Newlyn shown within Cornwall
|Population||4,623 (Newlyn and Mousehole Ward, 2001)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Police||Devon and Cornwall|
|EU Parliament||South West England|
|UK Parliament||St Ives|
Newlyn forms a conurbation with the neighbouring town of Penzance and is part of Penzance civil parish, and is the southernmost town on the British mainland (though not the most southerly settlement). The principal industry in Newlyn is fishing.
The settlement is recorded as Nulyn in 1279 and as Lulyn in 1290, and the name is thought to be derived from the Cornish for "pool for a fleet of boats" which is thought to refer to the shallows offshore also called Gwavas Lake, traditionally the principal mooring for the fishing fleet in the area.2
Before the rise of Newlyn as an important settlement the landing rights and most property within the Newlyn area were owned by the Manor of Alverton. Newlyn's history has been strongly linked to its role as a major fishing port. The natural protection afforded by the Gwavas Lake (an area of seawater in Mount's Bay) led to many local fishermen using this area as a preferred landing site.3 Newlyn Harbour is first recorded in 1435 by the Bishop of Exeter; later large-scale improvements to the harbour led to Newlyn becoming the predominant fishing port in Mount's Bay.
Before the 19th century, "Newlyn" referred only to the area near the old quay. The part of the village that now contains the fish market was known as "Streetanowan", this was separated at high tide from "Newlyn Town" the site of the lower part of the modern harbour being reclaimed land and formerly a beach. In fact Newlyn comprises three discrete hamlets all previously separated by bodies of water, being Tolcarne (Tal Carn: Brow of the Rocks), Street-an-Nowan (Steet-an-Awan: River Street) and Trewarveneth (Farm/Manor on the Hill).4
Before the 1890s, Newlyn (like Mousehole) had strong connections with the nearby parish of Paul. It was common for villagers to climb the relatively steep route from "Newlyn Cliff" to Paul via the area which is now known as Gwavas to worship at Paul Church. Until the mid-20th century an ancient stone cross was present on this route at "Park an Grouse" (The Field of the Cross), this cross was one site of veneration of the Cornish sea deity Bucca, (others were the beaches of Newlyn and Mousehole) the name 'Bucca' has often been used as a nickname for people resident in Newlyn: the location of the cross is now unknown.5
In memory of Bill Best-Harris, historian who through rigorous research
found that the Mayflower docked in Newlyn Harbour for fresh water as the
water supplied in Plymouth was contaminated. Therefore Newlyn was the last
port of call in UK for the Mayflower.
In 1755, the Lisbon earthquake caused a tsunami to strike the Cornish coast more than 600 miles (970 km) away. The sea rose ten feet in ten minutes at Newlyn, and ebbed at the same rate. The 19th-century French writer, Arnold Boscowitz, claimed that "great loss of life and property occurred upon the coasts of Cornwall".7
Newlyn, along with nearby Mousehole and Paul, was the last stronghold of the Cornish language, presumably due to the strength of its fishing fleet. William Gwavas, James Jenkins,8 Nicholas Boson, Thomas Boson, John Boson, John Keigwin, and John Kelynack Jnr. had roots in or strong links with the district. Subsequently several antiquarians including Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte,9 Daines Barrington, Georg Sauerwein, and Henry Jenner who all collected Cornish writings or sayings, and the latter two became proficient in its use.
In 1896 Newlyn was the scene of the Newlyn riots following protests over the landing of fish on a Sunday by fishermen from the North of England, the local Cornish fishermen being members of the Methodist church and as such strong supporters of sabbatarianism.
In 1937, the fishing vessel Rosebud sailed to London to deliver a petition to the Minister of Health on behalf of those villagers whose homes were threatened under the government's slum clearance scheme.
During the Second World War Newlyn was a base for the Air Sea Rescue craft covering the Western Approaches. The harbour was bombed during the war, hitting the collier Greenhithe, which was beached in the harbour at the time and supplied coal to the east coast drifters, which travelled to Newlyn during the mackerel fishing season between the wars.12 Reporting the event on the "Germany Calling" propaganda broadcast Lord Haw-Haw announced that the Luftwaffe had sunk a British cruiser in Newlyn Harbour.
