists like the humorist Art Buchwald.
In 1958, the Reids sold control to John Hay Whitney. Under Whitney, the paper regained some of its lustre, deciding that since it could not compete with The New York Times in sheer volume of news, it would be faster, feistier and funnier. In this period, the Herald Tribune was radically re-designed under editor-in-chief John Denson and executive editor Freeman Fulbright, and new writers like Tom Wolfe were encouraged to contribute. But the key to success was still advertising dollars, and on that count The Times was the leader. A series of strikes throughout the 1960s did not help the paper's balance sheet.
In 1966, Whitney attempted to organize what would have been New York's first joint operating agreement (JOA) with the Hearst-owned New York Journal American and the Scripps-owned New York World-Telegram and Sun; under the proposed agreement, the Herald Tribune would have continued publication as the morning partner, and a merged Journal-American and World-Telegram would have been the afternoon paper. The JOA was to take effect on May 1, 1966, but the unions immediately threw up a strike, and as the months dragged on, a compromise three-way merger was arrived at on August 15.80
The result was the short-lived afternoon New York World Journal Tribune. The first weeks' editions were dominated by the input of the Hearst and Scripps papers, but after a time, the "Widget" (as the merged publication was nicknamed) took on the appearance and style of the late-era Herald Tribune. However, the paper was not a success and folded for good on May 5, 1967.81
Following the collapse of the World Journal Tribune, The New York Times and the Washington Post became joint owners with Whitney of the Herald Tribune's European edition, the International Herald Tribune, which is still published under full ownership by the Times, which bought out the Post holdings in 2003.82 In 2013, the Times annoounced it would be renaming it to the International New York Times. New York magazine is also a descendant of the Herald Tribune, having originally been the Herald Tribune's Sunday magazine, a livelier version of The New York Times Magazine. Following the death of the World Journal Tribune, New York editor Clay Felker organized a group of investors who bought the name and rights, and successfully revived the weekly in 1968.
In Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (1960), the student and aspiring journalist Patricia (Jean Seberg) sells the New York Herald Tribune along the Champs-Élysées. It is also the major focus of the 1952 thriller Assignment Paris, with Dana Andrews as an aggressive New York reporter sent to the Paris newsroom and then Budapest. In the popular Danny Thomas Show on CBS from 1957 to 1964, the main character, Danny Williams (Thomas), a New York nightclub comedian, can be clearly seen in several episodes reading the New York Herald Tribune.
Harry Staton became the editor and manager of the Syndicate in 1920, with Buell Weare stepping in as the Syndicate business manager in 1946.
- Betty by Charles Voight
- Bodyguard by Lawrence Lariar and John Spranger
- Coogy by Irving Spector
- G. Whizz Jr. by Bill Holman
- Jeanie by Selma Diamond and Gill Fox
- Jeff Crockett by Mel Casson
- Our Bill by Harry Haenigsen
- Penny by Harry Haenigsen
- Peter Rabbit by Harrison Cady and Vincent Fago
- Poor Arnold's Almanac by Arnold Roth
- The Saint by Leslie Charteris and Mike Roy
- Silver Linings by Harvey Kurtzman
- The Timid Soul by H. T. Webster
In the 1920s, the New York Herald Tribune established one of the first book review sections that reviewed children's books, and in 1937, the newspaper established the Children's Spring Book Festival Award for the best children's book of the previous year, awarded for three target ages groups: 4–8, 8–12, and 12–16.83 This was the second nationwide children's book award, after the Newbery Medal, and vied with the Newbery for most prestigious for many years.83
For more than a century, the logo of the New York Herald-Tribune, and its later successor, the International Herald Tribune, featured a hand-drawn "dingbat" between the words Herald and Tribune, which first originated as part of the frontpage logotype of the Tribune on April 10, 1866. The drawing included a clock in the center, set to 6:12 pm, and two figures on either side of it, a toga-clad thinker facing leftward and a young child holding an American flag marching rightward. An eagle spreading its wings was perched atop the clock. The dingbat served as an allegorical device to depict antiquity on the left and the progressive American spirit on the right. The significance of the clock's time remains a mystery.5
- Kluger, Richard. The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune. New York; Alfred A. Knopf, 1986, p. 640.
- Kluger, Richard. The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune. New York; Alfred A. Knopf, 1986, pp 8-9.
- Kluger, p. 9
- Kluger, 9.
- Roberts, Sam (7 March 2013), "Recalling a ‘Writer’s Paper’ as a Name Fades", New York Times (New York): A21, retrieved 2010-03-10
- Roberts, Ibid.
- Tifft, Susan E. and Jones, Alex S. The Trust: The Public and Private Family Behind The New York Times. New York; Little, Brown and Company, 1999, pp. 254-55.
- Kluger, 262.
- Kluger, 556.
- Kluger, 704-705.
- Kluger, 655.
- Kluger, 734-735.
- Kluger, 679.
- Kluger, 30
- Kluger, 31.
- Kluger, 32.
- Kluger, 35.
- Kluger, 36.
- Kluger, 37.
- Kluger, 39.
- Kluger, 64
- Kluger, 99
- Kluger, 27
- Kluger, 44
- Kluger, 46
- Kluger, 75
- Kluger, 51
- Kluger, 59
- Kluger, 50
- Kluger, 102
- Kluger, 103-105
- Kluger, 106
- Tifft and Jones, 31
- Kluger, 125
- Kluger, 129-130
- Kluger, 1141
- Kluger, 143
- Kluger, 142
- Kluger, 144
- Kluger, 135
- Kluger, 139
- Kluger, 152
- Kluger, 162
- Swanberg, W.A. Pulitzer. New York; Charles Scribner and Sons, 1967, 74.
- Kluger, 163
- Kluger, 166
- Kluger, 167
- Kluger, 175
- Tifft and Jones, 32
- Tifft and Jones, 44
- Tifft and Jones, 56.
- Kluger, 182.
- Kluger, 183
- Swanberg, 333
- Swanberg, 334
- Kluger, 176
- Kluger, 178
- Kluger, 182
- Kluger, 187
- Kluger, 186
- Kluger, 210
- Kluger, 203
- Kluger, 204.
- Kluger, 205
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- Kluger, 213
- Kluger, 214
- Kluger, 215
- Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "Trials of the Trib". Time. 1955-10-10. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- "Tangle Towns Tangle". Time. 1955-01-10. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- Associated Press (19 August 1966). New York Herald Tribune Dies Of Labor Difficulties, The Morning Record
- Associated Press (6 May 1967) World Journal Trib Conceived In High Hopes; Lost Anyway, The Daytona Beach News-Journal
- Alm, Richard S. (April 1956). "The Development of Literature for Adolescents". The School Review 64(4): pp. 172–177, p.176.
- Kahn, Roger. Into My Own: The Remarkable People and Events that Shaped a Life. New York: St. Martin's, 2006. ISBN 0-312-33813-9.
- Kluger, Richard, with the assistance of Kluger, Phyllis. The Paper: the Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune. New York: Knopf, 1986. ISBN 0-394-50877-7.