North India

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Northern India
North India Zonal Map 14July2013.png
States in the North and North Central Zones of India, as defined by the Indian Government.
Population 543,937,430
Area 1,420,540 km2 (548,470 sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
States and territories Jammu and Kashmir
Himachal Pradesh
Uttarakhand
Haryana
Punjab
National Capital Territory of Delhi
Chandigarh
Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
Bihar
Madhya Pradesh
Most populous cities (2008) Delhi, Jaipur, Lucknow, Kanpur, Indore, Bhopal, Patna, Ghaziabad, Ludhiana, Agra
Languages Hindi, English, Urdu, Bhojpuri, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Magahi, Chhattisgarhi, Maithili, Haryanvi, Marwari, Santali, Kashmiri, Mewari, Bundeli, Bagheli, Awadhi, Garhwali

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The term North India officially refers to the seven North Indian states of Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Delhi (National Capital Territory), Chandigarh (Union Territory), Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. Other states which are not formally part of North India, but which are traditionally - culturally and linguistically - seen to be so are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. North Indian Culture is mainly rooted in the Indo-Aryan traditions and customs.

Delhi is the largest city in North india. With a population of 22 million in 2011, it is the world's second most populous city and the largest city in India in terms of area. Delhi metropolitan region is the largest commercial centre in the northern India.

The dominant geographical features of North India are the Indus-Gangetic Plain and the Himalayas, which demarcate the region from the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia. North India has been the historical centre of the Maurya, Gupta, Mughal, Sur, Maratha, Sikh and British Indian Empires. It has a diverse culture, and includes the Hindu pilgrimage centers of Char Dham, Haridwar, Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura, Vaishno Devi and Pushkar, the Buddhist pilgrimage centers of Bodh Gaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar, the Sikh Golden Temple as well as world heritage sites such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Khajuraho temples, Hill Forts of Rajasthan, Jantar Mantar (Jaipur), Bhimbetka Caves, Sanchi monuments, Qutb Minar, Red Fort, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri and the Taj Mahal. Hindi is the lingua franca of North India and has an official status together with English.

Definitions

Different authorities and sources in literature define North India differently.

Government of India definition

The Government of India defines the North India Cultural Zone as including the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan, as well as the Union Territory of Chandigarh.1 There is an overlapping neighbouring region, called the North Central India Cultural Zone, including the states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Bihar and Delhi, that is also defined by the Indian Government.2 The state of Bihar is also included in the East India Cultural Zone.3 Similarly, Rajasthan is also included in the West India Cultual Zone.4

Linguistic definition

Indo-Aryan languages predominate in North India, including in the Hindi Heartland, where Hindi and related languages predominate. Prior to the Partition of India, this also included the now-Pakistani provinces of Sindh5 and Punjab, and the eastern portion of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa up to Peshawar valley where Punjabi dialects and Hindko are spoken.6 This effectively excludes several of the seven North-East states (except for Assam and Sikkim).78

"North of the Vindhyas"

One traditional, and now obsolete, demarcation between Northern and Southern India is the Vindhya mountain range, which has sometimes formed a border during periods of imperial expansion in India, such as the one ruled by the Gupta emperor Samudragupta.9 The Vindhyas also find mention in the narrative of Rishi Agastya as a dividing feature between North and South India.10 The Manusmṛti also describes the southern limit of Aryavarta (a classical, and also now obsolete, term for parts of North India) as being defined by the Vindhya range.11

Muslim, Central Asian and Persian impacts as defining influences

Several sources consider sizable Muslim populations and deep-seated Islamic, Central Asian and Persian influences to be defining characteristics of North Indian culture, both linguistically and culturally.1213 Some of these influences are pre-Islamic, such as the Bactrian-originated Kushan Empire that maintained twin capitals in Mathura (now in Uttar Pradesh) and Peshawar (in the present-day Pakistani Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province), as well as the Hun confederacies that periodically asserted their rule over large parts of North India.14

Latitude-based definition

The Tropic of Cancer, which divides the temperate zone from the tropical zone in the Northern Hemisphere, runs through India, and could theoretically be regarded as a geographical dividing line in the country.15

