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The Nika riots (Greek: Στάσις τοῦ Νίκα), or Nika revolt, took place over the course of a week in Constantinople in AD 532. It was the most violent riot in the history of Constantinople, with nearly half the city being burned or destroyed and tens of thousands of people killed.
The ancient Roman and Byzantine empires had well-developed associations, known as demes, which supported the different factions (or teams) under which competitors in certain sporting events competed; this was particularly true of chariot racing. There were four major factional teams of chariot racing, differentiated by the colour of the uniform in which they competed; the colours were also worn by their supporters. These were the Blues, the Reds, the Greens, and the Whites, although by the Byzantine era the only teams with any influence were the Blues and Greens. Emperor Justinian I was a supporter of the Blues.
The team associations had become a focus for various social and political issues for which the general Byzantine population lacked other forms of outlet. They combined aspects of street gangs and political parties, taking positions on current issues, notably theological problems (a cause of massive, often violent argument in the fifth and sixth centuries) or claimants to the throne. They frequently tried to affect the policy of the emperors by shouting political demands between the races. The imperial forces and guards in the city could not keep order without the cooperation of the circus factions which were in turn backed by the aristocratic families of the city; this included some families who believed they had a more rightful claim to the throne than Justinian.
In 531 some members of the Blues and Greens had been arrested for murder in connection with deaths that occurred during rioting after a recent chariot race.1 Relatively limited riots were not unknown at chariot races, similar to the football hooliganism that occasionally erupts after association football matches in modern times. The murderers were to be hanged, and most of them were. But on 10 January 532, two of them, a Blue and a Green, escaped and were taking refuge in the sanctuary of a church surrounded by an angry mob.
Justinian was nervous: he was in the midst of negotiating with the Persians over peace in the east, there was enormous resentment over high taxes, and now he faced a potential crisis in his city. Facing this, he declared that a chariot race would be held on January 13 and commuted the sentences to imprisonment. The Blues and Greens responded by demanding that the two men be pardoned entirely.
On January 13, 532 a tense and angry populace arrived at the Hippodrome for the races. The Hippodrome was next to the palace complex and thus Justinian could watch from the safety of his box in the palace and preside over the races. From the start the crowd had been hurling insults at Justinian. By the end of the day, at race 22, the partisan chants had changed from "Blue" or "Green" to a unified Nίκα ("Nika", meaning "Win!" or "Conquer!"), and the crowds broke out and began to assault the palace. For the next five days the palace was under virtual siege. The fires that started during the tumult resulted in the destruction of much of the city, including the city's foremost church, the Hagia Sophia (which Justinian would later rebuild).
Some of the senators saw this as an opportunity to overthrow Justinian, as they were opposed to his new taxes and his lack of support for the nobility. The rioters, now armed and probably controlled by their allies in the Senate, also demanded that Justinian dismiss the prefect John the Cappadocian, who was responsible for tax collecting, and the quaestor Tribonian, who was responsible for rewriting the legal code. They then declared a new emperor, Hypatius, who was a nephew of former Emperor Anastasius I.
Justinian, in despair, considered fleeing, but his wife Theodora is said to have dissuaded him, saying, "Those who have worn the crown should never survive its loss. Never will I see the day when I am not saluted as empress."2 Although an escape route across the sea lay open for the emperor, Theodora insisted that she would stay in the city, quoting an ancient saying, "Royalty is a fine burial shroud," or perhaps, [the royal color] "Purple makes a fine winding sheet."3
As Justinian rallied himself, he created a plan that involved Narses, a popular eunuch, as well as the generals, Belisarius and Mundus. Carrying a bag of gold given to him by Justinian, the slightly built eunuch entered the Hippodrome alone and unarmed, against a murderous mob that had already killed hundreds. Narses went directly to the Blues' section, where he approached the important Blues and reminded them that Emperor Justinian supported them over the Greens. He also reminded them that the man they were crowning, Hypatius, was a Green. Then, he distributed the gold. The Blue leaders spoke quietly with each other and then they spoke to their followers. Then, in the middle of Hypatius's coronation, the Blues stormed out of the Hippodrome. The Greens sat, stunned. Then, Imperial troops led by Belisarius and Mundus stormed into the Hippodrome, killing the remaining rebels.
