|Traded as||TYO: 7731|
(July 25, 1917)
|Headquarters||Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan|
|Key people||Michio Kariya (Chairman)
Makoto Kimura (President)
|Products||Still cameras, SLR cameras, binoculars / monoculars, binocular telescope, laser rangefinder, field microscopy, precision equipment, microscopes, ophthalmic lenses and instrumental products|
|Revenue||¥887.5 billion (FY2011)1|
|Operating income||¥54.1 billion (FY2011)1|
|Net income||¥27.3 billion (FY2011)1|
|Employees||24,409 (March 31, 2011)1|
Nikon Corporation (株式会社ニコン Kabushiki-gaisha Nikon ) (UK // or US //; listen (help·info)[nikoɴ]), also known just as Nikon, is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, specializing in optics and imaging products.
Its products include cameras, camera lenses, binoculars, microscopes, ophthalmic lenses, measurement instruments, and the steppers used in the photolithography steps of semiconductor fabrication, of which it is the world's second largest manufacturer.2 The companies held by Nikon form the Nikon Group.3 Among its products are Nikkor imaging lenses (for F-mount cameras, large format photography, photographic enlargers, and other applications), the Nikon F-series of 35 mm film SLR cameras, the Nikon D-series of digital SLR cameras, the Coolpix series of compact digital cameras, and the Nikonos series of underwater film cameras. Nikon's main competitors in camera and lens manufacturing include Canon, Sony, Pentax, and Olympus.
Founded in 25 July 1917 as Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushikigaisha (日本光学工業株式会社 "Japan Optical Industries Co., Ltd."), the company was renamed Nikon Corporation, after its cameras, in 1988. Nikon is one of the companies of the Mitsubishi Group.4
- 1 History
- 2 Cameras
- 3 Digital cameras
- 4 Photo optics
- 5 Electronic Flash Units
- 6 Film scanners
- 7 Sport optics
- 8 Other products
- 9 Cultural references
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes and references
- 12 External links
Nikon Corporation was established on 25 July 1917 when three leading optical manufacturers merged to form a comprehensive, fully integrated optical company known as Nippon Kōgaku Tōkyō K.K. Over the next sixty years, this growing company became a manufacturer of optical lenses (including those for the first Canon cameras) and equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to nineteen factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights, and periscopes to the Japanese military.
After the war Nippon Kōgaku reverted to producing its civilian product range in a single factory. In 1948, the first Nikon-branded camera was released, the Nikon I.5 Nikon lenses were popularised by the American photojournalist David Douglas Duncan. Duncan was working in Tokyo when the Korean War began. Duncan had met a young Japanese photographer, Jun Miki, who introduced Duncan to Nikon lenses. From July 1950 to January 1951, Duncan covered the Korean War.6 Fitting Nikon optics (especially the NIKKOR-P.C 1:2 f=8,5cm)7 to his Leica rangefinder cameras produced high contrast negatives with very sharp resolution at the centre field.8
Founded in 1917 as Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushikigaisha (日本光学工業株式会社 "Japan Optical Industries Corporation"), the company was renamed Nikon Corporation, after its cameras, in 1988. The name Nikon, which dates from 1946, is a merging of Nippon Kōgaku (日本光学: "Japan Optical") and Zeiss' brand Ikon. This would cause some early problems in Germany as Zeiss complained that Nikon violated its trademarked camera. From 1963 to 1968 the Nikon F in particular was therefore labeled 'Nikkor'.9
The Nikkor brand was introduced in 1932, a westernised rendering of an earlier version Nikkō (日光), an abbreviation of the company's original full name10 (Nikkō coincidentally means "sunlight" and is the name of a Japanese town.). Nikkor is the Nikon brand name for its lenses.
The Nikon SP and other 1950s and 1960s rangefinder cameras competed directly with models from Leica and Zeiss. However, the company quickly ceased developing its rangefinder line to focus its efforts on the Nikon F single-lens reflex line of cameras, which was successfulcitation needed upon its introduction in 1959. For nearly 30 years, Nikon's F-series SLRs were the most widely used small-format cameras among professional photographerscitation needed, as well as by the U.S. space program.
Nikon popularised many features in professional SLR photographycitation needed, such as the modular camera system with interchangeable lenses, viewfinders, motor drives, and data backs; integrated light metering and lens indexing; electronic strobe flashguns instead of expendable flashbulbs; electronic shutter control; evaluative multi-zone "matrix" metering; and built-in motorized film advance. However, as autofocus SLRs became available from Minolta and others in the mid-1980s, Nikon's line of manual-focus cameras began to seem out of datecitation needed.
