openSUSE 13.1 with KDE 4.11.2
|Company / developer||openSUSE Project|
|OS family||Unix-like (originally based on SUSE Linux Professional)|
|Source model||Free and open source software|
|Initial release||October 2005|
|Latest release||13.1 / November 19, 2013|
|Marketing target||Consumer, Small Business, Development, Developers|
|Available in||English, German, Russian, Italian, many others1|
|Update method||ZYpp (YaST)|
|Package manager||RPM Package Manager|
|Supported platforms||IA-32, x86-64|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux)|
|Default user interface||KDE Plasma Desktop2|
|License||GNU GPL and others|
openSUSE // is a general purpose operating system built on top of the Linux kernel, developed by the community-supported openSUSE Project and sponsored by SUSE and a number of other companies.3 After Novell acquired SUSE Linux in January 2004,4 Novell decided to release the SUSE Linux Professional product as a 100% open source project.5 In 2011 The Attachmate Group acquired Novell and split Novell and SUSE into two autonomous subsidiary companies. SUSE offers products and services around SUSE Linux Enterprise—their commercial offering that is based on openSUSE Linux.
The initial release of the community project was a beta version of SUSE Linux 10.0, and as of November 19, 2013 the current stable release is openSUSE 13.1.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Distribution
- 4 Features
- 5 Criticism
- 6 Releases
- 7 System requirements
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Beyond the distribution, the openSUSE Project provides a web portal for community involvement. The community developing openSUSE collaboratively with its corporate sponsors through the Open Build Service, writing documentation, designing artwork, fostering discussion on open mailing lists and in Internet Relay Chat channels, and improving the openSUSE site through its wiki interface. openSUSE aims to offer a stable base and allow users to use the Open Build Service to get additional or more up to date software, or even a rolling release version with the name Tumbleweed. Moreover, the system should be flexible and make it easy to re-purpose for specific goals like running a web- or mail server.6
Like most Linux distributions, openSUSE includes both a default graphical user interface (GUI) and a command line interface option. During installation, the user may choose among KDE SC, GNOME, LXDE and Xfce GUIs. openSUSE supports thousands of software packages across the full range of Free software / open source development.
In the past, the SUSE Linux company had focused on releasing the SuSE Linux Personal and SuSE Linux Professional box sets which included extensive printed documentation that was available for sale in retail stores. The company's ability to sell an open source product was largely due to the closed-source development process used. Although SUSE Linux had always been open product licensed with the GPL, it was only freely possible to retrieve the source code of the next release 2 months after it was ready for purchase. SUSE Linux strategy was to create a technically superior Linux distribution with the large number of employed engineers, that would make users willing to pay for their distribution in retail stores.7
Since the acquisition by Novell in 2003 and with the advent of openSUSE this has been reversed: starting with version 9.2, an unsupported 1 DVD ISO image of SUSE Professional was made available for download as well as a bootable Live DVD evaluation. The FTP server continues to operate and has the advantage of "streamlined" installs: Only downloading packages the user feels they need. The ISO has the advantages of an easy install package, the ability to operate even if the user's network card does not work "out of the box", and less experience needed (i.e., an inexperienced Linux user may not know whether or not to install a certain package, and the ISO offers several preselected sets of packages).
The initial stable release from the openSUSE Project, SUSE Linux 10.0, was available for download just before the retail release of SUSE Linux 10.0. In addition, Novell discontinued the Personal version, renaming the Professional version to simply "SUSE Linux", and repricing "SUSE Linux" to about the same as the old Personal version. As of version 10.2, the SUSE Linux distribution was officially renamed to openSUSE.89
Over the years, SuSE Linux has gone from a status of a distribution which includes proprietary software, with restrictive, delayed publications (2 months of waiting for those who had not bought the box, without ISOs available, but installation available via FTP) and a closed development model to a free distribution model with immediate and freely availability for all and transparent and open development.10 Its popularity continues to grow: as of May 2010, for example, patch download statistics show more than two million unique installations of openSUSE 11.1 and 11.2 alone,11 with the largest numbers located in Germany (28%) and the United States (14%).
On April 27, 2011 Attachmate completed its acquisition of Novell. Attachmate split Novell into two autonomous business units, Novell and SUSE. Attachmate made no changes to the relationship between SUSE (formerly Novell) and the openSUSE project.
openSUSE is fully and freely available for immediate download, and is also sold in retail box to the general public. It comes in several editions for the x86 and x86-64 architectures (as for version 13.1):
- openSUSE Download Edition: This is the freely downloadable ISO version, available from the openSUSE downloads page. It is available as a Live-CD version (KDE4 or GNOME) which can be installed on the hard disk, or as a more complete single layer DVD-5. A CD containing additional proprietary software and an additional CD containing files for internationalization (less common languages) are also available. This version does not include any technical assistance, nor printed manuals.
- openSUSE Retail Edition or openSUSE Box: Users are able to purchase a German version of the openSUSE box from www.opensourcepress.de. The box is delivered with printed documentation. There is no official English version of the Retail box.
