Oliver Hazard Perry

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Oliver Hazard Perry
Portrait of Oliver Hazard Perry, 1818.jpg
The Hero of Lake Erie
Born (1785-08-23)August 23, 1785
South Kingstown, Rhode Island
Died August 23, 1819(1819-08-23) (aged 34)
Trinidad
Place of burial Newport, Rhode Island
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch US Naval Jack 15 stars.svg United States Navy
Years of service 1799–1819
Rank Commodore
Commands held
Battles/wars
Awards Congressional Gold Medal
Relations
  • Christopher Perry (father)
  • Sarah Perry (mother)
  • Raymond Henry Jones Perry (brother)
  • Matthew Calbraith Perry (brother)
  • James Alexander Perry (brother)
  • Nathaniel Hazard Perry (brother)
  • Sarah Wallace Perry (sister)
  • Anna Marie Perry Rodgers (sister)
  • Jane Tweedy Perry Butler (sister)

United States Navy Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry (August 23, 1785 – August 23, 1819) was an American naval commander. Born in South Kingstown, Rhode Island, the son of USN Captain Christopher Raymond Perry and Sarah Wallace Alexander, Perry was a direct descendant of William Wallace.1 He was an older brother to Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry who compelled the opening of Japan.

Perry served in the West Indies during the Quasi War with France, the Mediterranean during the Barbary Wars, the Caribbean fighting piracy and the slave trade, but is most noted for his heroic role in the War of 1812 during the Battle of Lake Erie.2 During the War of 1812 against Britain, Perry supervised the building of a fleet at Erie, Pennsylvania, at the age of 27. He earned the title "Hero of Lake Erie" for leading American forces in a decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie, receiving a Congressional Gold Medal and the Thanks of Congress.13 His leadership materially aided the successful outcomes of all nine Lake Erie military campaign victories, and the fleet victory was a turning point in the battle for the west in the War of 1812.3

Perry became embroiled in a long standing and festering controversy with the Commander of the USS Niagara, Captain Jesse Elliott, over their conduct in the battle, and both were the subject of official charges that were lodged. In 1815, he successfully commanded the Java in the Mediterranean during the Second Barbary War. So seminal was his career that he was lionized in the press (being the subject of scores of books and articles),4 has been heavily memorialized, and many places and ships have been named in his honor.

Childhood and early life

As a boy, Perry lived in Tower Hill, Rhode Island, sailing ships in anticipation of his future career as an officer in the US Navy.3 He was the oldest of five boys, born to Christopher Perry, his father and Sarah Perry, his mother. Perry came from a long line of accomplished naval men from both sides of his family. His mother taught Perry and his younger brothers to read and write and had them attended Trinity Episcopal Church regularly, where he was baptized by Reverend William Smith at the age of nine. Theodore Dehon, rector of the church from 1797 to 1810 had a significant influence of the young Perry.5 He was educated in Newport, Rhode Island.

Early naval career

By the age of twelve, Perry had sailed with his father to the West Indies and by at the age of 13 was appointed a midshipman in the United States Navy on April 7, 1799, aboard the USS General Greene, commanded by his father who was a captain. Their first stop was in Cuba to receive US merchant ships and provide them escort from Havana to the United States.36 During the Quasi-War with France, he served on this frigate.7 He first experienced combat on February 9, 1800, off the coast of the French colony of Haiti, which was in a state of rebellion.89

During the First Barbary War, he served on the USS Adams10 and later commanded the USS Nautilus during the capture of Derna. Beginning in 1806, he commanded the sloop USS Revenge, engaging in patrol duties to enforce the Embargo Act, as well as a successful raid to regain a U.S. ship held in Spanish territory in Florida. On January 9, 1811, the Revenge ran aground off Rhode Island and was lost. "Seeing fairly quickly that he could not save the vessel, [Perry] turned his attention to saving the crew, and after helping them down the ropes over the vessel's stern, he was the last to leave the vessel." 11:61 The following court-martial exonerated Perry, placing blame on the ship's pilot.A12 In January 2011, a team of divers claimed to have discovered the remains of the Revenge, nearly 200 years to the day after it sank.1314