Despite introducing one of the first autofocus models, the slow and bulky F3AF, the company's determination to maintain lens compatibility with its F-mount prevented rapid advances in autofocus technology. Canon introduced a new type of lens-camera interface with its entirely electronic Canon EOS cameras and Canon EF lens mount in 1987. The much faster lens performance permitted by Canon's electronic focusing and aperture control prompted many professional photographers (especially in sports and news) to switch to the Canon system through the 1990s.12
In addition to cameras and other visual imaging products, Nikon Corporation (Nikon) develops and manufactures photolithography equipment. In 1980 the first Nikon step-and-repeat photolithography tool, the NSR-1010G, was produced in Japan. Since then, Nikon (through the Nikon Precision Equipment Company) has introduced over fifty models of step-and-repeat and step-and-scan lithography systems. Nikon currently designs and manufactures precision equipment for use in semiconductor and liquid crystal display (LCD) fabrication, inspection, and measurement.
In 1982, Nikon Precision Inc. was established in the United States to provide service, training, applications and technical support, as well as sales and marketing for Nikon lithography equipment in North America. Nikon Precision opened its current headquarters in 1990, and the facility now houses corporate offices and a fully equipped training center that includes a state-of-the-art clean room.
Today, Nikon Precision is an industry leader in supplying and supporting advanced photolithography equipment used in the critical stages of semiconductor manufacturing. Nikon also has research and development operations in the U.S. under Nikon Research Corporation of America, which directly supports the R&D efforts of the Precision Equipment Company in Kagohara, Japan.
In Japan, Nikon runs the Nikon Salon exhibition spaces, runs the Nikkor Club for amateur photographers (to whom it distributes the series of Nikon Salon books), and arranges the Ina Nobuo Award, Miki Jun Award and Miki Jun Inspiration Awards.
Nikon created some of the first digital SLRs (DSLRs, Nikon NASA F4) for NASA, used in the Space Shuttle since 1991.13 After a 1990s partnership with Kodak to produce digital SLR cameras based on existing Nikon film bodies, Nikon released the Nikon D1 SLR under its own name in 1999. Although it used an APS-C-size light sensor only 2/3 the size of a 35 mm film frame (later called a "DX sensor"), the D1 was among the first digital cameras to have sufficient image quality and a low enough price for some professionals (particularly photojournalists and sports photographers) to use it as a replacement for a film SLR. The company also has a Coolpix line which grew as consumer digital photography became increasingly prevalent through the early 2000s.
Through the mid-2000s, Nikon's line of professional and enthusiast DSLRs and lenses including their back compatible AF-S lens line remained in second place behind Canon in SLR camera sales, and Canon had several years' lead in producing professional DSLRs with light sensors as large as traditional 35 mm film frames.14 All Nikon DSLRs from 1999 to 2007, by contrast, used the smaller DX size sensor.
Then, 2005 management changes at Nikon led to new camera designs such as the full-frame Nikon D3 in late 2007, the Nikon D700 a few months later, and mid-range SLRs. Nikon regained much of its reputation among professional and amateur enthusiast photographers as a leading innovator in the field, especially because of the speed, ergonomics, and low-light performance of its latest models.15unreliable source? The mid-range Nikon D90, introduced in 2008, was also the first SLR camera to record video.1617 Since then video mode has been introduced to many more of the Nikon DSLR cameras including the Nikon D3S, Nikon D7000, Nikon D5100, Nikon D3100 and Nikon D3200.1819202122 Camera Nikon D5100 More recently, Nikon has release a photograph and video editing suite called ViewNX to browse, edit, merge and share images and videos.232425
Once Nikon introduced affordable consumer-level DSLRs such as the Nikon D70 in the mid-2000s, sales of its consumer and professional film cameras fell rapidly, following the general trend in the industry. In January 2006, Nikon announced it would stop making most of its film camera models and all of its large format lenses, and focus on digital models.26 Nevertheless, Nikon is the onlycitation needed major camera manufacturer still making film SLRs. The remaining model is the professional Nikon F6 with the last amateur model, FM10, having been discontinued.
Although few models were introduced, Nikon made movie cameras as well. The R10 and R8 SUPER ZOOM Super 8 models (introduced in 1973) were the top of the line and last attempt for the amateur movie field. The cameras had a special gate and claw system to improve image steadiness and overcome a major drawback of Super 8 cartridge design. The R10 model has a high speed 10X macro zoom lens. Interestingly and contrary to other brands, Nikon never attempted to offer projectors and accessories.
