|Languages||Prakrit, Pali, Bengali, Sanskrit|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|-||Gopala is elected king by the regional chieftains||750|
|-||850 est.||4,600,000 km² (1,776,070 sq mi)|
|Today part of|| Bangladesh
|Outline of South Asian history
History of Indian subcontinent
The Pāla Empire was an Indian imperial power, during the Classical period of India, that existed from 750–1174 CE. According to Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak (in Ain-i-Akbari), the Palas were Kayasthas. It was ruled by a Buddhist and Hindu dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala (Modern Bengali: পাল pāl), which means protector. The Palas were often described by opponents as the Lords of Gauda. The Palas were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. Gopala was the first ruler from the dynasty. He came to power in 750 in Gaur after being elected by the various regional chieftains.1 He reigned from 750–770 and consolidated his position by extending his control over all of Bengal. The dynasty lasted for four centuries (750–1120 CE) and ushered in a period of stability and prosperity in Bengal. They created many temples and works of art as well as supported the Universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila. Somapura Mahavihara built by Dharmapala is the greatest Buddhist Vihara in the Indian Subcontinent.
The empire reached its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala. Dharmapala directly ruled the present-day Bihar and Bengal regions, and also subdued kings of North India. His successor Devapala captured Kamarupa (present-day Assam) and Utkala (present-day Orissa). He also subduded the Gurjara-Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas. The Pala inscriptions also credit him with other victories, which are exaggerated (see the Extent section below).
The death of Devapala ended the period of ascendancy of the Pala Empire and several independent dynasties and kingdoms emerged during this time. However, Mahipala I rejuvenated the reign of the Palas. He recovered control over all of Bengal and expanded the empire. He survived the invasions of Rajendra Chola and the Chalukyas. After Mahipala I the Pala dynasty again saw its decline until Ramapala, the last great ruler of the dynasty, managed to retrieve the position of the dynasty to some extent. He crushed the Varendra rebellion and extended his empire farther to Kamarupa, Odisha and Northern India.
The Pala Empire can be considered as the golden era of Bengal.citation needed Palas saw the rise of tantra and Vajrayana buddhism and were responsible for the introduction of Mahayana Buddhism in Tibet, Bhutan and Myanmar . The Palas had extensive trade as well as influence in south-east Asia. This can be seen in the sculptures and architectural style of the Sailendra Empire (present-day Malaya, Java, Sumatra). The empire gradually disintegrated by the 12th-century after the death of Ramapala, meeting its final end in the defeat of Govindapala, the last Pala king, by Ballal Sena of the Sena dynasty in 1174.2
The origin of the Palas is not clearly stated in any of the numerous Pala records.
The Ramacharitam of Sandhyakar Nandi attests that Varendra (or North Bengal) was the fatherland (Janakabhu) of the Palas. In the Bangarh Copperplate inscription of Mahipala I, it has been stated that Mahipala recovered his ancestral homeland (Rajyam Pitram) from the usurpers (which was until that time occupied by the Kamboja-Pala Kingdom).
The Khalimpur copper plate inscription of Dharmapala, the second Pala emperor, states that Gopala I was a son of a warrior (Khanditarat) named Vapyata, grandson of a highly educated man (Saryavidyavadat) named Dayitavishnu.
The Ballala-Carita says that "The Palas were Kshatriyas", a claim reiterated by the historian Taranatha in his "History of Buddhism in India" as well as Ghanaram Chakrabarty in his Dharmamangala (both written in the 16th century CE). The Ramacharitam also attests the fifteenth Pala emperor, Ramapala, as a Kshatriya. As Gopala I was a Buddhist, he was also branded as a Śudra king in some sources.910111213
After Shashanka's reign, Bengal was shrouded in obscurity and was shattered by repeated invasions. During the reign of Manava, Bengal was invaded and divided between Harshavardhana and Bhaskaravarman. In 730 CE Jayavardhana of the Shaila Dynasty from Central India invaded Bengal and killed the king of Pundravardhana. Yasovarman (725–752) of Kannauj killed the king of Magadha and Gauda. Later Lalitaditya Muktapida (724–760) of Kashmir who defeated Yasovarmana invaded Bengal. Sri Harsha of Kamarupa conquered Anga, Vanga, Kalinga and Odra. The social and political structure of Bengal was disturbed, resulting in a condition described as Matsyanyaya ("eating of small fish by the big fish").
