Ontario Highway 401
Highway 401 within Ontario, Canada
|Maintained by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario|
|Length:||817.9 kma2 (508.2 mi)|
|West end:||Highway 3 to Windsor|
|East end:||A-20 towards Montreal, QC|
|Major cities:||Windsor, London, Kitchener, Mississauga, Toronto, Oshawa, Kingston and Cornwall|
King's Highway 401, also known by its official name as the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway (French: Autoroute Macdonald-Cartier) and colloquially as the four-oh-one,3 is a 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario stretching 817.9 kilometres (508.2 mi) from Windsor to the Quebec border. The segment of Highway 401 passing through Toronto is the busiest highway in North America,4 and one of the widest and busiest in the world.56 Together with Quebec Autoroute 20, it forms the road transportation backbone of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, along which over half of Canada's population resides. The entire route is maintained by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) and patrolled by the Ontario Provincial Police. The posted speed limit is 100 km/h (62 mph) throughout its length.
Three individual highways were renumbered "Highway 401" by the end of 1952: the partially completed Toronto Bypass between Weston Road and Highway 11 (Yonge Street); Highway 2A between West Hill and Newcastle; and the Scenic Highway between Gananoque and Brockville, now known as the Thousand Islands Parkway. These three sections of highway were 11.8 km (7.3 mi), 54.7 km (34.0 mi) and 41.2 km (25.6 mi) long, respectively, at the time of their assumption to provincial highway status. Highway 401 became fully navigable from Windsor to the Quebec border in 1964. The following year, it was given a second designation, the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway, in honour of the fathers of Confederation. By the end of 1968, the Gananoque–Brockville section was bypassed and the final intersection grade-separated near Kingston, making Highway 401 a freeway for its entire 817.9-km length. On August 24, 2007, the portion of the highway between Glen Miller Road in Trenton and the Don Valley Parkway / Highway 404 Junction in Toronto was designated the Highway of Heroes, as the road is travelled by funeral convoys for fallen Canadian Forces personnel from CFB Trenton to the coroner's office in Toronto. On September 27, 2013, the Highway of Heroes designation was extended west to Keele Street in Toronto, to coincide with the move of the coroner's office to the new Forensic Services and Coroner’s Complex at the Humber River Hospital.
In 2011 construction began on a westward extension of Highway 401 that will be known as the Right Honourable Herb Gray Parkway. This new route will generally follow, but not replace, former Highway 3 between the current end of the freeway and the E. C. Row Expressway, at which point it will turn and follow that route to the Detroit River International Crossing.
Elsewhere in Ontario, plans are underway to widen the remaining four lane sections between Windsor and London to six lanes and to widen the route between Cambridge and Milton as well as through Oshawa. The expansive twelve-plus lane collector–express system will also be extended west through Mississauga to Milton and east through Ajax and Whitby.
- 1 Route description
- 2 History
- 3 Future
- 4 Services
- 5 Exit list
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Highway 401 extends across Southwestern, Central and Eastern Ontario. In anticipation of the future expansion of the highway, the transportation ministry purchased a 91.4-metre-wide (300 ft) right-of-way along the entire length. Generally the highway occupies only a portion of this allotment.7 It is one of the world's busiest highways;5 a 2008 analysis stated that the annual average daily traffic (AADT) count between Weston Road and Highway 400 in Toronto was approximately 450,000,2 while a second study estimates that over 500,000 vehicles travel that section on some days.4 This makes it the busiest roadway in North America, surpassing the Santa Monica Freeway in Los Angeles and I-75 in Atlanta.68 The just-in-time auto parts delivery systems of the highly integrated automobile industry of Michigan and Ontario have contributed to the highway's status as the busiest truck route in the world,9 carrying 60 percent of vehicular trade between Canada and the US.6
Highway 401 also features the busiest multi-structure bridge in North America, located at Hogg's Hollow in Toronto.9 The four bridges, two for each direction with the collector and express lanes, carried an average of 373,700 vehicles daily in 2006.2 The highway is one of the major backbones of a network in the Great Lakes region, connecting the populous Quebec City–Windsor corridor with Michigan, New York and central Ontario's cottage country.10 It is the principal connection between Toronto and Montreal, becoming Autoroute 20 at the Quebec border.11
Though Highway 401 does not yet physically extend the last few kilometres to Detroit,a14 an extension to Brighton Beach (at the US border in Windsor) is scheduled for completion in 2014, after which a proposed Windsor–Detroit border crossing will extend Highway 401 across the Canada–United States border through Delray to Interstate 75 in Michigan by 2019.1516 At present, Highway 401 begins at Huron Church Road (formerly Highway 3) in Windsor,17 with four lanes diverging north and leaving Talbot Road (Highway 3) at Howard Avenue. At the Dougall Parkway, the highway turns east, widens to six lanes and exits Windsor.12 From here, Highway 401 mostly parallels the former route of Highway 98 from Windsor to Tilbury.17
The topography in southwestern Ontario is flat and the land use primarily agricultural, taking advantage of the fertile clay soil deposited throughout the region.1819 The primary river through the region is the Thames River, which drains the second largest watershed in southern Ontario and largely influences the land use surrounding the highway;20 It parallels the route to the north between Tilbury and Woodstock.12
Near Tilbury, the highway loses its tall wall median barrier and narrows to four lanes, following lot lines laid between concession roads in a plan designed to limit damage to the sensitive agricultural lands through which the highway runs.21 Due to fatigue caused by the highway's flat and straight route,22 the section of Highway 401 from Windsor to London (especially west of Tilbury) has become known for deadly car accidents and pile-ups, earning it the nickname Carnage Alley.23 As the highway approaches London, Highway 402 merges in,12 resulting in a six-lane cross-section.2425 Within London, it intersects the city's two municipal expressways, Highbury Avenue and the Veterans Memorial Parkway.26
The section between London and Woodstock generally parallels the former Highway 2 but lies on the south side of the Thames River.12 While the topography in this area is less flat, the highway is generally straight. This part of Highway 401 often experiences heavy snowsqualls in early winter, sometimes extending as far east as Toronto. To the south of Woodstock, Highway 401 curves northeast and encounters the western terminus of Highway 403.26 The highway heads towards Kitchener and Cambridge, where it encounters Highway 8 and returns to its eastward orientation.1227 East of Kitchener, the highway meanders towards Milton, passing through hills and cut rock along the way.28
As Highway 401 approaches the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), it descends through the ecologically protected Niagara Escarpment to the west of Milton.2930 Upon entering the town, it enters the first urbanized section of the GTA, passing through two rural areas between there and Oshawa.1231 The first rural gap is the western side of Toronto's Greenbelt, a zone around Toronto protected from development.29 After this 10 km (6.2 mi) gap, the highway interchanges with the Highway 407 Express Toll Route. Within the GTA, the highway passes several major shopping malls including Yorkdale Shopping Centre, Scarborough Town Centre and Pickering Town Centre.323334