Following the court-martial, Perry was given a leave of absence from the navy. On May 5, 1811, he married Elizabeth Champlin Mason of Newport, Rhode Island, whom he had met at a dance in 1807.12 They enjoyed an extended honeymoon touring New England. The couple would eventually have five children, with one dying in infancy.15

War of 1812

At the beginning of the War of 1812 the British Navy controlled the Great Lakes, except for Lake Huron, while the American Navy controlled Lake Champlain.16 American naval forces were very small, allowing the British to make many advances in the Great Lakes and northern New York waterways. The roles played by commanders like Oliver Hazard Perry, at Lake Erie and Isaac Chauncey at Lake Ontario and Thomas Macdonough at Lake Champlain all proved vital to the naval effort that provided the most redeeming military feature of that war. Naval historian E. B. Potter noted that "all naval officers of the day made a special study of Nelson's battles". Oliver Perry was no exception. 17 At his request he was given command of United States naval forces on Lake Erie during the War of 1812. U.S. Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton had charged prominent merchant seaman Daniel Dobbins with building the American fleet on Presque Isle Bay at Erie, Pennsylvania, and Perry was named chief naval officer.1318

Perry knew battle was coming, and he "consciously followed Nelson's example in describing his battle plans to his captains."17:218 Perry's instructions were:

Commanding officers are particularly enjoined to pay attention in preserving their stations in the Line, and in all cases to keep as near the Lawrence as possible. ...Engage your designated adversary, in close action, at half cable's length. B19

— Oliver H. Perry, General Order, USS Lawrence

Hero of Lake Erie

Perry (standing) after abandoning the Lawrence in a 1911 painting by Edward Percy Moran

On September 10, 1813, Perry's command fought a successful fleet action against a task force of the Royal Navy in the Battle of Lake Erie. It was at the outset of this battle that Perry famously said, “If a victory is to be gained, I will gain it.”20 Initially, the exchange of gunfire favored the British. Perry's flagship, the USS Lawrence , was so severely disabled in the encounter that the British commander, Robert Heriot Barclay, thought that Perry would surrender it, and sent a small boat to request that the American vessel pull down its flag. Faithful to the words of his battle flag, "DON'T GIVE UP THE SHIP" (a paraphrase of the dying words of Captain James Lawrence, the ship's namesake and Perry's friend),2122 Perry, with Lawrence's chaplain and purser as the remaining able crew, personally fired the final salvo,23:266 and then had his men row him a half-mile (0.8 km) through heavy gunfire to transfer his command to the USS Niagara. Once aboard, Perry dispatched the Niagara's commander, Captain Jesse Elliot, to bring the other schooners into closer action while he steered the Niagara toward the damaged British ships. Like Nelson's Victory at Trafalgar, Niagara broke the opposing line. Perry's force pounded Barclay's ships until they could offer no effective resistance and surrendered. Although he had won the battle aboard the Niagara, he received the British surrender on the deck of the recaptured Lawrence to allow the British to see the terrible price his men had paid.20 Perry's battle report to General William Henry Harrison was famously brief: "We have met the enemy and they are ours; two ships, two brigs, one schooner and one sloop."21C

Perry's battle flag

This was the first time in history that an entire British naval squadron had surrendered, and every captured ship was successfully returned to Presque Isle.24

25

Although the engagement was small compared to Napoleonic naval battles such as the Battle of Trafalgar, the victory had disproportionate strategic importance, opening Canada up to possible invasion, while simultaneously protecting the entire Ohio Valley.326 The loss of the British squadron directly led to the critical Battle of the Thames, the rout of British forces by Harrison's army, the death of Tecumseh, and the breakup of his Indian alliance.25 Along with the Battle of Plattsburgh, it was one of only two significant fleet victories of the war.3

In fact, Perry was involved in nine battles that led to and followed the Battle of Lake Erie, and they all had a seminal impact. "What is often overlooked when studying Perry is how his physical participation and brilliant strategic leadership influenced the outcomes of all nine Lake Erie military campaign victories:" Capturing Fort George, Ontario in the Battle of Fort George; Destroying the British munitions at Olde Fort Erie (see Capture of Fort Erie); Rescuing five vessels from Black Rock; Building the Erie fleet; Getting the ships over the sandbar; Blocking British supplies for a month prior to battle; Planning the Thames invasion with General Harrison; Winning the Battle of Lake Erie; and Winning the Battle of Thames.325

Perry–Elliott controversy

Niagara joins the battle.
Detroit and Queen Charlotte at right.