Nikon has shifted much of its manufacturing facilities to Thailand, with some production (especially of Coolpix cameras and some low-end lenses) in China and Indonesia. The company constructed a factory in Ayuthaya north of Bangkok in Thailand in 1991. By the year 2000, it had 2,000 employees. Steady growth over the next few years and an increase of floor space from the original 19,400 square meters (208,827 square feet) to 46,200 square meters (497,300 square feet) enabled the factory to produce a wider range of Nikon products. By 2004, it had more than 8,000 workers.
The range of the products produced at Nikon Thailand include plastic molding, optical parts, painting, printing, metal processing, plating, spherical lens process, aspherical lens process, prism process, electrical and electronic mounting process, silent wave motor and autofocus unit production.
As of 2009, all of Nikon's Nikon DX format DSLR cameras are produced in Thailand, while their Nikon FX format (full frame) cameras (D700, D3, D3S, D3X, D4, D600 and D800) are built in Japan. The Thai facility also produces most of Nikon's digital "DX" zoom lenses, as well as numerous other lenses in the Nikkor line.
Nikon has other sponsorships.30
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nikon cameras.|
In January 2006 Nikon announced the discontinuation of all but two models of its film cameras, focusing its efforts on the digital camera market.31 It continues to sell the fully manual FM10, and still offers the high-end fully automatic F6.3233 Nikon has also committed to service all the film cameras for a period of ten years after production ceases.34
High-end (Professional - Intended for professional use, heavy duty and weather resistance)
- Nikon F series (1959, known in Germany for legal reasons as the Nikkor F)
- Nikon F2 series (1971)
- Nikon F3 series (1980)
Midrange with electronic features
- Nikkormat EL series (1972, known in Japan as the Nikomat EL series)
- Nikon EL2 (1977)
- Nikon FE (1978)
- Nikon FE2 (1983)
- Nikon FA (1983)
- Nikon F-601M (1990, known in North America as the N6000)
- Nikon FE10 (1996)
- Nikon EM (1979)
- Nikon FG (1982)
- Nikon FG-20 (1984)
- Nikon F-301 (1985, known in North America as the N2000)
Film 35 mm SLR cameras with autofocus
High-end (Professional - Intended for professional use, heavy duty and weather resistance)
- Nikon F3AF (1983, modified F3 body with Autofocus Finder DX-1)
- Nikon F4 (1988) - (World's first professional auto-focus SLR camera and world's first professional SLR camera with a built-in motor drive)37
- Nikonos RS (1992) (Professional when reviewed in underwater conditions) - (World's first underwater auto-focus SLR camera)38
- Nikon F5 (1996)
- Nikon F6 (2004)
High-end (Prosumer - Intended for pro-consumers who want the main mechanic/electronic features of the professional line but don't need the same heavy duty/weather resistance)
- Nikon F-501 (1986, known in North America as the N2020)
- Nikon F-801 (1988, known in the U.S. as the N8008)
- Nikon F-801S (1991, known in the U.S. as the N8008S)
- Nikon F90 (1992, known in the U.S. as the N90)
- Nikon F90X (1994, known in the U.S. as the N90S)
- Nikon F80 (2000, known in the U.S. as the N80)
- Nikon F100 (1999)
- Nikon F-601 (1990, known in the U.S. as the N6006)
- Nikon F70 (1994, known in the U.S. as the N70)
- Nikon F75 (2003, known in the U.S. as the N75)
- Nikon F-401 (1987, known in the U.S. as the N4004)
- Nikon F-401S (1989, known in the U.S. as the N4004S)
- Nikon F-401X (1991, known in the U.S. as the N5005)
- Nikon F50 (1994, known in the U.S. as the N50)
- Nikon F60 (1999, known in the U.S. as the N60)
- Nikon F65 (2000, known in the U.S. as the N65)
- Nikon F55 (2002, known in the U.S. as the N55)
Professional Rangefinder cameras
- Nikon I (1948)39
- Nikon M (1949)40
- Nikon S (1951)41
- Nikon S2 (1954)42
- Nikon SP (1957)43
- Nikon S3 (1958)44
- Nikon S4 (1959) (entry-level)45
- Nikon S3M (1960)46
- Nikon S3 2000 (2000)47
- Nikon SP Limited Edition (2005)48
Between 1983 and the early 2000s49 a broad range of compact cameras were made by Nikon. Nikon first started by naming the cameras with a series name (like the L35/L135-series, the RF/RD-series, the W35-series, the EF or the AW-series). In later production cycles, the cameras were double branded with a series-name on the one and a sales name on the other hand. Sales names were for example Zoom-Touch for cameras with a wide zoom range, Lite-Touch for ultra compact models, Fun-Touch for easy to use cameras and Sport-Touch for splash water resistance. After the late 1990s, Nikon dropped the series names and continued only with the sales name. Nikon's APS-cameras were all named Nuvis.