Anecdotal usage

The term "North Indian" is sometimes used to describe people from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, often using the term bhaiya (which literally means 'elder brother') in a derogatory sense, though some press reports have contradicted this.16 In Punjab, people from the same region (Uttar Pradesh and Bihar) are often referred to as Purabias, or Easterners.17 Some publications of the Government of Bihar place that state in the eastern part of India as well.18 Within Uttar Pradesh itself, "the cultural divide between the east and the west is considerable, with the purabiyas (easterners) often being clubbed with Biharis in the perception of the westerners."1920

Geography

Shilla (7026 m) above the Spiti Valley in Himachal Pradesh
North India has extremely diverse climates.

North India lies mainly on continental India, north of peninsular India. Towards its North are the Himalayas which define the boundary between the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan plateau. To its west is the Thar desert, shared between North India and Pakistan and the Aravalli Range, beyond which lies the state of Gujarat. The Vindhya mountains are, in some interpretations, taken to be the southern boundary of North India.

The predominant geographical features of North India are the Indo-Gangetic plain which spans the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The Himalayas which lie in the states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir and the Thar desert which lies mainly in the state of Rajasthan. The state of Madhya Pradesh has large areas under forest cover, as do Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Chattisgarh.21

General climate

The Thar desert near Jaisalmer, Rajasthan

North India lies mainly in the north Temperate zone of the earth.22 Though cool or cold winters, hot summers and moderate monsoons are the general pattern . North India is one of the most climatically diverse regions on Earth. During summer, temperature often crosses 35°C in most of the indo-gangetic plains, with temperature even crossing 45 °C in thar desert, rajasthan. During winter, the lowest temperature in the plains dips to below 5 °C, and below freezing point in some states. Heavy to moderate snowfall occurs in these states - Hmachal pradesh, J&K and Uttarakhand. Much of north India is notoriously infamous for heavy fog during winters.

Extreme temperatures among inhabited regions have ranged from −45 °C (−49 °F) in Dras, Jammu and Kashmir23 to 50.6 °C (123 °F) in Alwar, Rajasthan. Dras is claimed to be the second coldest inhabited place on the planet (after Siberia), with a recorded low of -60 °C.242526

Precipitation

The region receives rain and snow precipitation through two primary weather patterns: the Indian Monsoon and the Western Disturbances. The Monsoon carries moisture northwards from the Indian Ocean, occurs in late summer and is important to the Kharif or autumn harvest.2728 Western Disturbances, on the other hand, are an extratropical weather phenomenon that carry moisture eastwards from the Mediterranean Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.29303132 They primarily occur during the winter season and are critically important for the Rabi or spring harvest, which includes the main staple over much of North India, wheat.30 The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand receive sustained snowfall in winter months.

Traditional seasons

Northern Indian tradition recognises six distinct seasons in the region: summer (grishma or garmi, May–June), rainy (varsha, July–August), cool (sharad, September–October, sometimes thought of as 'early autumn'), autumn (hemant, November–December, also called patjhar, lit. leaf-fall), winter (shishir or sardi, January–February) and spring (vasant, March–April). The literature, poetry and folklore of the region uses references to these six seasons quite extensively and has done so since ancient times when Sanskrit was prevalent.333435 In the mountainous areas, sometimes the winter is further divided into "big winter" (e.g. Kashmiri chillai kalaan) and "little winter" (chillai khurd).36

Demographics

The people of North India are predominantly of the Indo-Aryan linguistic branch, 3738 and include various ethnic groups such as Brahmins, Ahirs, Jats, Rajputs, Gurjars, Kolis, Khatris, Kambojs, Banias and Dalits.394041

Religion

Hinduism is the dominant religion in North India. Other religions practiced by various ethnic communities include Islam, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism. The states of Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh are overwhelmingly Hindu. Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a majority Muslim population, while Punjab is the only state with a majority Sikh population.

Performing arts

Dance

Dance of North India too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, and rouf and bhand pather of Kashmir. Main dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama such as kathak of Uttar Pradesh.

Languages

Distribution of Indo-Aryan languages.

