Ottoman–Persian Wars

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Below is the list of wars between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Hotaki, Afsharid, Zand and Qajar dynasties of Persia through the 16th–19th centuries. The Ottomans consolidated their control of what is today Turkey in the 15th century, and gradually came into conflict with the emerging Persian state, led by Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty. The two states were also divided by religious grounds, the Ottomans being staunchly Sunni and the Safavids being Shia. A series of military conflicts ensued during which the two empires competed militarily for control over eastern Anatolia, Mesopotamia (Iraq) and the Caucasus).

Name of the war Ottoman sultan Persian shah Treaty at the end of the war Victor
Battle of Chaldiran (1514)1 Selim I Ismail I None The Ottoman Empire
War of 1532–15552 Suleiman I Tahmasp I Treaty of Amasya (1555) The Ottoman Empire3
War of 1578–15904 Murad III Abbas I Treaty of Constantinople (1590) The Ottoman Empire
War of 1603–1618, first stage

Capture of Tbilisi and Gökçe war

Ahmed I Abbas I Treaty of Nasuh Pasha (1612) The Persian Empire
War of 1603–1618, second stage5 Ahmed I, Mustafa I, Osman II Abbas I Treaty of Serav (1618) The Persian Empire
War of 1623–16396 Murad IV Abbas I, Safi Treaty of Zuhab (1639) The Ottoman Empire
War of 1722–17277 Ahmed III Mahmud Hotaki, Ashraf Hotaki Treaty of Hamedan (1727) Stalemate
War of 1730–1735, first stage Ahmed III, Mahmud I Nader Shah Treaty of Ahmet Pasha (1732) The Persian Empire
War of 1730–1736, second stage8 Mahmud I Abbas III, Nader Shah Treaty of Constantinople (1736) The Persian Empire
War of 1743–17469 Mahmud I Nader Shah Treaty of Kerden (1746) Stalemate
War of 1775–177610 Abdulhamid I Karim Khan Zand None Basra captured by Persia,11 retaken by Ottomans three years later.11
War of 1821–182312 Mahmud II Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Treaty of Erzurum (1823) Stalemate

Among the numerous treaties, the Treaty of Zuhab of 1639 is usually considered as the most important one, as it fixed present TurkeyIran and IraqIran borders. In later treaties, there were frequent references to Treaty of Zuhab.

References and notes

  1. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 339-340
  2. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 277-281
  3. ^ [Gábor Ágoston-Bruce Masters:Encyclopaedia of the Ottoman Empire , ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1, p.280
  4. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 21-25
  5. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 43-45
  6. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 78-82
  7. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 288
  8. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 1-8
  9. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 22-25
  10. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/karim-khan-zand
  11. ^ a b Fattah, Hala Mundhir (1997). The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf: 1745-1900. SUNY Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781438402376. 
  12. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 193-195







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