Highway 401 widens into a collector-express system35 as it approaches Hurontario Street in Mississauga, a concept inspired by the Dan Ryan Expressway in Chicago.7 The system divides each direction of travel into collector and express lanes,36 giving the highway a wide span and four carriageways. To avoid confusion between carriageways, blue signs are used for the collector lanes and green signs for the express lanes. Unlike the collector lanes, which provide access to every interchange, the express lanes only provide direct access to a select few interchanges. Access between the two is provided by transfers, which are strategically placed to prevent disruptions caused by closely spaced interchanges.37 The overall purpose of the collector-express system is to maximize traffic flow for both local and long-distance traffic. In addition, Highway 401 was equipped with a traffic camera system called COMPASS in early 1991.38 Using closed-circuit television cameras, vehicle detection loops and LED changeable-message signs, COMPASS enables the MTO Traffic Operations Centre to obtain a real-time assessment of traffic conditions and alert drivers of collisions, congestion and construction.39 The system currently stretches from the Highway 403 / 410 interchange in Mississauga to Harwood Avenue in Ajax.40
Two sets of collector-express systems exist in the GTA. The first set is 6.6 km (4.1 mi) long and connects Highway 403, Highway 410 and Highway 427.41 This system primarily serves to accommodate and organize various traffic movements from the Highway 403 / 410 and Highway 427 interchanges along Highway 401, replacing an earlier plan that would have run Highway 403 directly to Eglinton Avenue and the never-built Richview Expressway.42 East of the interchange with Renforth Drive, the collector lanes diverge to become the on-ramps to Highway 427 northbound and southbound. The second 43.7 km (27.2 mi) system passes through the centre of Toronto and ends in Pickering to the east.43 The 5 km (3.1 mi) gap between the two systems is a traffic bottleneck. However, the interchange cannot currently accommodate future widening of Highway 401.8
Highway 401 widens to 18 lanes south of Toronto Pearson International Airport.6 Progressing eastward, eight lanes are carried beneath the large spaghetti junction at Highway 427. The highway curves northeast and follows a power transmission corridor to Highway 409, which merges with the mainline and forms the collector lanes. It returns to its eastward route through Toronto, now carrying 12–16 lanes of traffic on four carriageways.3544 Highway 401 is often congested in this section, with an average of 442,900 vehicles passing between Weston Road and Highway 400 per day as of 2008.26 In spite of this congestion, it is the primary commuting route in Toronto; over 50 percent of vehicles bound for downtown Toronto use the highway.45
East of Highway 400 is The Basketweave, a criss-crossing transfer between the express and collectors carriageways,35 beyond which is Yorkdale Mall. Twelve lanes pass beneath a complicated interchange with Allen Road, built to serve the cancelled Spadina Expressway. Further east, the highway crosses Hogg's Hollow, over the West Don River and Yonge Street in the centre of Toronto. It then crosses the East Don River and climbs toward the Don Valley Parkway, which provides access to downtown Toronto and Highway 404, which provides access to the suburbs to the north. Progressing eastward, the highway continues through mostly residential areas in Scarborough, eventually reaching the Rouge Valley on the city's eastern edge and crossing into Pickering.35
West of Pickering, Highway 401 again meets former Highway 2, which thereafter parallels it to the Quebec border.12 As the highway approaches Brock Road in Pickering, the collector and express lanes converge, narrowing the 14-lane cross-section to 10, divided only at the centre.44 It remains this width as it passes into Ajax,35 before narrowing back to six lanes at Salem Road.46
East of Ajax, the highway passes through the second 3.5 km (2.1 mi) rural gap, and enters Whitby. The stretch of Highway 401 through Whitby and Oshawa features several structures completed during the initial construction of the highway in the 1940s.8 Several of these structures are to be demolished, either due to their age, or to prepare for the planned widening of Highway 401 through this area.47 A former Canadian National Railway overpass, which was fenced off but commonly used by pedestrians during Highway of Heroes repatriations, was demolished on the night of June 11, 2011. A second structure in Bowmanville was demolished during two overnight closures on July 9 and July 16.48 At Harmony Road, the suburban surroundings quickly transition to agricultural land. The highway curves around the south side of Bowmanville and travels towards Highway 35 and Highway 115.31
From east of Highway 35 and Highway 115 to Cobourg, Highway 401 passes through a mix of agricultural land and forests, maintaining a straight course.49 As the highway passes through Cobourg, it narrows to four lanes and the terrain becomes undulating, with the highway routed around hills and through valleys along the shores of Lake Ontario.50 At Trenton, the highway crosses the Trent Canal and returns to an agricultural setting. It then crosses the Moira River as it goes through Belleville before heading eastward to Kingston.11 The Kingston portion of the highway, originally named the Kingston-Bypass, was one of the first sections of the highway to be completed;1 it is now mostly three lanes each way.
East of Kingston, the highway continues through a predominantly agricultural area alongside the Saint Lawrence River to Gananoque, where it splits with the Thousand Islands Parkway.51 The current Highway 401 runs parallel to the parkway several kilometres inland from the river. The Canadian Shield, an ancient geological formation, appears through this heavily forested section of the highway. Highway 401 rejoins the Thousand Islands Parkway immediately southwest of Brockville, now heading northeast.52
The remainder of the highway runs parallel to the former Highway 2 along the shore of the Saint Lawrence River within the Saint Lawrence Valley. Northeast of Brockville is the interchange with Highway 416, which heads north towards Ottawa.53 At the Quebec border, Highway 401 becomes Autoroute 20 and continues to Montreal.54
The MTO publishes yearly traffic volume data for provincial highways, expressed as an average daily vehicle count over the span of a year (AADT).55 The table below compares the AADT at several locations along Highway 401 using data from 1969, 1988 and 2008.
|Section||Dougall Parkway –
Essex County Road 46
|Highbury Avenue –
Veterans Memorial Parkway
|Oxford County Road 59 –
|Highway 8 –
|Mississauga Road –
|Weston Road –
|Park Road –
|Highway 62 –
|Frontenac County Road 38 –
|Highway 29 –
North Augusta Road
|Highway 138 –
|Traffic volume (AADT)||196956||9,550||17,450||16,700||19,900||28,450||106,850||29,000||13,750||12,000||10,050||10,300|
|Average annual daily traffic counts of selected sections of Highway 401 over 40 years|
|Location||Highway 3 to Dougall Parkway||Dougall Parkway to Essex County Road 42||Essex County Road 42 to Highway 402||Highway 402 to Highway 403 / 410||Highway 403 / 410 to Highway 427||Highway 427 to Highway 27||Highway 27 to Highway 409||Highway 409 to Brock Road||Brock Road to Salem Road||Salem Road to Burnham Street||Burnham Street to Frontenac County Road 38||Frontenac County Road 38 to Montreal Street||Montreal Street to Quebec border|
|Lane count||4 lanes17||6 lanes12||4 lanes28||6 lanes12||18-lane collector-express system6||8 lanes8||10 lanes35||12–16-lane collector-express system44||10 lanes44||6 lanes46||4 lanes11||6 lanes57||4 lanes57|
|Distance2||2.5 km (1.6 mi)||43.1 km (26.8 mi)||127.5 km (79.2 mi)||161.3 km (100.2 mi)||5.8 km (3.6 mi)||0.8 km (0.50 mi)||3.9 km (2.4 mi)||43.3 km (26.9 mi)||6.0 km (3.7 mi)||68.3 km (42.4 mi)||138.2 km (85.9 mi)||8.2 km (5.1 mi)||209.0 km (129.9 mi)|
|Number of through lanes on Highway 401 (excludes ongoing or planned widening projects)|
