Orchitis // or orchiditis // (from the Ancient Greek ὄρχις meaning "testicle"; same root as orchid) is inflammation of the testes.1 It can also involve swelling, heavy pains and frequent infection, and is more rarely known as didymitis (as in epididymis).
Symptoms of orchitis are similar to those of testicular torsion. These can include:
Orchitis can be related to epididymitis infection that has spread to the testicles (then called "epididymo-orchitis"), sometimes caused by the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia and gonorrhea. It has also been reported in cases of males infected with brucellosis.2 Orchitis can also be seen during active mumps, particularly in adolescent boys.
Ischemic orchitis may result from damage to the blood vessels of the spermatic cord during inguinal herniorrhaphy, and may in the worst event lead to testicular atrophy.3
In most cases where orchitis is caused by epididymitis, treatment is an oral antibiotic such as cefalexin or ciprofloxacin until infection clears up. For viral infections, antibiotics are not recommendedcitation needed. In both causes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as naproxen or ibuprofen are recommended to relieve pain. Sometimes stronger pain medications in the opiate category are called for and are frequently prescribed by experienced emergency room physicians.
Orchitis in animals
Orchitis is not rare in bulls and rams.
It has also been described in roosters.4