While Nelson had his Collingwood, Perry had his Elliott, and was considerably less well served. Jesse Elliott, while serving with Isaac Chauncey at Lake Ontario, was tasked to augment Perry's squadron with 11 officers and 91 men, "and none were sent but the worst."27 Subsequently detailed by Chauncey to command Niagara, Elliott stated "that if he could have foreseen that he himself should be sent to Lake Erie, his selections would have been different."27 Elliott then appropriated the "best of the worst" for Niagara; and Perry "in the interest of harmony" accepted the situation, though with growing ill-will.27

In his initial post-action report, Perry had praised Captain Elliott's role in the American victory at Lake Erie; and as news of the battle spread, Perry and Elliott were both celebrated as national heroes. Soon after, however, several junior officers publicly criticized Elliott's performance during the battle, charging that Elliott allowed the Lawrence to suffer the brunt of the British fire while holding the Niagara back from the fight. William Vigneron Taylor, Perry's sailing master, in a letter to Taylor's wife, put it thus:

The Lawrence alone rec'd the fire of the whole British squadron 2 1/2 hours within pistol shot—we were not supported as we ought to have been. Captain Perry led the Lawrence into action & sustained the most destructive fire with the most gallant spirit perhaps that was ever witnessed under similar circumstances.28

— William Taylor, 15 September 1813

The meeting between Elliott and Perry on the deck of Niagara was terse. Elliott inquired how the day was going. Perry replied, "Badly." Elliott then volunteered to take Perry's small boat and rally the schooners, and Perry acquiesced.19:49 As Perry turned Niagara into the battle, Elliott was not aboard. Elliott's rejoinder to history's criticism of inaction was that there had been a lack of effective signaling. Charges were filed but were not officially acted upon. Attempting to restore his honor, Elliott and his supporters began a 30-year campaign that would outlive both men and ultimately leave his reputation in tatters.25

Congressional Gold Medal

On January 6, 1814, Perry was honored with a Congressional Gold Medal,29 the Thanks of Congress, and a promotion to the rank of Captain.3031 This was one of 27 Gold Medals authorized by Congress arising from the War of 1812.32

leftcenterrightcenter
  • Obverse – bust of Perry facing right surrounded by Oliverus H. Perry Princeps Stagno Eriense. ~ Classam Totam Contudit.
  • Reverse depicts a sea battle scene with inscriptions:
Viam Invenit Virtus Aut Facit
Inter Class. Ameri.
Et Brit Die X. Sep.
MDCCCXIII
(Valor finds or makes a way. Between the Fleets of America and Britain September 10, 1813.)3334

Elliott was also recognized with a Congressional Gold Medal29 and the Thanks of Congress for his actions in the Battle of Lake Erie. This recognition would prove to fan the flames of resentment on both sides of the Elliott–Perry controversy.25

In recognition of his victory at Lake Erie, in 1813 Perry was elected as an honorary member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati.

Later commands and controversies

USN engraved portrait of
Commodore Perry

In July 1814, Perry was offered command of the USS Java, a 44-gun frigate which was under construction in Baltimore. While overseeing the outfitting of the Java, Perry participated in the defenses of Baltimore and Washington, DC during the British invasion of the Chesapeake Bay. In a twist of irony, these land battles would be the last time the career naval officer saw combat. The Treaty of Ghent was signed before the Java could be put to sea.15