Linguistically, North India is dominated by Indo-Aryan languages, although subregions of Northern Dravidian languages, Tibeto-Burman languages (such as Himachal's Lahauli language) and Austroasiatic languages (such as Munda) exist throughout the region. It is in this region, or its proximity, that Sanskrit and the various Prakrits are thought to have evolved. Indo-Aryan languages native to North India include the Hindustani lingua franca (including both its Hindi and Urdu registers),4243 a wide range of western and eastern Hindi dialects, Rajasthani languages (Marwari, Mewari, Shekhawati, Malwi, Bagri), Haryanvi, Bihari languages (Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili and Angika), Pahari, Kumaoni, Garhwali, Punjabi, Kashmiri, Haryanavi and other languages. The subregion where Hindi languages are widely spoken (as either primary or secondary languages) is sometimes called the Hindi Heartland or the Hindi Belt, and is loosely defined.444546

Small speaker populations of two language isolates (Nihali and Burushaski), which are not known to be rooted in any other language families, also exist in North India.4748

Flora and fauna

North Indian vegetation is predominantly deciduous and coniferous. Of the deciduous trees, sal, teak, walnut, sheesham (Indian rosewood) and poplar are some which are important commercially.49 The Western Himalayan region abounds in chir, pine, deodar (Himalayan cedar), blue pine, spruce, various firs, birch and junipers.50515253 The birch, especially, has historical significance in Indian culture due to the extensive use of birch paper (Sanskrit: bhurja patra) as parchment for many ancient Indian texts.5455 The Eastern Himalayan region consists of oaks, laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder, birch and dwarf willows. Reflecting the diverse climatic zones and terrain contained in the region, the floral variety is extensive and ranges from Alpine to temperate thorn, coniferous to evergreen, and thick tropical jungles to cool temperate woods.5056

There are around 500 varieties of mammals, 2000 species of birds, 30,000 types of insects and a wide variety of fish, amphibians and reptiles in the country. Animal species in North India include Elephant, Tiger, Leopard, Snow Leopard, Sambar (Asiatic stag), Chital (Spotted deer), Hangul (Red deer), Hog Deer, Chinkara (Indian Gazelle), Blackbuck, Nilgai (blue bull antelope), Porcupine, Wild Boar, Indian Fox, Tibetan Sand Fox, Rhesus Monkey, Langur, Jungle Cat, Hyena, Jackal, Black Bear, Himalayan Brown Bear, Sloth Bear, and the endangered Caracal.

Reptiles are represented by a large number of snake and lizard species, as well as the ghariyal and crocodiles.57 Venomous snakes found in the region include king cobra and krait. Various scorpion, spider and insect species include the commercially useful honeybees, silkworms and lac insects. The strikingly coloured bir bahuti is also found in this region.58

The region has a wide variety of birds, including peacocks, parrots, and thousands of immigrant birds, such as the Siberian Crane. Other birds include pheasants, geese, ducks, mynahs, parakeets, pigeons, cranes (including the celebrated Sarus Crane), and hornbills. Great pied hornbill, Pallas's fishing eagle, Grey-headed fishing eagle, Red-thighed falconet are found in the Himalayan areas. Other birds found here are Tawny fish owl, Scale-bellied Woodpecker, Red-breasted Parakeet, Himalayan Swiftlet, Stork-billed Kingfisher and Himalayan or White-tailed Rubythroat.5960

Wildlife parks and reserves

Important National Parks and Tiger reserves of North India include -

Corbett National Park: It was established in 1936 along the banks of the Ramganga River. It is India's first National Park, and was designated a Project Tiger Reserve in the year 1973. Situated in Nainital district of Uttarakhand, the park acts as a protected area for the critically endangered Bengal tiger of India. Cradled in the foothills of the Himalayas, it comprises a total area of 500 km² out of which 350 km² is core reserve. This park is known not only for its rich and varied wildlife but also for its scenic beauty.

Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers National Park: Located in West Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand, these two national parks constitute a biosphere reserve that is in the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004. The Valley of Flowers is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora, this richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals.

Dachigam National Park: Dachigam is a higher altitude national reserve in the state of Jammu and Kashmir that ranges from 5,500 to 14,000 feet above sea level. It is home to the Hangul (a Red Deer species, also called the Kashmir Stag).