Highway 401's history predates its designation by over two decades. As automobile use in southern Ontario grew in the early 20th century, road design and construction advanced significantly. Following frequent erosion of Lake Shore Road, then macadamized,58 a cement road known as the Toronto–Hamilton Highway was proposed in January 1914. Construction began on November 8 of that year, following the onset of World War I.5960 The highway was designed to run along the lake shore, instead of Dundas Street to the north, because the numerous hills encountered along Dundas would have increased costs without improving accessibility. Middle Road, a dirt lane named because of its position between the two, was not considered since Lake Shore and Dundas were both overcrowded and in need of serious repairs.61 The road was formally opened on November 24, 1917,5859 5.5 m (18 ft) wide and nearly 64 km (40 mi) long. It was the first concrete road in Ontario, as well as one of the longest stretches of concrete road between two cities in the world.62
Over the next decade, vehicle usage increased substantially, and by 1920 Lakeshore Road was again congested, particularly during weekends.63 In response, the Department of Highways examined improving another road between Toronto and Hamilton. The road was to be more than twice the width of Lakeshore Road at 12 m (39 ft) and would carry two lanes of traffic in either direction.64 Construction on what was then known as the Queen Street Extension west of Toronto began in early 1931.65
Before the highway could be completed, Thomas McQuesten was appointed the new minister of the Department of Highways, with Robert Melville Smith as deputy minister, following the 1934 provincial elections.8 Smith, inspired by the German autobahns—new "dual-lane divided highways"—modified the design for Ontario roads,66 and McQuesten ordered that the Middle Road be converted into this new form of highway.676869 A 40 m (130 ft) right-of-way was purchased along the Middle Road and construction began to convert the existing sections to a divided highway. Work also began on Canada's first interchange at Highway 10.64
Beginning in 1935, McQuesten applied the concept of a dual-highway to several projects along Highway 2, including along Kingston Road in Scarborough Township.870 When widening in Scarborough reached the Highland Creek ravine in 1936, the Department of Highways began construction on a new bridge over the large valley, bypassing the former alignment around West Hill.71 From here the highway was constructed on a new alignment to Oshawa, avoiding construction on the congested Highway 2.7 As grading and bridge construction neared completion on the new highway between West Hill and Oshawa in September 1939, World War II broke out and gradually tax revenues were re-allocated from highway construction to the war effort.8
At the same time, between September 6 and 8, 1939, the Ontario Good Roads Association Conference was held at Bigwin Inn, near Huntsville,72 drawing highway engineers from across North America to discuss the new concept of "Dual Highways". On the first day of the convention, McQuesten announced his vision of the freeway: an uninterrupted drive through the scenic regions of Ontario, discouraging local business and local traffic from accessing the highway except at infrequent controlled-access points.73 It was announced in the days thereafter that this concept would be applied to a new "trans-provincial expressway", running from Windsor to the Quebec border.74
Highway engineers evaluated factors such as grading, curve radius and the narrow median used along the Middle Road (which was inaugurated on August 23, 1940, as the Queen Elizabeth Way),75 and began to plan the course of a new dual highway mostly parallel to Highway 2, with precedence given to areas most hampered by congestion. Unlike the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW), this highway would not be built along an existing road, but rather on a new right-of-way, avoiding the need to provide access to properties.873
Along with immense improvements to machinery and construction techniques over its six-year course, the war provided planners an opportunity to conduct a survey of 375,000 drivers, asking them about their preferred route to travel to their destination. Using this information, a course was plotted from Windsor to Quebec, bypassing all towns along the way.776
Highway 2S (S for Scenic), was the first completed section of new roadway. Built to connect with the Thousand Islands Bridge at Ivy Lea and opened as a gravel road in late 1941 or early 1942,77 the road followed the shore of the Saint Lawrence River and connected with the western end of the twinned Highway 2 near Brockville.12 In addition, the highway between Highland Creek and Oshawa was opened as a gravel-surfaced road in May 1942.78
Following the war, construction resumed on roadways throughout Ontario. The expressway between Highland Creek and Oshawa was completed in December 1947,7 while other sections languished. The Toronto–Barrie Highway was the primary focus of the Department of Highways at the time, and the onset of the Korean War in 1950 stalled construction again. Despite the delays, highway minister George Doucett officially announced the plans for construction of the new trans-provincial expressway that year, with the Toronto to Oshawa expressway serving as a model for the design.8 Work on the most important link, the Toronto Bypass, began in 1951,8 but it would not open with that name.
In July 1952 (possibly July 1, the same day Highway 400 was numbered),b79 the Highland Creek to Oshawa expressway and Highway 2S were designated Controlled-Access Highway No 401,7 a move scorned by one critic because of the lack of thought into the numbered name.80 Construction was completed for several sections of the Toronto Bypass; between Highway 400 and Dufferin Street in August, west to Weston Road in September, east to Bathurst Street in October and finally to Yonge Street in December.1 Extensions east and west began in 1953; the eastern extension to Bayview Avenue would open in April 1955,1 the western extension was delayed by the damage caused by Hurricane Hazel on October 15, 1954, which nearly destroyed the new bridge over the Humber River. The reconstruction would take until July 8, 1955,81 and the highway was opened between Weston and Highway 27 in September 1955.1
The entire bypass, including the widening of Highway 27 into an expressway south of Highway 401,782 was completed in August 1956.17 Upon its opening, the bypass was described by one reporter as "a motorist's dream" providing "some of the most soothing scenery in the Metropolitan area". The reporter continued, with regard to the eastern section through Scarborough, that it "winds smoothly through pastures across streams and rivers, and beside green thickets. It seems a long way from the big city."7 By 1959 however, the bypass was a lineup of cars, as 85,000 drivers crowded the roadway, designed to handle a maximum of 48,000 vehicles, on a daily basis.7 Motorists found the new road to be a convenient way of travelling across Toronto; this convenience helped influence the suburban shift in the city and continues to be a driving force of urban sprawl today.79
Meanwhile, beyond Toronto, the highway was being built in a patchwork fashion, focusing on congested areas first.8 Construction west from Highway 27 began in late 1954,83 as did the Kingston Bypass in Eastern Ontario.84 Work began to connect the latter with the Scenic Highway in 1955.83 After the 1954 New York State Thruway opened from Buffalo to New York City,85 Michigan officials encouraged Ontario to bypass Highway 3 as the most direct path from Detroit to Buffalo.86 By 1956, construction had begun on a segment between Highway 4 in London and Highway 2 in Woodstock, as well as on the section between Windsor and Tilbury.87
In 1958, a section bypassing Morrisburg was opened to accommodate traffic displaced from a portion of Highway 2 through The Lost Villages of the Saint Lawrence Seaway.88 Highway 2 would ultimately be reopened on a new alignment which followed the CN rail right-of-way.
