The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Israel:
Israel is a sovereign state located along the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest Asia, an area known historically in the Western World as the Near East or Middle East.1 It borders Lebanon in the north, Syria in the northeast, Jordan in the east, and Egypt on the southwest, and contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area.2 The West Bank, which is partially administrated by the Palestinian National Authority, and the Hamas-reigned Gaza Strip are also adjacent. With a population of about 7.2 million, the majority of whom are Jews, Israel is the world's only Jewish state.3 It is also home to Arab Muslims, Christians, Druze, and Samaritans, as well as other religious and ethnic minority groups.
The modern state of Israel has its roots in the Land of Israel, a concept central to Judaism for over three thousand years. After World War I, the League of Nations approved the British Mandate of Palestine with the intent of creating a "national home for the Jewish people."4 In 1947, the United Nations approved the partition of the Mandate of Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab.5 The Arab League rejected the plan, but on May 14, 1948, Israel declared its independence. The new country's victory in the subsequent Arab-Israeli War expanded the borders of the Jewish state beyond those in the UN Partition Plan. Since then, Israel has been in conflict with many of the neighboring Arab countries, resulting in several major wars and decades of violence until this day.6 Since its foundation, Israel's boundaries and even the State's very right to exist have been subject to dispute, although Israel has signed peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan, and efforts are being made to reach a permanent accord with the Palestinians.
Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system and universal suffrage.78 The Prime Minister serves as head of government and the Knesset serves as Israel's legislative body. In terms of nominal gross domestic product, the nation's economy is estimated as being the 44th-largest in the world;9 Israel ranks the highiest among Middle Eastern countries on the basis of human development,10 freedom of the press,11 and economy.1213 Jerusalem is the country's capital, seat of government, and largest city, and Israel's main financial center encompasses Tel Aviv.
Geography of Israel
An enlargeable topographic map of Israel
Environment of Israel
An enlargeable satellite image of Israel
and surrounding areas
Natural geographic features of Israel
Regions of Israel
Ecoregions of Israel
Administrative divisions of Israel
Districts of Israel
Subdistricts of Israel
Natural regions of Israel
Municipalities of Israel
Demography of Israel
- Main article: Demographics of Israel
Government and politics of Israel
- Main article: Politics of Israel
Branches of the government of Israel
Executive branch of the government of Israel
Legislative branch of the government of Israel
Judicial branch of the government of Israel
- The Supreme Court of Israel serves as an appellate court, High Court of Justice and constitutional court
- District Courts serve as appellate courts and also serve as courts of first instance for some cases
- Magistrate Courts serve as the court of first instance; some magistrate courts deal with specific affairs
- Separate systems, which include religious courts, military courts, labor courts
Foreign relations of Israel
International organization membership
Israel is a member of:1
Law and order in Israel
- Main article: Law of Israel
Military of Israel
- Main article: Israel Defense Forces
Local government in Israel
History of Israel
- Main article: History of Israel and Current events of Israel
Years in Israel
Culture of Israel
- Main article: Culture of Israel
Art in Israel
Sports in Israel
- Main article: Sports in Israel
Economy and infrastructure of Israel
- Main article: Economy of Israel
Education in Israel
- Main article: Education in Israel
- ^ a b "Israel". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. July 14, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
- ^ Skolnik 2007, pp. 132–232
- ^ "Israel". Country Report. Freedom House. 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- ^ "The Palestine Mandate". The Avalon Project. Yale University. 1922-07-24. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- ^ "United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181". The Avalon Project. Yale University. 1947-11-29. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ "Global Peace Index Rankings". http://www.visionofhumanity.com, In cooperation with the Economist Intelligence Unit. 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
- ^ Rummel 1997, p. 257. "A current list of liberal democracies includes: Andorra, Argentina, ... , Cyprus, ... , Israel, ..."
- ^ "Global Survey 2006: Middle East Progress Amid Global Gains in Freedom". Freedom House. 2005-12-19. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
- ^ "Total GDP 2006" (pdf). The World Bank. 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
- ^ "Human Development Report 2006". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- ^ "Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2007". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
- ^ "Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007". World Economic Forum. 2007-02-14. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- ^ See Economic Freedom of the World article
- ^ Source: Israel Central Bureau of Statistics . Note: Includes over 200,000 people in East Jerusalem, about 270,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, and about 20,000 in the Golan Heights (July 2007 estimate)
Wikimedia Atlas of Israel
- (Hebrew) Israel Government Portal (with links to English, Arabic versions)
- (Hebrew) Prime Minister's Office, official site (with links to English, Arabic versions)
- (Hebrew) President of the State of Israel, official site (with links to English, Arabic versions)
- The Knesset, official site of Israel's parliament
- (Hebrew) The Supreme Court, official site (with links to English, Arabic versions)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs, official site
- (Hebrew) Central Bureau of Statistics, official site (with links to English, Arabic versions)
- Ministry of Tourism, official site
- Ministry of Industry Trade & Labor Official Site
- Ministry of Religion
- Ministry of construction and Housing
- General reference