Great Himalayan National Park: This park is located in Himachal Pradesh state and ranges in altitude from 5,000 to 17,500 feet. Wildlife resident here includes the Snow Leopard, the Himalayan Brown Bear and the Musk deer.

Desert National Park: Located in Rajasthan, this national reserve features extensive sand dunes and dry salt lakes. Wildlife unique to the region includes the Desert Fox and the Great Indian Bustard.

Kanha National Park: The sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows and ravines of Kanha were the setting for Rudyard Kipling's collection of stories, "The Jungle Book". The Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh came into being in 1955 and forms the core of the Kanha Tiger Reserve, created in 1974 under Project Tiger.

Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary: Located in the state of Bihar, it is the only protected zone for the endangered Ganges and Indus River dolphin.

Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary: It is one of the finest bird parks in the world, it is a reserve that offers protection to faunal species as well. Nesting indigenous water birds as well as migratory water birds and waterside birds, this sanctuary is also inhabited by Sambar, Chital, Nilgai and Boar.

Dudhwa National Park: It covers an area of 500 km² along the Indo-Nepal border in Lakhimpur Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh, is best known for the Barasingha or Swamp Deer. The grasslands and woodlands of this park, consist mainly of sal forests. The barasingha is found in the southwest and southeast regions of the park. Among the big cats, tigers abound at Dudhwa. There are also a few leopards. The other animals found in large numbers, are the Indian rhinoceros and the wild elephant, jungle cats, leopard cats, fishing cats, jackals, civets, sloth bears, sambar, otters, crocodiles and chital.

Ranthambhore National Park: It spans an area of 400 km² with an estimated head count of thirty two tigers is perhaps India’s finest example of Project Tiger, a conservation effort started by the government in an attempt to save the dwindling number of tigers in India. Situated near the small town of Sawai Madhopur it boasts of variety of plant and animal species of North India.

Kalesar National Park: Kalesar is a sal forest in the Shivalik Hills of eastern Haryana state. Primarily known for birds, it also contains a small number of tigers and panthers.

Places of interest

Akshardham Temple, Delhi

Nature

The Indian Himalayas, the Thar desert and the Indo-Gangetic plain dominate the natural scenery of North India. The region encompasses several of the most highly regarded hill destinations of India such as Srinagar, Shimla, Manali, Nainital, Mussoorie, Kausani and Mount Abu. Several spots in the states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh provide panoramic views of the snow-clad Himalayan range. The Himalayan region also provides ample opportunity for adventure sports such as mountaineering, trekking, river rafting and skiing. Camel or jeep safaris of the Thar desert are also popular in the state of Rajasthan. North India includes several national parks such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Jim Corbett National Park, Keoladeo National Park and Ranthambore National Park.

Pilgrimage

North India encompasses several of the holiest pilgrimage centers of Hinduism (Varanasi, Haridwar, Char Dham, Vaishno Devi, Rishikesh, Ayodhya, Mathura/Vrindavan, Pushkar, Prayag and seven of the twelve Jyotirlinga sites), the most sacred destinations of Buddhism (Bodh Gaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar), the most regarded pilgrimage centers of Sikhism (Amritsar and Hemkund) and some of the highly regarded destinations in Sufi Islam (Ajmer and Delhi). The largest Hindu temple, Akshardham Temple, the largest Buddhist temple in India, Mahabodhi, the largest mosque in India, Jama Masjid, and the largest Sikh shrine, Golden Temple, are all in this region.6162

Historical

North India includes some highly regarded historical, architectural and archaeological treasures of India. The Taj Mahal, an immense mausoleum of white marble in Agra, is the jewel of Mughal architecture and one of the universally admired masterpieces of world heritage.63 Besides Agra, Fatehpur Sikri and Delhi also carry some great exhibits from the Mughal architecture. Gwalior has some rich cultural sites. Gwalior Fort, Sun Temple which was made by Birla group. Also Jai vilas palace shows maharaja culture. Kanpur reflects excellent British architecture with monuments like-Edward Hall, Police Quarters, Cutchery Cemetery etc. Khajuraho temples constitute another famous world heritage site. The state of Rajasthan is known for exquisite palaces and forts of the Rajput clans. Historical sites and architecture from the ancient and medieval Hindu and Buddhist periods of Indian history, such as Jageshwar, Deogarh and Sanchi, as well as sites from the bronze age Indus Valley Civilization, such as Manda and Alamgirpur, can be found scattered throughout northern India. Varanasi, on the banks of the River Ganga, is considered one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and the oldest in India. Bhimbetka is an archaeological site of the Paleolithic era, exhibiting the earliest traces of human life on the Indian subcontinent.