- openSUSE FTP: There is also a small ISO to install openSUSE directly from FTP (network install). There are mirrors on the two different FTP trees: one for open-source packages (OSS), a second for non-open-source packages or whose license is restrictive (non-oss). The FTP can be used to complement the Download and Retail editions.
- openSUSE Factory: This is the continuous ongoing development version, from which the development team take out regular snapshots (Milestones and RC) to get the stable openSUSE.
- openSUSE Tumbleweed: Rolling release, in which new stable versions of packages are made available as soon as they are released.
SUSE includes an installation and administration program called YaST which handles hard disk partitioning, system setup, RPM package management, online updates, network and firewall configuration, user administration and more in an integrated interface. In more recent times, many more YaST modules have been added, including one for Bluetooth support. It also controls all software applications. SaX2 was once integrated into YaST to change monitor settings, however with openSUSE 11.3 SaX2 has been removed.
|YaST's user interfaces|
AutoYaST is part of YaST2 and is used for automatic installation. The configuration is stored in an XML file and the installation happens without user interaction.
ZYpp (or libzypp) is a Linux software management engine which has a powerful dependency resolver and a convenient package management API.
The Open Build Service provides software developers with a tool to compile, release and publish their software for many distributions, including Mandriva, Ubuntu, Fedora and Debian. It typically simplifies the packaging process, so developers can more easily package a single program for many distributions, and many openSUSE releases, making more packages available to users regardless of what distribution version they use. It is published under the GPL.12
On January 2, 2006, SUSE developer David Reveman announced Xgl, an X server architecture designed to take advantage of modern graphics cards via their OpenGL drivers, layered on top of OpenGL via glitz. Compiz, one of the first compositing window managers for the X Window System that is able to take advantage of this OpenGL-acceleration, was also released.
SUSE has been a leading contributor to the KDE project for many years, and now SUSE sponsors more developers to work directly within KDE than any other distribution. Hence, SUSE’s contributions in this area have been very wide-ranging, and affecting many parts of KDE such as kdelibs and KDEBase, Kontact, and kdenetwork. Other notable projects include:
The Ximian group became part of Novell, and in turn made and continued several contributions to GNOME with applications such as F-Spot, Evolution and Banshee. The GNOME desktop used the slab instead of the classic double-panelled GNOME menu bars from openSUSE 10.2 to openSUSE 11.4. In openSUSE 12.1 slab was replaced with the upstream GNOME Shell and GNOME Fallback designs.
After he spent months discussing with developers on the project's bugzilla, Linux founder Linus Torvalds harshly criticized openSUSE and its security settings in a blog entry in early 2012. He criticized openSUSE for asking users for a root password for everyday tasks such as setting up printers.13 This was fixed in openSUSE 12.2.
The initial stable release from the openSUSE Project was SUSE Linux 10.0, released on October 6, 2005.14 This was released as a freely downloadable ISO image and as a boxed retail package, with certain bundled software only included in the retail package.15
For their third release, the openSUSE Project renamed their distribution, releasing openSUSE 10.2 on December 7, 2006. Several areas that developers focused their efforts on were reworking the menus used to launch programs in KDE and GNOME, moving to ext3 as the default file system, providing support for internal readers of Secure Digital cards commonly used in digital cameras, improving power management framework (more computers can enter suspended states instead of shutting down and starting up) and the package management system. This release also featured version 2.0 of Mozilla Firefox.
The fourth release, openSUSE 10.3, was made available as a stable version on October 4, 2007.17 An overhaul of the software package management system (including support for 1-Click-Install), legal MP3 support from Fluendo and improved boot-time are some of the areas focused on for this release.
openSUSE 11.0 was released on June 19, 2008. It includes the latest version of GNOME and two versions of KDE (the older, stable 3.5.9 and the newer 4.0.4).1819 It comes in three freely downloadable versions: a complete installation DVD (including GNOME, KDE3, and KDE4), and two Live CDs (GNOME, and KDE4 respectively). A KDE3 Live CD was not produced due to limited resources.19 Package management and installation were made significantly faster with ZYpp.20
openSUSE 11.1 was released on December 18, 2008. Updated software includes GNOME 2.24.1, KDE 4.1.3 + KDE 3.5.10, OpenOffice.org 3.0, VirtualBox 2.0.6, Compiz 0.7.8, Zypper 1.0.1, continued improvement in the software update stack, X.Org 7.4, Xserver 1.5.2, and Linux kernel 126.96.36.199. 21 openSUSE 11.1 was the first Evergreen supported release. 22
openSUSE 11.223 was released on November 12, 2009. It includes KDE 4.3, GNOME 2.28, Mozilla Firefox 3.5, OpenOffice.org 3.1, improved social network support, updated filesystems such as Ext4 as the new default and support for Btrfs, installer support for whole-disk encryption,not in citation given significant improvements to YaST and zypper, and all ISO images are hybrid and now support both USB and CD-ROM boot.2425
openSUSE 11.3 was released on July 15, 2010. It includes KDE 4.4.4, GNOME 2.30.1, Mozilla Firefox 3.6.6, OpenOffice.org 3.2.1, SpiderOak support, support for the Btrfs filesytem and support for LXDE. It also updates the Linux kernel to version 188.8.131.52
openSUSE 11.4 was finished on March 3, 2011 and released on March 10, 2011. It includes KDE 4.6.0, GNOME 2.32.1, Mozilla Firefox 4.0 beta 12, and switched from OpenOffice.org to LibreOffice 3.3.1. It updates the Linux kernel to version 184.108.40.206
openSUSE 12.1 was released on November 16, 2011. This includes KDE 4.7 and GNOME 3.2 and Firefox 7.0.1. The Linux kernel was updated to 3.1.027 It also introduced an advanced disk snapshot tool, called Snapper, for managing Btrfs snapshots.28 openSUSE 12.1 was also the first release of openSUSE to use systemd by default rather than the traditional System V init. Users can still select to boot to System V init at startup time.