Gopala ascended the throne as the first Pala king during these times. A copper plate from the reign of the second Pala King Dharmapal suggests that the prakriti (people) of the region made him the king.15 The Tibetan Buddhist lama Taranatha (1575–1634), writing nearly 800 years later, also writes that he was democratically elected by the people of Bengal. However, his account is in form of a legend, and is considered historically unreliable. The legend mentions that after a period of anarchy, the people elected several kings in succession, all of whom were consumed by the Naga queen of an earlier king on the night following their election. Gopal, however managed to kill the queen and remained on the throne.16 The historical evidence indicates that Gopala was not elected directly by his citizens, but by a group of feudal chieftains. Such elections were quite common in contemporary tribal societies of the region.1615
Gopala's ascendancy ended the period of anarchy.
The Palas emerged as the champion of Buddhism, and they patronized Mahayana Buddhism. The Palas supported the Universities of Vikramashila and Nalanda, which became the premier seats of learning in Asia. Nalanda University, considered one of the first great universities in recorded history, reached its height under the patronage of the Palas.17
The Palas were responsible for the spread of Mahayana Buddhism to Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and the Malay archipelago. Bengal became famous in the Buddhist world for the cultivation of Buddhist religion, culture and other knowledge in the various centres that grew under the patronage of the Pala rulers.18 Buddhist scholars from the Pala empire travelled from Bengal to the Far-East and propagated Buddhism. A few outstanding individuals among them are Shantarakshit, Padmanava, Dansree, Bimalamitra, Jinamitra, Muktimitra, Sugatasree, Dansheel, Sambhogabajra, Virachan, Manjughosh and many others. But the most prominent was Atish Dipankar Srigyan who reformed Buddhism in Tibet after it had been destroyed by king Langdharma. Although the Palas were Buddhists, they had also given support to Saiva ascetics, typically the ones associated with the Golagi-Math.19 Narayana Pala himself established a temple of Shiva, and was present at the place of sacrifice by his Brahmin minister.20 Queen of King Madanapaladeva, namely Chitramatika, made a gift of land to a Brahmin named Bateswara Swami as his remuneration for chanting the Mahabharata at her request, according to the principle of the Bhumichhidranyaya.citation needed Besides the images of the Buddhist deities, the images of Vishnu, Siva and Sarasvati were also constructed during the Pala dynasty rule.21
- Gopala I (750–780)
- Dharmapala (780–810)
- Devapala (810–850)
- Shurapala I
- Vigrahapala I (861–866)
- Narayanapala (866–920)
- Rajyapala (920–952)
- Gopala II (952–969)
- Vigrahapala II (969–995)
- Mahipala I (995–1043)
- Nayapala (1043–1058)
- Vigrahapala III (1058–1075)
- Mahipala II (1075–1080)
- Shurapala II (1080–1082)
- Ramapala (1082–1124)
- Kumarapala (1124–1129)
- Gopala III (1129–1143)
- Madanapala (1143–1162)
- Govindapala (1162–1174)
Dharmapala brought the present-day Bengal and Bihar regions under his direct rule. The present-day Uttar Pradesh was his dependency, ruled by a nominee installed by him at Kannauj. His records also claim that he had vassal states in the North-West and Central India. One tradition also claims that Nepal was his vassal state. The Munger copper plate of his son Devapala credits him with the conquest of Kedarnath. The Pratihara king defeated his nominee at Kannauj, and then defeated him after advancing upto Munger. The Rashtrakuta king Govinda III intervened in the region, and Dharmapala accepted his suzerainty. After Govinda III left the region, Dharmapala gained the control of north India once again.22
Devpala extended the boundaries of the empire further. The Munger (Monghyr) copper plate of Devapala states that his empire extended upto the Vindhyas and Kamboja. While an ancient country with the name Kamboja was located in what is now Afghanistan, there is no evidence that Devapala's empire extended that far. Kamboja, in this inscription, could refer to the Kamboja tribe that had entered North India (see Kamboja Pala dynasty).