Universities

North India has several universities and centers of excellence such as the Avadh University, Panjab University, University of Kashmir, University of Jammu, Haryana Agricultural University, O. P. Jindal Global University,64 Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Agra University, Kumaon University, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Aligarh Muslim University, University of Rajasthan, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Allahabad University, Benaras Hindu University, Patna University, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Delhi University, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Gurukul Kangri University, Uttarakhand Technical University, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Kanpur University, University of Lucknow, Kurukshetra University and many more. The world-renowned Indian Institute of Technology and Indian Institute of Management have campuses in several cities of North India such as Delhi, Kanpur, Roorkee, Varanasi, Lucknow, Kashipur, Indore and Ahmedabad. One of the first great universities in recorded history, the Nalanda University, is in the state of Bihar. There has been plans for revival of this ancient university, including an effort by a multinational consortium led by Singapore, China, India and Japan.

Economy

Once predominantly agrarian, the economic landscape is changing fast with rapid economic growth that has ranged above 8% annually. Several parts of North India have prospered as a consequence of the Green Revolution, including Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, and experienced both economic and social development.656667 The eastern areas of East Uttar Pradesh, however, have lagged6869 and the resulting disparity has, in the case of Uttar Pradesh, contributed to a demand for separate statehood in West Uttar Pradesh (the Harit Pradesh movement).7071 Bihar has the lowest per-capita SDP. How-ever during recent years, bihar's economy is the fastest growing state economy in north India, and the second in whole of India after Gujrat.

The states with the highest GDP per capita in North India are Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. The National Capital Region of Delhi has emerged as an economic power house with rapid industrial growth along with adjoining areas of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.72 Chandigarh has the highest per-capita State Domestic Product (SDP) of any Indian union territory.73