The cameras came in all price ranges from entry-level fixed-lens-cameras to the top model Nikon 35Ti and 28Ti with titanium body and 3D-Matrix-Metering.
- Double 8 (8mm)
- NIKKOREX 8 (1960)
- NIKKOREX 8F (1963)
- Super 8
- Nikon Super Zoom 8 (1966)
- Nikon 8X Super Zoom (1967)
- Nikon R8 Super Zoom (1973)
- Nikon R10 Super Zoom (1973)
- Nikonos I Calypso (1963, originally known in France as the Calypso/Nikkor)
- Nikonos II (1968)
- Nikonos III (1975)
- Nikonos IV-A (1980)
- Nikonos V (1984)
- Nikonos RS (1992)50 (World's first underwater Auto-Focus SLR camera)38
Nikon's raw image format format is NEF, for Nikon Electronic File. The "DSCN" prefix for image files stands for "Digital Still Camera - Nikon."
|This section requires expansion with: Minimum the current classes of the compacts should be mentioned.. (November 2012)|
- Nikon P7000, 2010-09-08 (CCD, 10.1 megapixels, 7x zoom)
- Nikon P7100, 2011-08-24 (roughly same specifications as predecessor)
- Nikon P7700
- Nikon Coolpix A, 2013-03-05 (16MP DX-CMOS sensor)
- Nikon 1 J1, September 21, 2011
- Nikon 1 V1, September 21, 201151
- Nikon 1 J2, August 10, 2012
- Nikon 1 V2,52 October 24, 2012
- Nikon 1 J3, January 8, 2013
- Nikon 1 S1, January 8, 2013
High-end (Professional - Intended for professional use, heavy duty and weather resistance)
- Nikon D1, DX sensor, June 15, 1999 - Discontinued
- Nikon D1X, DX sensor, February 5, 2001 - Discontinued
- Nikon D1H, DX sensor, high speed, February 5, 2001 - Discontinued
- Nikon D2H, DX sensor, high speed, July 22, 2003 - Discontinued
- Nikon D2X, DX sensor, September 16, 2004 - Discontinued
- Nikon D2HS, DX sensor, high speed, February 16, 2005 - Discontinued
- Nikon D2XS, DX sensor, June 1, 2006 - Discontinued
- Nikon D3, FX/Full Frame sensor, August 23, 2007 - Discontinued
- Nikon D3X, FX/Full Frame sensor, December 1, 2008
- Nikon D3S, FX/Full Frame sensor, October 14, 2009
- Nikon D4, FX/Full Frame sensor, January 6, 201253
High-end (Prosumer - Intended for pro-consumers who want the main mechanical/weather resistance and electronic features of the professional line but don't need the same heavy duty)
- Nikon D100, DX sensor, February 21, 2002 - Discontinued
- Nikon D200, DX sensor, November 1, 2005 - Discontinued
- Nikon D300, DX sensor, August 23, 2007 - Discontinued54
- Nikon D700, FX/Full Frame sensor, July 1, 2008 – Discontinued
- Nikon D300S, DX sensor, July 30, 200955
- Nikon D800, FX/Full Frame sensor, February 7, 2012
- Nikon D800E, FX/Full Frame sensor, April 2012
- Nikon D600, FX/Full Frame sensor, September 13, 2012 - Discontinued56
- Nikon D610, FX/Full Frame sensor, October 2013
- Nikon Df, FX/Full Frame sensor, November 2013
Midrange - DX sensor
- Nikon D70, January 28, 2004 - Discontinued
- Nikon D70S, April 20, 2005 - Discontinued
- Nikon D80, August 9, 2006 - Discontinued
- Nikon D90, August 27, 200857
- Nikon D7000, September 15, 201058
- Nikon D7100, February 21, 2013
Upper-entry-level (Consumer) - DX sensor
- Nikon D50, April 20, 2005 - Discontinued
- Nikon D5000, April 14, 2009 - Discontinued
- Nikon D5100, April 5, 2011
- Nikon D5200, November 6, 201259
- Nikon D5300, November 2013
Entry-level (Consumer) - DX sensor
- Nikon D40, November 16, 2006 - Discontinued
- Nikon D40X, March 6, 2007 - Discontinued
- Nikon D60, January 29, 2008 - Discontinued
- Nikon D3000, July 30, 2009 – Discontinued
- Nikon D3100, August 19, 201060
- Nikon D3200, April 19, 201261
|Nikon DSLR timeline (comparison)|
- See Nikon F-mount → Nikkor
- Lenses with integrated motors: List of Nikon F-mount lenses with integrated autofocus motors
- (1988) LS-3500 (4096x6144, 4000 dpi) SCSI62
- (1992) Coolscan LS-10 (2700 dpi) SCSI. First to be named "Coolscan" to denote LED illumination.63
- (1994) LS-3510AF (5000x5000, 3500 dpi) SCSI. Fitted with auto-focus lens.