By the end of 1960, the Toronto section of the highway was extended both eastwards and westwards: first, to the east between Newcastle and Port Hope on June 30, then later to the west between Highway 25 in Milton and Highway 8 south of Kitchener on November 17.1 By mid-1961, the section between Brighton and Marysville had opened.89 The gap to the east, from Highway 28 in Port Hope to Highway 30 in Brighton was opened on July 20, 1961.90
The gap between Woodstock and Kitchener was completed on November 9, 1961, while the gap between Tilbury and London was completed two lanes at a time; the northbound lanes on October 22, 1963, the southbound on July 20, 1965.1 The gap between Marysville and Kingston was opened by 1962.89 The final sections, from west of Cornwall to Lancaster, were opened between 1962 and 1964;8991 two lanes opened to Lancaster on September 11, 1962, but the other two were not completed until July 31, 1964. The last segment, to the Quebec border, was opened on November 10, 1964.1 Finally, on October 11, 1968, the Thousand Islands Bypass opened.7 This final piece was commemorated with a plaque to signify the completion of Highway 401.8
In Toronto, engineers and surveyors were examining the four-lane bypass, while planners set about designing a way to handle the commuter highway. In 1963, transportation minister Charles MacNaughton announced the widening of Highway 401 in Toronto from four to a minimum of 12 lanes between Islington Avenue and Markham Road. The design was taken from the Dan Ryan Expressway in Chicago, which was widened into a similar configuration around the same time.7 Construction began immediately. While the plan initially called for construction to end in 1967, it continued for nearly a decade. At least four lanes were always open during the large reconstruction project, which included complex new interchanges at Highway 27, Highway 400, the planned Spadina Expressway and the Don Valley Parkway. The system was completed in 1972, along with the Highway 27 bypass north of Highway 401. Most of the interchanges in Toronto were reconstructed as partial cloverleafs and a continuous lighting system was installed.8
On January 11, 1965, at the dinner celebration of Sir John A. Macdonald's 150th birthday, John Robarts designated Highway 401 the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway to honour Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier, two of Canada's Fathers of Confederation.9293 Unlike other names later applied to the highway, the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway designation covers the entire length of Highway 401. Signs designating the freeway and shields with the letters 'M-C' were installed, but these had been removed by 1997.94 In 2003, 38 years after Robarts' naming of the highway, a Member of Provincial Parliament attempted to get the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway highway name enshrined into law; the bill only passed first reading and was not enacted.95
In the 1970s, Highway 401 was widened to six lanes in Durham, but otherwise saw little improvement.8 The 1980s saw more sections widened, as well as a new collector-express system between Highway 403 / 410 and Highway 427 completed in mid-1985.96 Plans were made to extend the eastern system from Neilson Road to Brock Road in Pickering in the late 1980s,97 but took over a decade to reach fruition by 2000.9899 This was followed shortly thereafter by the widening of the highway through Ajax and a new interchange at Pickering Beach Road (renamed Salem Road) and Stevenson Road.100
The 1990s also saw the first step in widening the highway to six lanes from Toronto to London.101 A project in the mid-1990s brought the highway up to a minimum of six lanes between Highway 8 in Kitchener and Highway 35 / 115 in Newcastle.102 Other projects prepared sections for eventual widening.103
In 1993, the stretch of Highway 401 eastbound near Milton and westbound near Whitby had chevrons painted in each lane in an effort to reduce tailgating, a concept borrowed from France and Britain. Signs advised motorists to keep at least two chevrons apart, in essence warning them not to follow too closely.104 Some of these chevrons remain intact in the westbound lanes in Whitby, though the signs stating their use have since been removed.105
Beginning in 1998, several projects were initiated on Highway 401 within Toronto. These included the addition of one lane through the Highway 427 interchange in 2005, as well as the resurfacing of the pavement through the city.5
Between June 1990 and 1998, Highway 401 and Interstate 75 were used for a pilot project named Advantage I-75 to test the reliability and versatility of an automated tracking system for transport trucks. Termed MACS for Mainline Automated Clearance System, it would allow a truck to travel from Florida to Ontario without a second inspection.106 MACS was initially tested out at two truck inspection stations in Kentucky, with transponders installed in 220 trucks. Exact time, date, location, weight and axle data were logged as a truck approached an equipped station.107 Following initial tests, MACS was deployed at every inspection station along I-75 from Miami to Detroit and along Highway 401 from Windsor to Belleville in 1994.106 The project demonstrated the effectiveness of electronic systems in enforcing freight restrictions without delaying vehicles, while alleviating security fears that such systems could be easily compromised. The concept has since been applied to many parts of Canada, including Highway 407's electronic tolling system.108
The section of Highway 401 between Windsor and London has often been referred to as Carnage Alley, in reference to the numerous accidents that have occurred throughout its history. The term became more commonplace following several deadly pileups during the 1990s.8 The narrow and open grass median was an ineffective obstacle in preventing cross-median collisions. The soft shoulders consisted of gravel with a sharp slope which was blamed for facilitating vehicle rollovers.109 The nature of that section of highway, described as largely a straight road with a featureless agricultural landscape, was said to make drivers feel less involved and lose focus on the road. In winter, the area between Woodstock and Chatham is also subject to sudden snow squalls from lake-effect snow.110 Several accidents have resulted from motorists deviating from their lane and losing control of their vehicles.111112
Various other names, including The Killer Highway circulated for a time,113 but Carnage Alley became predominant following an 87-vehicle pile-up on September 3, 1999 (the start of Labour Day weekend), the worst in Canadian history, that resulted in eight deaths and 45 injured individuals.114
Only a few days prior, then-Transportation Minister David Turnbull had deemed the highway "pleasant" to drive.115 On the morning of September 3, the local weather station reported clear conditions due to a malfunction,114 while a thick layer of fog rolled onto the highway. Dozens of vehicles including several semi-trailers quickly crashed into each other shortly after 8 a.m., one following another in the dense fog, and the accumulating wreckage caught traffic traveling in the opposite direction.116117 Immediately following the accident, the MTO installed paved shoulders with rumble strips118 and funded additional police to patrol the highway, a move criticized as being insufficient.119
Beginning in 2004, 46 km (29 mi) of the highway was widened from four asphalt lanes to six concrete lanes, paved shoulders were added, a concrete Ontario Tall Wall median was installed,120 which was the solution that the Canadian Automobile Association promoted in 1999.112 Interchanges were improved and signage was upgraded as part of a five-phase project to improve Highway 401 from Highway 3 in Windsor to Essex County Road 42 (formerly Highway 2) on the western edge of Tilbury.24