For Perry, the post-war years were marred by controversies. In 1815, he commanded the Java in the Mediterranean during the Second Barbary War. While moored in Naples, Perry was provoked into slapping the commander of the ship's Marines, John Heath. The ensuing court-martial found both men guilty but levied only mild reprimands. After the crew returned home, Heath challenged Perry to a pistol duel, which was fought on October 19, 1817, on the same Weehawken, New Jersey, field where Aaron Burr shot Alexander Hamilton. Heath fired first and missed. Perry refused to fire, satisfying the Marine's honor.15

Perry's return from the Mediterranean also reignited the feud with Elliott. After an exchange of angry letters, Elliott challenged Perry to a duel, which Perry refused. He instead decided to file formal court-martial charges against Elliott, including "conduct unbecoming an officer," and failure to "do his utmost to take or destroy the vessel of the enemy which it was his duty to encounter." Wishing to avoid a scandal between two congressionally decorated naval heroes, Secretary of the Navy Smith Thompson and President James Monroe suppressed the matter by offering Perry the rank of Commodore and a diplomatic mission to South America in exchange for dropping his charges against Elliott. This put an official end to the controversy, though it would continue to be debated for another quarter century.35

Death and legacy

Oliver Hazard Perry
Victory Quarter

In 1819, after a successful expedition to Venezuela's Orinoco River to consult with Simon Bolivar about piracy in the Caribbean, Perry contracted yellow fever from mosquitoes while aboard the USS Nonsuch. Despite the crew's efforts to reach Trinidad for medical assistance, the Commodore died on his 34th birthday as the ship was nearing Port of Spain. After being buried in Port of Spain, his remains were later taken back to the United States and interred in Newport, Rhode Island. After resting briefly in the Old Common Burial Ground, his body was finally moved to Newport's Island Cemetery,3637 where his brother Matthew C. Perry is also interred.38

Perry is shown on the reverse of the 2013 "Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial Quarter". The reverse design depicts the statue of Perry with the International Peace Memorial in the distance.39

Family

Perry's parents were Christopher Raymond Perry (1761–1818), who was also born in South Kingston, RI, and Sarah Wallace Alexander (1763-?).

Perry married Elizabeth Champlin Mason in 1811. They had five children, four of whom lived to maturity. They were:

1. Christopher Grant Champlin Perry (April 2, 1812 – April 5, 1854) m. Murial Frances Sergeant of Philadelphia (great-granddaughter of Benjamin Franklin); their daughter Margaret Mason Perry married the artist John LaFarge;

2. Oliver Hazard Perry II (February 23, 1813 – March 4, 1814) died in infancy;

3. Oliver Hazard Perry, Jr. (February 23, 1815 – August 20, 1878) m. 1) Elizabeth Ann Randolph (1816–1847) (Virginia Randolph family) and m. 2) Mary Ann Moseley;

4. Christopher Raymond Perry (June 29, 1816 – October 8, 1848) never married;

5. Elizabeth Mason Perry m., as his 2nd wife, the Reverend Francis Vinton, rector of Trinity Episcopal Church in Newport.

Perry's son Christopher Grant Champlin Perry served as commander of the Artillery Company of Newport from 1848 until his death in 1854.

Oliver Hazard Perry, Jr. entered the Navy as a midshipman in 1829, rose to the rank of lieutenant and resigned in 1849.

Christopher Raymond Perry graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1842. He served during the Mexican War and fought at the Battle of Palo Alto on May 8, 1846 and at the Battle of Resaca-de‑la‑Palma on May 9, 1846. He died on active duty as a 1st lieutenant in 1848.40

His family's descendants include Commander John Rodgers, the second person to become a United States naval aviator,41 and well known civilian aviator Calbraith Perry Rodgers, the first person to fly an airplane—the Vin Fiz—across the United States.42

Oliver Hazard Perry La Farge (December 19, 1901 – August 2, 1963) was an American writer and anthropologist, best known for his 1930 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel Laughing Boy.

His great nephew Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont (November 12, 1858 – June 10, 1908) was an American socialite and United States Representative from New York.