About thirty thousand rioters were reportedly killed.4 Justinian also had Hypatius executed and exiled the senators who had supported the riot. He then rebuilt Constantinople and the Hagia Sophia, and was free to establish his rule. He was also free to pursue his ultimate dream of a united Roman Empire.
- Count Belisarius (1938) by Robert Graves follows the career of the general Belisarius and recounts the build-up of tension and the riots in some detail.
- Theodora and the Emperor (1952) by Harold Lamb is a historical fiction novel that follows the events of the Nika riots closely, using timelines and characters based on historical documents.
- The Female, A Novel Of Another Time (1953) by Paul Wellman depicts the life story of Empress Theodora, concluding with the Nika riots. The novel gives the credit for finding the solution to end the riot to Theodora.
- Much of the plot in the fantasy novel The Clocks of Iraz (1971) by L. Sprague de Camp turns on mass rioting by rival sporting factions, loosely modeled on the Nika riots.
- In 1974, the ITV science fiction television series The Tomorrow People ran a serial entitled The Blue and the Green, citing the role of the D'henagali, an alien energy-based species that fed on human emotions, as the cause of the Blue and Green factions, and the Nika riots, as similar factions re-emerge in the United Kingdom in the early seventies.
- The novel The Mercenary (1977) by Jerry Pournelle is inspired by the riots, recreating the events in the setting of a future colonial world.
- The Black Company (1984) by Glen Cook opens in a city with many characteristics of Constantinople, including a political faction known as the Blues. The opening ends with the city consumed in devastating riots, very similar to the Nika riots.
- A novel by David Drake, Counting the Cost (1987; from his Hammer's Slammers series), is a fairly straightforward retelling of the riots.
- In the Heart of Darkness (1998), the second book of the alternate history Belisarius series by Eric Flint and David Drake, gives a significantly different outcome of the Nika riots because of the influence of Malwa as the financiers of the revolt and the introduction of a grenadier company led by Belisarius' wife, Antonina.
- The Sarantine Mosaic (1998, 2000) by Guy Gavriel Kay is a fantasy novel based on the 6th century Mediterranean world; the two-novel series closely parallels the historical events of the Nika riots.
- Eight for Eternity (2010) by Mary Reed and Eric Mayer is the eighth in a series of novels about sixth century Constantinople. It uses both fictional and real persons, centered around John "The Eunuch", Lord Chamberlain to Justinian I. In a mix of fact and fiction it covers the two weeks of the Nika riots.
- Basillissa (1940) is a novel by John Masefield on the early life of Theodora. The Nika riots are pivotal in the plot but are moved forward to before Justinian becomes emperor, portrays him as a Blue and makes no mention of any slaughter. It has negligible historical validity
- "CLIO History Journal - Justinian and the nike riots". Cliojournal.wikispaces.com. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
- Diehl, Charles. Theodora, Empress of Byzantium (© 1972 by Frederick Ungar Publishing, Inc., transl. by S.R. Rosenbaum from the original French Theodora, Imperatice de Byzance), p.87.
- Procopius, Wars 1.24.32–37. For the possibility of Theodora's stirring remarks being an invention by Procopius (otherwise an unflattering chronicler of Theodora's life), see John Moorhead, Justinian (London/NY 1994), pp. 46–47, with a reference to J. Evans, "The 'Nika' rebellion and the empress Theodora", in: Byzantion 54 (1984), pp. 380–82.
- This is the number given by Procopius, Wars (Internet Medieval Sourcebook.)
- Weir, William. 50 Battles That Changed the World: The Conflicts That Most Influenced the Course of History. Savage, Md: Barnes and Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-6609-6.
- Diehl, Charles. Theodora, Empress of Byzantium ((c) 1972 by Frederick Ungar Publishing, Inc., transl. by S.R. Rosenbaum from the original French Theodora, Imperatice de Byzance). Popular account based on the author's extensive scholarly research.
- Procopius, "Justinian Suppresses the Nika Revolt, 532", from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook.
- J. B. Bury, "The Nika Revolt", chapter XV part 5 from History of the Later Roman Empire (1923).
- James Grout: "The Nika Riot", part of the Encyclopædia Romana
- Samuel Vancea: "Justinian and the Nike Riots", published in Clio History Journal