- (1995) LS-4500AF (4 x 5 inch and 120/220 formats, 1000x2000 dpi, 35mm format 3000x3000. 12bit A/D. SCSI. Fitted with auto-focus lens.64
- (1996) Super Coolscan LS-1000 (2592x3888, 2700 dpi) SCSI. scan time cut by half65
- (1996) Coolscan II LS-20 E (2700 dpi) SCSI66
- (1998) Coolscan LS-2000 (2700 dpi, 12-bit) SCSI, multiple sample, "CleanImage" software67
- (1998) Coolscan III LS-30 E (2700 dpi, 10-bit) SCSI68
- (2001) Coolscan IV LS-40 ED (2900 dpi, 12-bit, 3.6D) USB, SilverFast, ICE, ROC, GEM69
- (2001) Coolscan LS-4000 ED (4000 dpi, 14-bit, 4.2D) Firewire70
- (2001) Coolscan LS-8000 ED (4000 dpi, 14-bit, 4.2D) Firewire, multiformat71
- (2003) Coolscan V LS-50 ED (4000 dpi, 14-bit, 4.2D) USB
- (2003) Super Coolscan LS-5000 ED (4000 dpi, 16bit, 4.8D) USB
- (2004) Super Coolscan LS-9000 ED (4000 dpi, 16bit, 4.8D) Firewire, multiformat
Nikon introduced its first scanner, the Nikon LS-3500 with a maximum resolution of 4096 x 6144 pixels, in 1988. Prior to the development of 'cool' LED lighting this scanner used a halogen lamp (hence the name 'Coolscan' for the following models). The resolution of the following LED based Coolscan model didn't increase but the price was significantly lower. Colour depth, scan quality, imaging and hardware functionality as well as scanning speed was gradually improved with each following model. The final 'top of the line' 35mm Coolscan LS-5000 ED was a device capable of archiving greater numbers of slides; 50 framed slides or 40 images on film roll. It could scan all these in one batch using special adapters. A single maximum resolution scan was performed in no more than 20 seconds as long as no post-processing was also performed. With the launch of the Coolscan 9000 ED Nikon introduced its most up-to-date film scanner which, like the Minolta Dimage scanners were the only film scanners that, due to a special version of Digital ICE, were able to scan Kodachrome film reliably both dust and scratch free. LaserSoft Imaging's scan software SilverFast features a similar technique (iSRD) since end of 2008, that allows every Nikon film scanner to remove dust and scratches from Kodachrome scans. In late 2007 much of the software's code had to be rewritten to make it Mac OS 10.5 compatible. Nikon announced it would discontinue supporting its Nikon Scan software for the Macintosh as well as for Windows Vista 64-bit.72 Third-party software solutions like SilverFast or Vuescan provide alternatives to the official Nikon drivers and scanning software, and maintain updated drivers for most current operating systems. Between 1994 and 1996 Nikon developed three flatbed scanner models named Scantouch, which couldn't keep up with competitive flatbed products and were hence discontinued to allow Nikon to focus on its dedicated film scanners.
- Sprint IV
- Sportstar IV
- Travelite v
- Action VII
- Action VII Zoom
- Sporter I
- Venturer 8/10x32
- Venturer 8x42
- Roof Prism
- Action EX
- Superior E
- Spotter XL II WP
- Spotting Scopr R/A II
- Spotting Scope 80
- Fieldscope 60mm
- Fieldscope ED78/ EDII
- Fieldscope III/EDIII
- Fieldscope ED82
- Fieldscope ED50
- Fieldscopes EDG 65 /85
- Fieldscope EDG 85 VR
Nikon also manufactures ophthalmic equipment, loupes, monoculars, binocular telescopes, microscopes, laser rangefinders, cameras for microscopy, optical and video-based measurement equipment, scanners and steppers for the manufacture of integrated circuits and liquid crystal displays, and semiconductor device inspection equipment. The steppers and scanners represent about one third of the income for the company as of 2008.73 Nikon has also manufactured eyeglasses, sunglasses, and glasses frames, under the brands Nikon, Niji, Nobili-Ti, Presio, and Velociti VTI.74
|Look up Nikon choir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
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