Oliver Hazard Perry Throck Morton (August 4, 1823 – November 1, 1877) (no relation)—the 14th Governor of Indiana, a famous Republican politician and U.S. Senator, who was a leader among the Radical Republican reconstructionists—was named in his honor.*43

Geographical namesakes

Many locations, both in Rhode Island and near Lake Erie, are named in his honor, including:

Counties and municipalities (organized by state)

Monuments

Monuments to Perry are located in many locations, including:

  • Trinity Episcopal Church in Newport, RI, memorial plaque.

Eponymous ships

Commodore Perry has been repeatedly honored with ships bearing his name.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ His progression from being the subject of a court-martial for running aground to being a formidable commander who made a real difference has a striking parallel to the career of Admiral Chester W. Nimitz.
  2. ^ A "cable" is 720 feet in the Royal Navy, 600 feet (183 m) feet in the U.S. Navy. "Half cable's length" would be less than 330 feet (100 m).
  3. ^ The British order of battle was actually two ships, one brig, two schooners and one sloop.23:260–261 "Perry's message was inaccurate." 19:Note 129, p. 97.

Bibliography

  • Barnes, James (1912). The hero of Erie: (Oliver Hazard Perry). D. Appleton & Company, New York, London, p. 167.  E'book
  • Brown, John Howard. The Cyclopaedia of American Biography: Comprising the Men and Women of the United States ..., V6. Kessinger Publishing,. p. 700. ISBN 978-1-4254-8629-7. , Book
  • Potter, Elmer Belmont (1981). Sea Power: A Naval History. Naval Institute Press. p. 419. ISBN 9780870216077. , Book