On August 24, 2007, the MTO announced that the stretch of Highway 401 between Glen Miller Road in Trenton and the intersection of the Don Valley Parkway and Highway 404 in Toronto would bear the additional name Highway of Heroes (French: Autoroute des héros), in honour of Canadian soldiers who have died,121 though Highway 401 in its entirety remains designated as the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway.122 This length of the highway is often travelled by a convoy of vehicles carrying a fallen soldier's body, with his or her family, from CFB Trenton to the coroner's office at the Centre for Forensic Sciences in Toronto. Since 2002, when the first fallen Canadian soldiers were repatriated from Afghanistan, crowds have lined the overpasses to pay their respects as convoys pass.123
The origin of the name can be traced to a June 23, 2007 article in the Toronto Sun by columnist Joe Warmington, in which he interviewed Northumberland photographer Pete Fisher. Fisher, along with Bob Jenkins, an emergency dispatcher, were responsible for organizing the first bridge salutes following the loss of four soldiers on April 18, 2002.124 Warmington described the gathering of crowds on overpasses to welcome fallen soldiers as a "highway of heroes phenomena".125 This led a Crahame Township volunteer firefighter to contact Fisher on July 10 about starting a petition, leading Fisher to publish an article which was posted to the Northumberland Today website.126 The online article eventually caught the attention of London resident Jay Forbes. Forbes began a petition, which received over 20,000 signatures121 before being brought to the Minister of Transportation on August 22.127 Following the announcement on August 24, the provincial government and MTO set out to design new signs. The signs were erected and unveiled on September 7,122 and include a smaller reassurance marker (shield), as well as a larger billboard version.128
On August 10, 2008, following a series of explosions at a propane facility in Toronto, Highway 401 was closed between Highway 400 and Highway 404 as a precautionary measure, the largest closure of the highway in its history.129 The highway remained closed until 8 p.m., though several exits near the blast remained closed thereafter.130131
Between 2006 and 2008, Highway 401 was widened from four to six lanes between Highway 402 and Wellington Road in London. This included replacing the original Wellington Road overpass.24 In Oshawa, Exit 416 (Park Road) was replaced by a new interchange at Exit 415 (Stevenson Road). The contract, which began September 7, 2005, included the interchange and the resurfacing of 23.4 km (14.5 mi) of the highway between Oshawa and Highway 35 / Highway 115.132 The westbound ramps were opened in mid-September 2007133 and the eastbound ramps in mid-2009. The resurfacing was completed mid-2010.132
In November 2010, the widening of Highway 401 from four to six lanes between Woodstock and Kitchener was completed after many years of planning and construction.134 The project included the installation of a tall-wall median barrier, straightening curves and adding additional interchanges on the freeway, allowing it to be easily vacated in an emergency event.135
The MTO intends to widen all of the remaining four-lane sections to a minimum of six.136
In 2004, a joint announcement by the federal government of the United States and Government of Canada that a new border crossing would be constructed between Detroit and Windsor. The Detroit River International Crossing (DRIC) was formed as a bi-national committee to manage the project.137 The MTO took advantage of this opportunity to extend Highway 401 to the international border and began an environmental assessment on the entire project in late 2005.137 The City of Windsor also hired New York traffic consultant Sam Schwartz to design a parkway to the border. Schwartz's proposal would eventually inspire the DRIC's own design, but his route was not chosen, with the DRIC opting instead to take a northern route.138 On February 8, 2008, the MTO announced that it had begun purchasing property south of the E. C. Row Expressway, upsetting many area residents who had purchased properties in the years prior.139140
On March 3, 2008, the Michigan Department of Transportation and the MTO (in partnership with Transport Canada, the Federal Highway Administration of the United States and the Detroit River International Crossing group) completed a joint assessment on the soils along the Detroit River and determined that they could indeed support the weight of a new bridge; the stability of the underlying soil and clay and the impact of the nearby Windsor Salt Mine had caused concern for all parties involved in the project.141
Despite protest from area residents,142 as well as a dismissed lawsuit from Ambassador Bridge owner Matty Moroun,143144 it was announced on May 1, 2008, that a preferred route had been selected and that the new route would be named the Windsor–Essex Parkway.15 The new parkway will be below-grade and have six through-lanes. It will follow (but not replace) Talbot Road and Huron Church Road from a new interchange at the current end of Highway 401 to the E. C. Row Expressway, where it will run concurrently westward for 2 km (1.2 mi). From there, it will turn northwest and follow a new alignment to the border.13 Initial construction of a noise barrier from North Talbot Road to Howard Avenue began in March 2010. Two new bridges south of the current Highway 3 / 401 junction are also under construction.145 Full construction has begun as of August 18 2011,146147 with an expected completion date of 2014 for the first phase and 2015 for the remainder of the parkway. Construction of the Detroit bridge will begin in 2015 for completion in 2019–20.148
On November 28, 2012, the Ministry of Transportation announced that a Federal Order-in-Council was passed to change the name of the parkway to the Right Honourable Herb Gray Parkway, after the long-time Windsor MP.149
In Southwestern Ontario, several improvements are under way to provide six lanes on Highway 401 from Windsor to Toronto,136 in response to the Carnage Alley pile-up in 1999.120150 West of Manning Road, the highway is being widened in anticipation of the Windsor–Essex Parkway.15151 Between Tilbury and Highway 402, the highway remains four lanes wide with a grass median. The widening and upgrading of this section is in the planning stages, with construction possibly beginning in 2017 and lasting for several years. Several interchanges are slated to be upgraded as part of this construction.152
Within the London area, traffic volumes are expected to increase considerably, leading to poor highway conditions. The province has put in place an extensive plan to widen and reconstruct the London corridor between 2006 and 2021.153 This includes building a new interchange with Wonderland Road to help improve access to Highway 401 westbound from the city's southwest end. This may also include partial interchanges along White Oak Road with Highways 401 and 402.154 This project will coincide with reconstructing the outdated cloverleaf interchange at Colonel Talbot Road155 and widening Highway 401 from four to six lanes between Highway 4 and Highway 402. Construction on the Wonderland Road interchange begun 2013, with the rest of the projects starting in 2015 with them all planned to finish in 2016.156 In addition, an environmental assessment is underway to examine the impact of reconstructing the three-way trumpet interchange with the Veterans Memorial Parkway into a four-way interchange in order to extend the expressway south of Highway 401.157158 The MTO is also planning on widening Highway 401 from six to eight lanes through part of the London corridor.159160
Long term plans call for Highway 401 in the Waterloo region to be widened to eight lanes as well. The interchange between Highway 401 and Highway 8 (King Street) is to be reconstructed to make it free-flowing for all directions of travel.161
In its 2007 plan for southern Ontario, the MTO announced long-term plans to create high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes from Mississauga Road west to Milton;162 these plans have since been expanded in scope to as far west as Hespeler Road in Cambridge.163