In the Badal pillar inscription of his successor Narayana Pala, states that by the wise counsel and policy of his Brahmin minister Darbhapani, Deva Pala became the suzerain monarch or Chakravarti of the whole tract of Northern India bounded by the Vindhyas and the Himalayas.23 Gujarat's poet Soddhala of the eleventh century calls Dharmapala an Uttarapathasvamin for his suzerainty over North India.24 The inscription also states that his empire extended upto the two oceans (presumably the Arabian Sea and thge Bay of Bengal). It also claims that Devpala defeated Utkala (present-day Orissa), the Hunas, the Dravidas, the Kamarupa (present-day Assam), and the Gurjaras (the Gurjara-Pratiharas). These claims are exaggerated, but cannot be dismissed entirely: the neighbouring kingdoms of Rashtrakutas and the Gurjara-Pratiharas were weak at the time, and may have been subdued by Devapala. There is no reason to doubt his conquest of Utkala and Kamarupa.25 "Dravida" is generally believed to be a reference to the Rashtrakutas, but a few scholars believe that it may refer to the Pandyan king Sri Mara Sri Vallabha. However, there is no definitive record of any expedition of Devapala to the extreme south. In any case, his victory in the south could only have been a temporary one, and his dominion lay mainly in the north.22
The successors of Devapala had to contend with the Gurjara-Pratihara and the Rashtrakutas for the supremacy of the Kannauj Triangle. After Narayanpala the Pala empire declined but was revived once more under the vigorous reigns of Mahipala and Ramapala.
Pala rule was monarchial. The king was the centre of all power. Pala kings would adopt Imperial titles like Parameshwara, Paramvattaraka, Maharajadhiraja. Pala kings appointed Prime Ministers. The Line of Garga served as the Prime Ministers of the Palas for 100 years.
- Bhatta Guravmisra
Pala Empire was divided into separate Bhuktis (Provinces), Bhuktis into Vishayas (Divisions) and Mandalas (Districts). Smaller units were Khandala, Bhaga, Avritti, Chaturaka, and Pattaka. Administration covered widespread area from the grass root level to the imperial court. The Pala copperplates mention following administrative Posts:Raja, Rajanyaka, Rajanaka, Ranaka, Samanta and Mahasamanta (Vassal kings), Mahasandhi-vigrahika (Foreign minister), Duta (Head Ambassador), Rajasthaniya (Deputy), Aggaraksa (Chief guard), Sasthadhikrta (Tax collector), Chauroddharanika (Police tax), Shaulkaka (Trade tax), Dashaparadhika (Collector of penalties), and Tarika (Toll collector for river crossings), Mahaksapatalika (Accountant), Jyesthakayastha (Dealing documents), the Ksetrapa (Head of land use division) and Pramatr (Head of land measurements), the Mahadandanayaka or Dharmadhikara (Chief justice), the Mahapratihara, Dandika, Dandapashika, and Dandashakti (Police forces), Khola (Secret service). Agricultural posts like Gavadhakshya (Head of dairy farms), Chhagadhyakshya (Head of goat farms), Meshadyakshya (Head of sheep farms), Mahishadyakshya (Head of Buffalo farms) and many other like Vogpati, Vishayapati, Shashtadhikruta, Dauhshashadhanika, Nakadhyakshya.citation needed
The proto-Bangla language was born during the reign of the Palas. The Buddhist texts of the Charyapada were the earliest form of Bangla language. This Proto-Bangla language was used as the official language in Tibet, Myanmar, Java and Sumatra. Texts on every aspect of knowledge were compiled during the Pala Rule. On philosophy: Agama Shastra by Gaudapada, Nyaya Kundali by Sridhar Bhatta, Karmanushthan Paddhati by Bhatta Bhavadeva; On Medicine: Chikitsa Samgraha, Ayurvedidvipika, Bhanumati, Shabdachandrika, Dravya Gunasangraha by Chakrapani Datta; Shabda-Pradipa, Vrikkhayurveda, Lohpaddhati by Sureshwara; Chikitsa Sarsamgraha by Vangasena; Sushrata by Gadadhara Vaidya; Dayabhaga, Vyavohara Matrika and Kalaviveka by Jimutavahana etc. Atisha compiled more than 200 texts. The great epic Ramacharitam written by Sandhyakar Nandi, the court poet of Madanapala was another masterpiece of the Pala literature. The Pala copperplate inscriptions were of excellent literary value. This distinctive inscriptions were called Gaudiya Style.