Newlyn is located in southern Cornwall, just south of Penzance. It lies along the B3315 road which connects it to Land's End. Gwavas is a residential council estate on the outskirts of the village.13 Paul and Mousehole lie to the south.
The Ordnance Survey, the United Kingdom's mapping agency, used to base all elevations including mapped contour lines and spot heights on the mean sea level at Newlyn defined by this benchmark (see Ordnance Datum Newlyn).14 The mean sea level data was calculated from hourly readings of the sea level between 1 May 1915 and 30 April 1921.14
Newlyn's economy is largely dependent on its harbour and the associated fishing industry; Newlyn harbour is the largest fishing port in England.15 The port was a major catcher of pilchard until the 1960s. Today, a few vessels have resumed pilchard fishing and use a modern version of the ring net. The largest vessels are beam trawlers owned by W. Stevenson and Sons Ltd, one of Cornwall's largest fish producers;16 most of the other vessels are owned by their skippers. The company based in the Old Pilchard Works today are major supplies of Cornish sardines and mixed species fish.15
Because of Newlyn's association with the creative arts there are also a number of artists and art galleries that are established in the area. In September 2011, a contemporary Newlyn School of Art was formed with Arts Council funding which offers short courses taught by some of the most well known artists working in Cornwall today in disciplines such as painting, drawing, printmaking, stone carving and art history.
Newlyn was made famous in the 1880s and 1890s for its Newlyn School artists' colony, including the painters Thomas Cooper Gotch, Albert Chevallier Tayler and Henry Scott Tuke. The current largest collection of work by the Newlyn School is held by Penlee House Gallery and Museum in nearby Penzance. A collection of Newlyn Copper, produced from circa 1890 – 1920, is on view at Penlee House. Newlyn is the home of Newlyn Art Gallery  which houses a collection of modern art.
Several inns lie along the harbour front.
For the purposes of local government, Newlyn is part of the Penzance Civil Parish and returns five councillors to Penzance Town Council. The principal local authority in the area is Cornwall Council.
- Richard Cook, painter
- Sir Terry Frost, artist
- Thomas Cooper Gotch
- Robert Hichens
- Charles Holroyd
- W. S. Lach-Szyrma, clergyman and scholar
- William Lovett, political agitator
- John Pearson
- Brenda Wootton, singer
- Allan G. Wyon, artist
- Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 203 Land's End ISBN 978-0-319-23148-7
- Mills, A. D. (1991). The Popular Dictionary of English Place-Names. Parragon Book Service Ltd & Magpie Books. p. 241. ISBN 0-7525-1851-8.
- "The Harbour". Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- Morrab Library Archives
- Hardie, Melissa (June 1995). 100 years in Newlyn: diary of a gallery. Hypatia Publications. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-872229-22-5. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "Tregwary Cottage: Some "interesting" facts about Newlyn". tregwarycottage.co.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "Timeline of Cornish History – The Lisbon Earthquake".
- Ellis, P. Berresford (1974) The Cornish Language and its Literature. London: Routledge; pp. 92, 108–11
- See Dolly Pentreath's memorial at Paul.
- Cherry, Deborah (1993). Painting women: Victorian women artists. Routledge. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-415-06053-0. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "Newlyn Tidal Observatory".
- Pool, Peter A. S. (1974). The history of the town and borough of Penzance. Corporation of Penzance. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
-  Cornwall Council online mapping. Retrieved June 2010
- Lee, E. Mark; Clark, Alan R. (20 June 2002). Investigation and management of soft rock cliffs. Thomas Telford. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-7277-2985-9. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "The Pilchard Works". Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- Key British enterprises: Britain's top 50,000 companies. Dun & Bradstreet. February 1994. p. 606. ISBN 978-0-901491-71-8. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
-  National Tidal and Sea Level Facility website. Retrieved June 2010
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