Construction is also underway to widen Highway 401 to a collector-express system from Highway 403 and Highway 410 west to Hurontario Street, a distance of 2.8 km (1.7 mi).164
Within Toronto, some projects will be completed during overnight construction projects, including the widening and rehabilitation of the Hogg's Hollow bridge,165 the replacement of the original gantries throughout the collector-express system,166 and reconstructing the Highway 401 / 400 interchange.167
Current expansion plans in Durham include the construction of two new freeways north from Highway 401. The first will be directly east of Lakeridge Road,168 while the second will lie to the east of Courtice Road.169 Alongside the extension of Highway 407, Highway 401 will be widened to 12 lanes, forming an extension to the current collector-express system, from its current end at Brock Road in Pickering to Durham Regional Highway 12 (Brock Street) in Whitby. In addition, Lakeridge Road will also feature a partial interchange with westbound entrance and eastbound exit ramps, with realignment on having Highway 401 shifted north and Lakeridge Road shifting west, to accommondate a new bridge and its ramps.170 Long term plans also call for HOV lanes to run from Brock Road to Harmony Road, though no planning has commenced.162
East of Durham, the MTO is planning to widen the entire length of Highway 401 to six lanes.136 Preliminary work includes the widening of the bridge over the Trent River in Trenton,171 as well as the realignment of some roads alongside the highway.172 In 2012, the highway was widened to six lanes for 6 km (3.7 mi) through Kingston between exits 613 and 619.57
Highway 401 features 19 service centres controlled by the MTO. These service centres were announced in 1961 following public outcry over the lack of rest stops. They provide a place to park, rest, eat and refuel 24 hours a day.7
The centres were originally leased to and operated by several major gasoline distributors; however, those companies have chosen not to renew their leases as the terms end. In response, the MTO put the operation of the full network of service centres out for tender, resulting in a 50-year lease with Host Kilmer Service Centres, a joint venture between hospitality company HMSHost (a subsidiary of Autogrill) and Larry Tanenbaum's investment company Kilmer van Nostrand, which operates the rest areas under the ONroute brand.173
Seventeen of the centres along Highway 401 have been reconstructed entirely. Two centres that were rebuilt in the late 1990s, specifically Newcastle and Ingersoll, will not be redeveloped at this time. Work on 15 of the 17 service centres to be reconstructed began in late 2009 or early 2010. The new service centres, opening in phases beginning in July 2010, feature a Canadian Tire gas station, an HMSHost-operated convenience store known as "The Market", as well as fast food brands such as Tim Hortons, A&W, Pizza Pizza, Extreme Pita, KFC, Taco Bell, Big Smoke Burger and Burger King.174
|56, 63176||Reopened as of October 1, 2010177|
|137, 149||Reopened as of October 1, 2010177|
|Ingersoll||Westbound||222, 230||Will not be redeveloped at this time. Leased by Imperial Oil.|
|Woodstock||Eastbound||222, 230||Closed for reconstruction on March 31, 2010; reopened July 2011178|
|286, 295||Closed for reconstruction on September 7, 2011;179
Cambridge North reopened June 25, 2013; Cambridge South reopened July 23, 2013.180
|Mississauga||Eastbound||333, 336181||Permanently closed as of September 30, 2006|
|Newcastle||Westbound||440, 448||Will not be redeveloped at this time. Leased by Imperial Oil.|
|Port Hope||Eastbound||448, 456||Reopened by June 2011|
|Trenton North||Westbound||509, 522||Reopened as of October 1, 2010177|
|Trenton South||Eastbound||Reopened March 2011|
|Camden East||Westbound||582, 593||Closed for reconstruction March 31, 2010;182 reopened June 2011|
|Odessa||Eastbound||599, 611||Open during 2010–11 reconstruction (while a new structure was built directly west of a now-demolished original facility on same property). New facility opened June 2011|
|Mallorytown North||Westbound||675||Reopened February 1, 2011183|
|Mallorytown South||Eastbound||685||Reopened June 28, 2012.180|
|Morrisburg||Eastbound||750, 758||Reopened as of October 1, 2010177|
|Ingleside||Westbound||758, 770||Reopened April 2011177|
|Bainsville||Westbound||825||Reopened as of October 1, 2010177|
||–||Ojibway Parkway||Under construction|
||–||E. C. Row Expressway||Under construction; westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
||–||Highway 3 (Huron Church Road) – Ambassador Bridge to U.S.||Under construction|
||–||Todd Lane||Under construction|
||–||Service Road||Under construction|
|10.1||6.3||–||Highway 3 west – Ambassador Bridge to U.S.||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; interchange under construction; no exit number assigned|
|12.6||7.8||13||Dougall Parkway – Detroit–Windsor Tunnel to U.S.||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; formerly Highway 3B / Highway 401A|
|13.4||8.3||14||County Road 46 (Walker Road) – Windsor, Essex||Formerly Highway 98|
||Tecumseh||20.4||12.7||21||County Road 19 (Manning Road) – Tecumseh|
|27.5||17.1||28||County Road 25 (Puce Road) – Puce|
|33.7||20.9||34||County Road 27 (Belle River Road) – Woodslee, Belle River|
|40.0||24.9||40||County Road 31 (French Line Road) – St. Joachim|
|47.3||29.4||48|| Highway 77 south – Leamington
County Road 35 north (Comber Road) – Stoney Point
|55.7||34.6||56||County Road 42 – Tilbury||Formerly Highway 2|
||62.8||39.0||63||County Road 2 (Queen's Line)||Formerly Highway 2|
|80.9||50.3||81||County Road 27 (Bloomfield Road)|
|89.3||55.5||90|| Highway 40 north
County Road 11 south (Communication Road) – Blenheim
|101.0||62.8||101||County Road 15 (Kent Bridge Road) – Dresden, Ridgetown|
|108.3||67.3||109||County Road 17 / County Road 21 (Victoria Road) – Thamesville, Ridgetown||Formerly Highway 21|
|116.2||72.2||117||County Road 20 (Orford Road) – Highgate|
||West Elgin||129.2||80.3||129||County Road 103 (Furnival Road) – Wardsville, Rodney|
|137.3||85.3||137||County Road 76 (Graham Road) – West Lorne||Formerly Highway 76|
|Dutton/Dunwich||148.5||92.3||149||County Road 8 (Currie Road) – Dutton|
|157.4||97.8||157||County Road 14 (Iona Road) – Melbourne, Iona|
|164.1||102.0||164||County Road 20 (Union Road) – Port Stanley, Shedden|
||176.7||109.8||177||Highway 4 (Colonel Talbot Road) – St. Thomas||Signed as Exit 177A (south) and Exit 177B (north). Reconstruction to begin in 2015, turning the cloverleaf interchange into a parclo156|
||179||Wonderland Road||Prep work underway, to be open by 2016156|
|183.2||113.8||183||Highway 402 west – Sarnia||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|186.8||116.1||187||Exeter Road||Westbound exit, Formerly Highway 135 west|
|189.1||117.5||189||Highbury Avenue – St. Thomas||Formerly Highway 126|
|193.6||120.3||194||Veterans Memorial Parkway||Formerly Highway 100. Reconstruction and expansion from a 3-way to 4-way interchange to begin in 2015156|
||Thames Centre||195.5||121.5||195||County Road 74 (Westchester Bourne) – Nilestown, Belmont||Formerly Highway 74|
|199.3||123.8||199||County Road 32 (Dorchester Road) – Dorchester|
|203.0||126.1||203||County Road 73 (Elgin Road) – Aylmer||Formerly Highway 73|
|208.5||129.6||208||County Road 30 (Putnam Road) – Putnam, Avon|
|216.0||134.2||216||County Road 10 (Culloden Road)|
|218.5||135.8||218|| Highway 19 south
County Road 119 north (Plank Line) – Tillsonburg
|South-West Oxford||222.2||138.1||222||County Road 6 – Stratford, Embro|
|229.8||142.8||230||County Road 12 (Sweaburg Road / Mill Street) – Sweaburg|
|231.9||144.1||232||County Road 59 – Delhi||Formerly Highway 59|
|235.3||146.2||235||Highway 403 east – Hamilton, Niagara Falls, Brantford||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|236.3||146.8||236||County Road 15 (Towerline Road) – Woodstock|
|237.9||147.8||238||County Road 2 – Paris, Woodstock||Formerly Highway 2|
|Blandford-Blenheim||250.1||155.4||250||County Road 29 (Drumbo Road) – Innerkip, Drumbo|