The most brilliant side of the Pala Empire was the excellence of its art and sculptures. Palas created a distinctive form of Buddhist art known as the "Pala School of Sculptural Art." The gigantic structures of Vikramshila Vihara, Odantapuri Vihara, and Jagaddala Vihara were masterpieces of the Palas. These mammoth structures were mistaken by the forces of Bakhtiar Khilji as fortified castles and were demolished. The Somapura Mahaviharaa, a creation of Dharmapala, at Paharpur in the Naogaon District of Bangladesh, is the largest Buddhist Vihara in the Indian subcontinent, and has been described as a "pleasure to the eyes of the world." UNESCO made it World Heritage Site in 1985. Sompur Bihara, also built by Dharmapala, is a monastery with 21 acre (85,000 m²) complex has 177 cells, numerous stupas, temples and a number of other ancillary buildings. In 1985, the UN included the Sompur Bihara site in the world Cultural Heritage list. The Pala architectural style was followed throughout south-eastern Asia, China, Japan and Tibet. Bengal rightfully earned the name "Mistress of the East". Dr. Stella Kramrisch says: "The art of Bihar and Bengal exercised a lasting influence on that of Nepal, Burma, Ceylon and Java". Dhiman and Vittpala were two celebrated Pala sculptors. About Sompura Mahavihara, Mr. J.C. French says with grief: "For the research of the Pyramids of Egypt we spend millions of dollars every year. But had we spent only one percent of that money for the excavation of Sompura Mahavihara, who knows what extraordinary discoveries could have been made."---"The Art of the Pala Empire of Bengal," p. 4.
Palas came in contact with distant lands through their conquests and trades. The Sailendra Empire of Java, Sumatra and Malaya was a colony of the Palas. Devapala granted five villages at the request of the Sailendra king Balputradeva of Java for the upkeeping of the matha established at Nalanda for the scholars of that country. The Prime minister of the Balputradeva Kumar Ghosha was from Gauda. Dharmapala who extended his empire to the boundary of the Abbasid Empire and had diplomatic relations with the caliph Harun Al-Rashid.26 Coins of Harun-al-Rashid have been found in Mahasthangarh. Palas maintained diplomatic and religious relation with Tibet. The ruling families in certain princely states of India descended from the "Rajas of Gaur in Bengal".citation needed These states are Suket, Keonthal, Kashtwar and Mandi. Of Kashtwar it is related that Kahan Pal — the founder of the state — with a small band of followers arrived in the hills in order to conquer a kingdom for himself. He is said to have come from Gaur, the ancient capital of Bengal and to have been a cadet of the ruling family of the place. The demise of the Turkshahi rule in Gandhar and the rise of the Hindushahi dynasty in that region might have connection to the invasion of the Palas in that region.citation needed
Palas had fourfold army consisting of: infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots. In the copperplates of Vatsaraja Dharmapala had been mentioned as the owner of unlimited number of horses, elephants and chariots. It is amazing that when the use of chariots had been backdated in India and other parts of the world the kings of Bengal still depended on four-horsed heavy chariots. Being a riverine land and swarthy climate Bengal was not good enough for breeding quality war-horses. So the Palas had to depend upon their vassal kings for war horses. Pala copperplate inscriptions reveal that mercenary forces were recruited from the Kamboja, Khasas, Huna, Malwa, Gujarat, and Karnata. The Kamboja cavalry were the cream of the Pala army who would later become as powerful as the Janissary army of the Ottoman Empire. The Kamboja forces maintained smaller confederates (Sanghas) among themselves and were staunch follower of their commander. Palas had the army divided into following posts: Senapati or Mahasenapati (General) controlling foot soldiers, cavalry, soldiers riding elephants and camels, and the navy, and the various army posts like Kottapala (Fort guards) and Prantapala (Border guards). Palas had a huge army and the legend of "Nava Lakkha Shainya" (Nine lac soldiers) were popular during the reigns of Dharmapala and Devapala. According to Hudud al-Alam a Persian text written in 982–983 Dharmapala possessed an army of 300,000 soldiers. According to Sulaiman the Arab traveller Devapala set out for his every military expedition with an army of 50,000 elephants and his army had 10,000–15,000 slaves for the maintenance and caretaking of his armies.