openSUSE 12.2 was to be released on July 11, 2012, but was postponed due to persistent stability issues.29 The final release candidate was eventually announced on August 2, 2012 and the final release date was September 6, 2012.30 12.2 includes the desktop environments KDE 4.8, GNOME 3.4, and XFCE 4.10 and now uses Plymouth and GRUB 2 by default.
openSUSE 12.3 was released on schedule on March 13, 2013. This includes KDE 4.10, GNOME 3.6, Firefox 19.0, LibreOffice 3.6, and the removal of SuSEconfig. Also, the Live CD images were replaced with Live USB images and an XFCE rescue image.
openSUSE 13.1 was released on November 19, 2013, and includes updates to KDE 4.11, GNOME 3.10, Firefox 25.0, and LibreOffice 4.1. Some other changes include a YaST port to Ruby, the LightDM KDE greeter, and experimental Wayland support in the GNOME Shell and KDE Plasma Desktop. openSUSE 13.1 will be an Evergreen supported release, meaning it will receive community patches for 18 months after SUSE support ends. 31
The openSUSE project aims to release a new version every eight months. Since version 11.2, critical updates have been provided for two releases plus two months, which results in a support lifetime of 18 months.3233 To add predictability and to prevent people from thinking the .0 releases are more major, the openSUSE version scheme has changed starting in openSUSE 12.1. All November releases have a .1, all July releases have a .2, and all March releases have a .3. Every two years, when another .1 version is released, the major version number is bumped up.
Evergreen22 is a community effort to prolong maintenance of selected openSUSE versions after they reach official end-of-life.
|Name||Version||Release date 34||End of life||Kernel version|
|Regular 35||Evergreen 22|
|SUSE Linux 36||Old version, no longer supported: 10.0||6 October 2005||30 November 2007||-||2.6.13|
|Old version, no longer supported: 10.1||11 May 2006||31 May 2008||-||2.6.16|
|openSUSE||Old version, no longer supported: 10.2||7 December 2006||30 November 2008||-||2.6.18|
|Old version, no longer supported: 10.3||4 October 2007||31 October 2009||-||2.6.22|
|Old version, no longer supported: 11.0||19 June 2008||26 June 2010||-||2.6.25|
|Old version, no longer supported: 11.1||18 December 2008||14 January 2011||13 April 2012||2.6.27|
|Old version, no longer supported: 11.2||12 November 2009||12 May 2011||1 November 2013||2.6.31|
|Old version, no longer supported: 11.337||15 July 2010||16 January 2012||-||2.6.34|
|Older version, yet still supported: 11.4 38||10 March 2011||5 November 2012||1 July 2014||2.6.37|
|Old version, no longer supported: 12.1 39||16 November 2011||15 May 2013||-||3.1|
|Old version, no longer supported: 12.2 40||5 September 2012||15 January 2014||-||3.4|
|Older version, yet still supported: 12.3 41||13 March 2013||15 September 2014||-||3.7|
|Current stable version: 13.1 42||19 November 2013||1 May 2015||1 November 2016||3.11|
|Future release: 13.2 42||1 November 2014 43||N/A||-||TBA|
|Future release: 13.3 42||1 March 2015||N/A||-||TBA|
openSUSE 12.3 has full support for 32-bit i586 and 64-bit x86-64 PC hardware. Official support for PowerPC (PPC) processors was dropped after openSUSE 11.1,44 The basic requirements for non-PPC hardware is as follows:45
- CPU: Intel Pentium III 500 MHz or higher minimum, Pentium 4 2.4 GHz or any AMD64 or Intel64 CPU recommended.
- RAM: 1 GB, 2 GB recommended
- Hard drive: 3 GB for minimal system; 5 GB recommended for standard system
The actual achievable minimum specs differ. Older processors that still belong to the i586 family are usable, for example the AMD K6-III. When excess language/translation files and documentation are removed and X is not needed, decent console-based router systems can be made using 300 MB disk space. Most console workloads also cope with 128 MB RAM at the cost of increased swap activity in tight situations.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to openSUSE.|
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