||North Dumfries||267.9||166.5||268||Regional Road 97 (Cedar Creek Road) – Cambridge, Plattsville, Ayr||Signed as Exit 268A (east) and Exit 268B (west) eastbound; formerly Highway 97|
|Kitchener, Cambridge||275.0||170.9||275||Regional Road 28 (Homer Watson Boulevard / Fountain Street)|
|277.9||172.7||278|| Highway 8 north – Kitchener, Waterloo
Regional Road 8 south – Cambridge
|Signed as Exit 278A (east) and Exit 278B (west) eastbound|
|Cambridge||282.5||175.5||282||Regional Road 24 (Hespeler Road) to Highway 24 south – Brantford|
||284||Regional Road 36 south (Franklin Boulevard)||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|286.5||178.0||286||Regional Road 33 (Townline Road)
County Road 33 (Townline Road)
|295.7||183.7||295||Highway 6 north – Guelph||West end of Highway 6 concurrency|
|300.1||186.5||299|| Highway 6 south – Hamilton
County Road 46 (Brock Road) – Guelph, Hamilton
|East end of Highway 6 concurrency|
||Milton||311.9||193.8||312||Regional Road 1 (Guelph Line) – Burlington, Campbellville|
|320.1||198.9||320||Regional Road 25 – Acton, Milton||Formerly Highway 25; GO Transit bus stop on eastbound ramp.|
|323.8||201.2||324||Regional Road 4 (James Snow Parkway)|
|328.0||203.8||328||Regional Road 3 (Trafalgar Road) – Oakville, Halton Hills, Georgetown|
|330.4||205.3||330||Highway 407||Signed as Exit 330 westbound; as Exit 330A (west) and Exit 330B (east) eastbound; no access from westbound Highway 407 to eastbound Highway 401 or westbound Highway 401 to eastbound Highway 407|
||Mississauga||332.7||206.7||333||Winston Churchill Boulevard|
|336.1||208.8||336||Regional Road 1 (Mississauga Road / Erin Mills Parkway)|
|339.6||211.0||340||Mavis Road||Exit opened in 1998.|
|341.7||212.3||342||Hurontario Street||Formerly Highway 10|
|344.5||214.1||344||Highway 403 / Highway 410 – Hamilton, Brampton||No access from eastbound 401 to westbound 403 or eastbound 403 to westbound 401|
|346.0||215.0||346||Regional Road 4 (Dixie Road)|
|348||Highway 427 / Renforth Drive – Toronto Pearson International Airport, Downtown Toronto||401–427 interchange. Exit 348 (eastbound exit and westbound entrance), Exit 350 (eastbound exit and westbound entrance), Exit 351 (westbound exit and eastbound entrance) and Exit 352 (westbound exit and eastbound entrance).|
|352||Highway 427 south|
|353.5||219.7||354||Dixon Road / Martin Grove Road||No access from southbound Martin Grove to eastbound 401; No access from eastbound 401 to Martin Grove|
||355|| Highway 409 – Toronto Airport
|Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|358.9||223.0||359||Highway 400 north (south to Black Creek Drive) – Barrie||Eastbound express access to Highway 400|
|360.5||224.0||360||Jane Street||Ramps removed; access to Jane Street via Black Creek Drive|
|364.0||226.2||364||Dufferin Street, Yorkdale Road||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|364.8||226.7||365||Allen Road, Yorkdale Road||Westbound exit is a left-hand exit from collector lanes, and right-hand exit from express lanes. Westbound access to Dufferin Street via Yorkdale Road.|
|366.2||227.5||366||Bathurst Street||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance (access only from northbound Bathurst Street). Westbound entrance and eastbound exit ramps removed. Westbound exits to Wilson Avenue, about 200m west of Bathurst Street)|
|367.3||228.2||367||Avenue Road||Formerly Highway 11A|
|369.0||229.3||369||Yonge Street||Formerly Highway 11|
|374.9||233.0||375|| Highway 404 north – Richmond Hill, Newmarket
Don Valley Parkway – Downtown Toronto
|From eastbound 401, access to Sheppard Avenue via northbound 404 from 401 collector lanes only|
|376.3||233.8||376||Victoria Park Avenue|
|380.8||236.6||380||Brimley Road south, Progress Avenue||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance from northbound Brimley Road; exit opened February 18, 1988184|
|383.2||238.1||383||Markham Road||Formerly Highway 48|
|385.0||239.2||385||Neilson Road||Exit opened in 1983185|
|390.3||242.5||390||Highway 2 / Highway 2A (Kingston Road, Sheppard Avenue (westbound), Port Union Road (eastbound))||Signed as Exit 392 westbound|
||Pickering||394.0||244.8||394||Regional Road 38 (Whites Road)||Exit opened in 1983185|
|396.6||246.4||397||Regional Road 29 (Liverpool Road)||Westbound exit and entrance|
|398.3||247.5||399||Regional Road 1 (Brock Road)||Exit opened September 11, 1974, replacing the full-access interchange at Liverpool Road186|
|Ajax||400.3||248.7||400||Church Street||Removed, exit replaced with Westney Road interchange (Exit 401) in 1986187|
|401.3||249.4||401||Regional Road 31 (Westney Road)||Replaced Exit 400 (Church Street) in 1986 as part of Go Transit expansion east of Pickering187|
|402.5||250.1||403||Regional Road 44 (Harwood Avenue)||Removed, exit replaced with Salem Road interchange (Exit 404) in 2003|
|404.3||251.2||404||Regional Road 41 (Salem Road)||Replaced Exit 403 (Harwood Avenue) in December 2003|
||407||Regional Road 23 (Lakeridge Road)||Partial interchange planned; westbound entry and eastbound exit; construction to begin in 2013|
||408||West Durham Link||Construction to begin in 2013, completed by 2015.|
|409.6||254.5||410||Durham Regional Highway 12 (Brock Street)||Formerly Highway 12|
|412.1||256.1||412||Regional Road 26 (Thickson Road)|
|Oshawa||415.2||258.0||415||Regional Road 53 (Stevenson Road)||Replaced Exit 416 (Park Road) in 2009|
|415.8||258.4||416||Regional Road 54 (Park Road)||Removed, exit replaced with nearby Stevenson Road interchange (Exit 415) in 2009|
|417.6||259.5||417||Regional Road 2 (Simcoe Street)||Westbound exit via Exit 418|
|418.5||260.0||418||Regional Road 16 (Ritson Road)|
|419.4||260.6||419||Regional Road 22 / Regional Road 33 (Bloor Street / Harmony Road)||Access to Regional Road 56/Farewell Street|
|Clarington||425.4||264.3||425||Regional Road 34 (Courtice Road) – Courtice|
|428.4||266.2||428||Holt Road (Darlington Nuclear Generating Station)||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|431.3||268.0||431||Regional Road 57 (Waverley Road) – Bowmanville|
|432.4||268.7||432||Regional Road 14 (Liberty Street) – Bowmanville, Port Darlington|
|436.3||271.1||436||Highway 35 / Highway 115 – Peterborough, Orono, Lindsay|
|440.1||273.5||440||Regional Road 17 (Mill Street) – Newcastle, Bond Head|
|448.1||278.4||448||Regional Road 18 (Newtonville Road) – Newtonville|
||Port Hope||456.6||283.7||456||Wesleyville Road|
|461.4||286.7||461||County Road 2 – Welcome||Formerly Highway 2|
|464.8||288.8||464||County Road 28 – Peterborough, Bewdley||Formerly Highway 28|
|Cobourg, Hamilton||472.6||293.7||472||County Road 18 (Burnham Street) – Gores Landing|
|474.5||294.8||474||County Road 45 – Norwood, Baltimore||Formerly Highway 45|
|Alnwick/Haldimand||487.0||302.6||487||County Road 23 (Lyle Street) – Centreton, Grafton|
|Cramahe||497.2||308.9||497||County Road 25 (Percy Street / Big Apple Drive) – Colborne, Castleton|
|Brighton||509.7||316.7||509||County Road 30 – Brighton, Campbellford||Formerly Highway 30|
||Quinte West||520.4||323.4||522||County Road 40 (Wooler Road) – Trenton|
|525.4||326.5||525||County Road 33 – Trenton, Frankford, Batawa||Formerly Highway 33|
|526.5||327.2||526||County Road 4 (Glen Miller Road) – Trenton, CFB Trenton|
|538.5||334.6||538||County Road 1 (Wallbridge-Loyalist Road) – Stirling|
|542.7||337.2||543||Highway 62 – Marmora, Madoc to County Road 14||Signed as Exit 543A (south) and Exit 543B (north); formerly Highway 14|
|543.2||337.5||544||Highway 37 – Tweed|
|Tyendinaga||555.7||345.3||556||County Road 7 (Shannonville Road) – Shannonville, Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory|
|566.4||351.9||566|| Highway 49
County Road 15 (Marysville Road) – Picton, Deseronto, Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory
|570.5||354.5||570||County Road 10 (Deseronto Road) – Deseronto|
|Lennox and Addington||Greater Napanee|
|578.8||359.6||579||County Road 41 – Napanee, Kaladar||Formerly Highway 41|
|582.1||361.7||582||County Road 5 (Palace Road) – Napanee, Newburgh|
|Loyalist||593.4||368.7||593||County Road 4 (Camden East Road) – Millhaven, Camden East||Formerly Highway 133|