See also

References and bibliography

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  2. ^ "North Central Zone Cultural Centre". North Central Zone Cultural Centre, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  3. ^ "East Zone Cultural Centre". East Zone Cultural Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  4. ^ "West Zone Cultural Centre". West Zone Cultural Centre, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  5. ^ Sheldon I. Pollock, "Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia", University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0-520-22821-9.
  6. ^ Dhanesh Jain and George Cardona, "The Indo-Aryan Languages", Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0-7007-1130-9.
  7. ^ Golockchandra Goswami (1982), Structure of Assamese, Dept. of Publication, Gauhati University, "... Assamese is an Indo-Aryan language originated from the Vedic dialects, and therefore, a sister of all the northern Indian languages of the country ..." 
  8. ^ Peter Austin (2008), One thousand languages: living, endangered, and lost, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-25560-9, "... Nepali is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, in the north Indian state of Sikkim and some other parts of India, and in Bhutan and Burma ..." 
  9. ^ John Stewart Bowman, "Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture", Columbia University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-231-11004-9, Snippet:... Samudragupta is notable for the king's tireless military campaigning and expansion of empire. He conquers the entire Aryavarta ... His expeditions into south India are unsuccessful; the Vindhya hills form the southern boundary of empire ....
  10. ^ Varadaraja V. Raman, "Glimpses of Indian Heritage", Popular Prakasan, 1989.
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  12. ^ Paul R. Brass, "Language, Religion and Politics in North India", iUniverse, 2005, ISBN 0-595-34394-5.
  13. ^ Christopher Alan Bayly, "Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770-1870", CUP Archive, 1983, ISBN 0-521-31054-7.
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  15. ^ Ram Nath Dubey, "Economic Geography of India", Kitab Mahal, 1961. ... The Tropic of Cancer divides India roughly into two equal parts: the Warm Temperate and Tropical ...
  16. ^ A clash of cultures, NDTV, 2008-02-25. Retrieved 2008-10-22. "... no one in North India, and here I am talking of the states of Punjab, Himachal, Uttrakhand, Haryana and Rajasthan, considers people from eastern UP and Bihar as North Indians ..."
  17. ^ "Politicians to blame for low turnout". The Tribune, Chandigarh. 2001-12-11. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  18. ^ "Government of Bihar Official Web Portal". Government of Bihar. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  19. ^ "Unorganised Workers of Delhi and the Seven Day Strike of 1988". Indrani Mazumdar, Archives of Indian Labour. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  20. ^ Susheela Raghavan, "Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings", CRC Press, 2007, ISBN 0-8493-2842-X. ... Maharashtra, in North India, has kala masala in many versions ...
  21. ^ "Forest Survey of India - State of Forest Report 2003". Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  22. ^ Yash Pal Singh, Social Science Textbook for Class IX Geography, VK Publications, ISBN 978-81-89611-15-6, "... The Tropic of Cancer divides India into almost two equal parts. It makes the Southern half of India in the Tropical Zone and the Northern half in the Temperate zone ..." 
  23. ^ Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Dras, India
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  25. ^ H. N. Kaul (1998-01-01), Rediscovery of Ladakh, Indus Publishing, 1998, ISBN 81-7387-086-1, 9788173870866 Check |isbn= value (help), "... With its altitude of 10000 ft. above the sea, Dras is considered to be the second coldest inhabited place in the world after Siberia where mercury sinks as low as -40 °C during winter, though it has also recorded a low of -60 °C ..." 
  26. ^ Galen A. Rowell, Ed Reading (1980-06), Many people come, looking, looking, Mountaineers, 1980, ISBN 0-916890-86-4, 9780916890865 Check |isbn= value (help), "... the bleak village of Dras, reportedly the second coldest place in Asia with recorded temperatures of −80 °F (−62 °C) ..." 
  27. ^ Vidya Sagar Katiyar, "Indian Monsoon and Its Frontiers", Inter-India Publications, 1990, ISBN 81-210-0245-1.
  28. ^ Ajit Prasad Jain and Shiba Prasad Chatterjee, "Report of the Irrigation Commission, 1972", Ministry of Irrigation and Power, Government of India, 1972.
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  30. ^ a b Bin Wang, "The Asian Monsoon", Springer, 2006, ISBN 3-540-40610-7.
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  33. ^ Geography, Yash Pal Singh, pp. 420, FK Publications, ISBN 9788189611859, ... The sequence of the six traditional seasons is correct only for northern and central parts of India ...
  34. ^ The Life of a Text: Performing the Rāmcaritmānas of Tulsidas, Philip Lutgendorf, pp. 22, University of California Press, 1991, ISBN 9780520066908, ... likening the major episodes of the narrative to various features of the river and its banks, and to the appearance of the river in each of the six seasons of the North Indian year ...
  35. ^ Essays on North Indian Folk Traditions, Susan Snow Wadley, pp. 226, Orient Blackswan, 2005, ISBN 9788180280160, ... Yet another cultural division of the year views it as six seasons ... This cycle of six seasons, while known and referred to today, is more widely recognised in Sanskrit literature ...
  36. ^ Systematic Geography Of Jammu And Kashmir, S.A. Qazi, pp. 25, APH Publishing, 2005, ISBN 9788176487863
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  38. ^ Phani Deka (2007), The great Indian corridor in the east, Mittal Publications, ISBN 978-81-8324-179-3, "... So far the present ethnic composition is concerned, of the country's total population the Indo-Aryans constitute 72 percent, Dravidians 25 percent, and Mongoloids, Proto-Australoids and Negritos together remaining 3 per cent ..." 
  39. ^ Sarat Chandra Roy and Ral Bahadur, "Man in India", A.K. Bose, 1996.
  40. ^ Kumool Abbi, "Discourse of Zindaginama: A semio-anthropological critique", Harman Publishing House, 2002.
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  45. ^ Stuart Allan, Barbie Zelizer (2004), Reporting war: journalism in wartime, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-33998-7, "... located in what is called the "Hindi heartland" or the "Hindi belt" of north and central India ..." 
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