References

  1. ^ a b c White, 1895, p. 288
  2. ^ Skaggs, 2006, p. xi
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Bloom, Page essay
  4. ^ Paullin, 1918, See Bibliography
  5. ^ Skaggs, 2006, p. 6
  6. ^ Mackenzie, 1840, p. 40
  7. ^ Barnes, 1912, p. 11
  8. ^ Brown, 2006, Oliver Hazard Perry, p. 226
  9. ^ Barnes, 1912, p. 16
  10. ^ Mackenzie, 1840, pp. 53-55
  11. ^ Copes, Jan M. (Fall 1994). "The Perry Family: A Newport Naval Dynasty of the Early Republic". Newport History: Bulletin of the Newport Historical Society (Newport, RI: Newport Historical Society). 66, Part 2 (227): 49–77. 
  12. ^ a b Cooper, James Fenimore (May 1843). Oliver Hazard Perry XXII (5). Graham's Magazine. p. 268. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Divers: 1811 Wreck of Perry Ship Discovered Off RI". New York Times (Associated Press report). January 7, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Divers Say They've Found 1811 Wreck of Perry Ship". AOL News. January 8, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  15. ^ a b c "Oliver Hazard Perry – Perry's Victory & International Peace Memorial". Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  16. ^ Skaggs, 2006, p. 50
  17. ^ a b Potter, 1981, p. 106
  18. ^ Herring, James; Longacre, James Barton (1854). The national portrait gallery of distinguished Americans 1. Philadelphia: D. Rice & A.N. Hart. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c Altoff, Gerard T. (1999). Oliver Hazard Perry and the Battle of Lake Erie. Put-in-Bay, OH: The Perry Group. ISBN 978-1887794039. 
  20. ^ a b Farmer, Silas. (1884) (Jul 1969) The history of Detroit and Michigan, or, The metropolis illustrated: a chronological cyclopaedia of the past and present: including a full record of territorial days in Michigan, and the annuals of Wayne County, p. 283 and Various formats at Open Library.
  21. ^ a b "Famous Navy Quotes: Who Said Them and When". Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  22. ^ Dudley, William S., ed. The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History. vol.2 (Washington, DC.: US Government Printing Office, 1992), p. 559.
  23. ^ a b Roosevelt, Theodore (1889). The Naval War of 1812 Or The History of the United States Navy during the Last War with Great Britain to Which Is Appended an Account of the Battle of New Orleans (Tenth ed.). New York: G. P. Putnum's Sons. 
  24. ^ Skaggs, 2000, p. 147
  25. ^ a b c d e Skaggs, David Curtis (April 2009). "Perry Triumphant". Naval History Magazine (United States Naval Institute) 23 (2). Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  26. ^ Symonds, Craig L; Clipson, William J. (April 2001) The Naval Institute historical atlas of the U.S. Navy Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press 264pp, ISBN 978-1-55750-984-0; ISBN 1-55750-984-0, p. 48.
  27. ^ a b c Quoted in Altoff, Gerard T. (1993). Deep Water Sailors Shallow Water Soldiers: Manning the United States Fleet on Lake Erie – 1813. Put-in-Bay, OH: The Perry Group. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-1887794015. 
  28. ^ Taylor, William V. (1813). Logbook of the USS Lawrence. Newport, RI: Newport Historical Society. 
  29. ^ a b J. F. Loubat, LL.D. (1831–1927) (1888). The Medallic History of the United States of America, 1776—1876. Volume II. Illustrated by Jaquemart, Jules Fredinand (1837–1880). N. Flayderman & Co. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  30. ^ Lossing, Benson J. (1869). "XVIII – Events on the Northern and Niagara Frontiers in 1812". Pictorial Field Book of the War of 1812. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  31. ^ List of Congressional Gold Medal Recipients. Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  32. ^ Glassman, Matthew Eric, Analyst for the Congress (June 21, 2010). Congressional Gold Medals, 1776–2009. p. 3. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  33. ^ Congressional Gold Medal Honoring Oliver Hazard Perry.
  34. ^ Snowden, James Ross (1809–1878), Director of the Mint: United States Mint (1861). A Description of the Medals of Washington; and of other Objects of Interest in the Museum of the Mint. Illustrated, to which are added Biographical Notices of the Directors of the Mint from 1792 to the year 1851. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. B. Lippincott & Co. pp. 83–84. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  35. ^ Skaggs, David Curtis (2006). Oliver Hazard Perry: Honor, Courage, and Patriotism in the Early U.S. Navy. Naval Institute Press. pp. 191–199. ISBN 978-1-59114-792-3. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  36. ^ Drake, Samuel Adams,1833–1905. Nooks and corners of the New England coast, Rhode Ialand Cemeteries, p. 401.
  37. ^ Oliver Hazard Perry at Find a Grave
  38. ^ "Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794–1858) – Find a Grave Memorial". Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  39. ^ United States Mint. "Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial". United States Mint. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  40. ^ Christopher R. Perry1. "Christopher R. Perry • Cullum's Register • 1163". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2013-07-10. 
  41. ^ "John Rodgers, Commander, United States Navy". Arlington National Cemetery Website. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  42. ^ Patricia Clark. "Calbraith Rodgers". Pennsylvania Center for the Book, Penn State. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  43. ^ Woollen, William Wesley (1975). Biographical and Historical Sketches of Early Indiana. Ayer Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 0-405-06896-4. Retrieved February 16, 2009. 
  44. ^ Perry, New York at epodunk.com.
  45. ^ Espenshade, Abraham Howry (1925). Pennsylvania place names. Pennsylvania State College. p. 337. 
  46. ^ Watterson, Henry (1840–1921) (1912). The Perry memorial and centennial celebration under the auspices of the national government and the states of Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, New York, Rhode Island, Kentucky, Minnesota and Indiana. Cleveland, Ohio: Interstate Board of the Perry's Victory Centennial Commissioners. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  47. ^ Glazier, Capt. William (1886). Peculiarities of American Cities. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Hubbard Bros. p. 156. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  48. ^ Olshan, Matthew (August 20, 2009). "A tale of two statues: A reader’s story about Newport’s Perry monuments prompts an investigation by a Pennsylvania writer". The Newport Daily News (Newport, RI). pp. A9. 
  49. ^ "Papers of Rear Admiral Henry E. Lackey (1899–1940)". Washington, D.C: Operational Archives Branch, Naval Historical Center. Retrieved September 2, 2011. 
  50. ^ "USS Memphis". historycentral.com. Retrieved September 2, 2011. 
  51. ^ "Commodore Perry". The Naval Historical Center. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  52. ^ Liberty Ships built by the United States Maritime Commission.

Further reading

External links








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