|598.8||372.1||599||County Road 6 (Wilton Road) – Yarker, Amherstview, Odessa|
||610.8||379.5||611||County Road 38 – Harrowsmith, Sharbot Lake||Formerly Highway 38|
|613.0||380.9||613||County Road 9 (Sydenham Road), Sydenham|
|615.3||382.3||615||Sir John A. Macdonald Boulevard|
|617.0||383.4||617||County Road 10 (Division Street) – Westport|
|619.0||384.6||619||County Road 11 (Montreal Street) – Battersea|
|623.0||387.1||623||Highway 15 – Smiths Falls, Ottawa|
|631.9||392.6||632||County Road 16 (Joyceville Road) – Joyceville|
|Leeds and Grenville
||Gananoque, Leeds and the Thousand Islands||645.1||400.8||645||County Road 32 – Crosby||Formerly Highway 32|
|646.7||401.8||647||Thousand Islands Parkway – Ivy Lea, Rockport||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|Leeds and the Thousand Islands|
|647.9||402.6||648|| Highway 2 – Gananoque
County Road 2
|Eastbound via Exit 647|
|658.8||409.4||659||County Road 3 (Reynolds Road) – Ivy Lea, Lansdowne, Rockport|
|661.0||410.7||661||Highway 137 ( I-81 to Alexandria Bay, New York)|
|Front of Yonge||675.5||419.7||675||County Road 5 (Mallorytown Road) – Mallorytown, Athens, Rockport|
|684.7||425.5||685||Thousand Islands Parkway||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|686.7||426.7||687||County Road 2 – Brockville||Formerly Highway 2|
|Brockville||696.2||432.6||696||County Road 29 – Brockville, Smiths Falls||Formerly Highway 29 / Highway 42|
|698.0||433.7||698||County Road 6 (North Augusta Road) – Brockville, North Augusta|
|Augusta||704.8||437.9||705||County Road 15 (Maitland Road) – Merrickville, Maitland|
|Prescott||716.2||445.0||716||County Road 18 (Edward Street) – Prescott, Domville|
|720.1||447.4||721A||Highway 416 north – Ottawa, Kemptville||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; signed as Exit 721 eastbound|
|721.2||448.1||721B||Highway 16 (to NY 37) – Kemptville, Johnstown and Ogdensburg, New York||Signed as Exit 721 westbound|
|730.0||453.6||730||County Road 22 (Shanly Road) – Cardinal|
|Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry
||South Dundas||737.8||458.4||738||County Road 1 (Carman Road) – Iroquois|
|750.2||466.2||750||County Road 31 – Ottawa, Morrisburg, Winchester||Formerly Highway 31|
|758.2||471.1||758||Upper Canada Road|
|South Stormont||769.5||478.1||770||County Road 14 (Dickinson Drive) – Ingleside|
|777.8||483.3||778||County Road 35 (Moulinette Road) – Long Sault|
|786.4||488.6||786||County Road 33 (Power Dam Drive)||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|Cornwall||789.5||490.6||789||Highway 138 (Brookdale Avenue) – Ottawa, Hawkesbury, Three Nations Crossing to Massena, New York|
|796.1||494.7||796||County Road 44 (Boundary Road)|
|804.6||500.0||804||County Road 27 (Summerstown Road) – Summerstown|
|813.8||505.7||814||County Road 2 / County Road 34 – Lancaster, Alexandria, Hawkesbury||Formerly Highway 2 south / Highway 34 north|
|825.4||512.9||825||County Road 23 (4th Line Road, Curry Hill Road)|
A-20 continues east towards Montreal
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
- The first interchange on Highway 401 (Dougall Avenue) is numbered Exit 13, but is only 2 km (1.2 mi) from Highway 3.212 The Windsor–Essex Parkway will likely incorporate the initial kilometres into exit numbers along its length.13
- The Department of Highways Fiscal Report for the year ending March 31, 1952, claims "Controlled Access Highways nos. 400 and 401 were signed". However, all other sources claim July.
- Ministry of Transportation and Communications (1972). pp. 8–9.
- Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (2008). "Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) counts". Government of Ontario. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- "Appendix 3". 2009–2010 OBW/ORA Handbook for Students Coming to Ontario from Baden-Württemberg Rhône-Alpes. Ontario Program Office, OBW/ORA Student Exchange Programs, York University. August 7, 2009. p. 26. "401 The Four-Oh-One: highway between Windsor and the Ontario / Quebec border"
- Maier, Hanna (October 9, 2007). Long-Life Concrete Pavements in Europe and Canada (Report). Federal Highway Administration. http://international.fhwa.dot.gov/pubs/pl07027/llcp_07_02.cfm. Retrieved May 1, 2010. "The key high-volume highways in Ontario are the 400-series highways in the southern part of the province. The most important of these is the 401, the busiest highway in North America, with average annual daily traffic (AADT) of more than 425,000 vehicles in 2004 and daily traffic sometimes exceeding 500,000 vehicles."
- Canadian NewsWire (August 6, 2002). Ontario government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway 401 (Report). Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. "Highway 401 is one of the busiest highways in the world and represents a vital link in Ontario's transportation infrastructure, carrying more than 400,000 vehicles per day through Toronto."
- Thün, Geoffrey; Velikov, Kathy. "The Post-Carbon Highway". Alphabet City. Archived from the original on July 5, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2012. "It is North America’s busiest highway, and one of the busiest in the world. The section of Highway 401 that cuts across the northern part of Toronto has been expanded to eighteen lanes, and typically carries 420,000 vehicles a day, rising to 500,000 at peak times, as compared to 380,000 on the I-405 in Los Angeles or 350,000 on the I-75 in Atlanta (Gray)."
- Shragge pp. 93–94.
- "Highway 401 – The story". John G. Shragge. 2007. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved February 12, 2010.
- "Engineering Feats: 401 is the busiest highway in North America". The Midland Free Press (Sun Media). 2008. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- Ministry of Transportation (2003).
- Google Inc. Google Maps – Driving directions from Toronto, ON to Montreal, QC (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. http://maps.google.ca/maps?f=d&source=s_d&saddr=Toronto,+ON&daddr=Montreal,+QC&hl=en&geocode=&mra=ls&sll=42.78714,-80.976825&sspn=3.377959,6.987305&ie=UTF8&ll=44.606113,-76.508789&spn=3.277071,6.987305&t=h&z=7. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- Peter Heiler Ltd (2010). Ontario Back Road Atlas (Map). Cartography by MapArt. ISBN 978-1-55198-226-7.
- Detroit River International Crossing Study team (May 1, 2008). "Parkway Map" (PDF). URS Corporation. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- Ministry of Transportation (2003), section T18–19.
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- Shragge, John; Bagnato, Sharon (1984). From Footpaths to Freeways. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Historical Committee. ISBN 0-7743-9388-2.
- Stamp, Robert M. (1987). QEW – Canada's First Superhighway. Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills Press. ISBN 0-919783-84-8.
- Ministry of Transportation (2003). Southern Ontario Road Maps (Map). Cartography by Bryan Simmons, Lori-Anne Martin. http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/traveller/map/. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- Peter Heiler Ltd (2009). Eastern Ontario (Map). Cartography by MapArt. Section C59. ISBN 978-1-55368-222-6.
- Peter Heiler Ltd (2010). Ontario Back Road Atlas (Map). Cartography by MapArt. ISBN 978-1-55198-226-7.
- Rand McNally (2007). Toronto & area map book (Map). Cartography by Perly's. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-88640-928-9.
- Official sites
- Ministry of Transportation of Ontario
- The Rt. Honourable Herb Gray Parkway (Windsor-Essex Parkway) web site
- Live COMPASS Traffic Cameras
- Photos and additional information
- Video of Highway 401 Tilbury and Essex
- Video of Highway 401 between Highway 4 and the Veterans Memorial Parkway
- Video of Highway 401 between Highway 402 and 403
- Video of Highway 401 between Highway 403 and 8
- Video of Highway 401 between the Humber River and Mississauga Road
- Video of Highway 401's widest segment between Highway 410 and Highway 427
- Video of Highway 401 eastbound in Greater Toronto
- Video of Highway 401 at night through Toronto and Mississauga