Palas legacy gets remembered not much in Bengal but elsewhere in Asia. Tibet's modern culture and religion is heavily influenced by Palas.27 Palas are credited with spreading Buddhism to Tibet and around the world through missionaries. Atisa, a Palan, is a celebrated figure in the Tibetan Buddhism in tradition and in establishment. Atisa also invented bodhichitta or known as "mind training" that is practiced around the world today. Another important Palan figure in Tibetan Buddhism is Tilopa who founded the Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism and developed the Mahamudra method, a set of spiritual practices that greatly accelerated the process of attaining bodhi (enlightenment). Palas literature is widely studied by Buddhist around the world. Pala architectural style was copied throughout south-eastern Asia, China, Japan, and Tibet. Nalanda University and Vikramshila University are two of the greatest Buddhist universities ever recorded in history.
|Bengal dynasty||Succeeded by
|Middle kingdoms of India|
|Northwestern India||Indo-Gangetic Plain||Central India||Southern India|
|Western Gangetic Plain||Northern India
(Central Gangetic Plain)
|Culture||Late Vedic Period||Late Vedic Period
|Late Vedic Period
|6th century BC||Gandhara||Kuru-Panchala||Magadha||Adivasi (tribes)|
|Culture||Persian-Greek influences||"Second Urbanisation"||Pre-history|
|5th century BC||(Persian rule)||Shishunaga dynasty||Adivasi (tribes)|
|4th century BC||(Greek conquests)|
|Culture||Spread of Buddhism||Pre-history||Sangam period
(300 BC – AD 200)
|3rd century BC||Maurya Empire||Early Cholas
46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam
|Culture||Preclassical Hinduismc - "Hindu Synthesis"d (ca. 200 BC - AD300)ef
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
|2nd century BC||Indo-Greek Kingdom||Sunga Empire||Adivasi (tribes)||Early Cholas
46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam
|1st century BC||Yona||Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty|
|1st century AD||Kuninda Kingdom|
|2nd century||Pahlava||Varman dynasty|
|3rd century||Kushan Empire||Western Satraps||Kamarupa kingdom||Kalabhras dynasty|
|Culture||"Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)g
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
|4th century||Gupta Empire||Kalabhras dynasty|
|5th century||Maitraka||Adivasi (tribes)||Kalabhras dynasty|
|6th century||Kalabhras dynasty|
|Culture||Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. AD 650-1100)h
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
|7th century||Indo-Sassanids||Vakataka dynasty, Harsha||Mlechchha dynasty||Adivasi (tribes)||Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)|
|8th century||Kidarite Kingdom||Pandyan Kingdom|
|9th century||Indo-Hephthalites (Huna)||Gurjara-Pratihara||Pandyan Kingdom|
|10th century||Pala dynasty||Medieval Cholas|
- History of India
- Sompur Bihara
- Kamboja Dynasty of Bengal
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (July 2010)|
- Mahajan, V.D. (1960, Reprint 2007), Ancient India, S. Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6 .
- "Far East Kingdoms".
- Epigraphia Indica, XXIV, p 43, Dr N. G. Majumdar
- The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, cir. 750 A.D.-Cir 1200AD, 1993, p 37, Jhunu Bagchi
- The Dacca University Studies, 1935, p 131, University of Dacca
- Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 316, Dr J. L. Kamboj
- Late Classical India, 1988, p 25, Mainak Kumar Bose – India
- History of Ancient Bengal, 1971, p 427, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar – Calcutta
- Op cit., p 37, Jhunu Bagchi; Indian Antiquary, Vol IV, 1875, pp 365–66; Corpus of Bengal Inscriptions, Mukerjee and Maity, p 11
- Caste and Chronology of the Pala kings of Bengal, J. C. Ghosh, The IHQ, IX, 1983, pp 487–90
- The Caste of the Palas, The Indian Culture, Vol IV, 1939, pp 113–14, B Chatterji
- Social Change in Modern India, 1995, p 9, M N Srinivas
- Modern India: An Interpretive Antholog, 1971, p 115, Thomas R. Metcalf – History
- Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 1990, p 265, André Wink; History of Medieval India, 1940, p 20, fn, Ishwari Prasad – India.
- Nitish K. Sengupta (1 January 2011). Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib. Penguin Books India. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-14-341678-4.
- Biplab Dasgupta (1 January 2005). European Trade and Colonial Conquest. Anthem Press. pp. 341–. ISBN 978-1-84331-029-7.
- dead link
- "History Pala Empire, Pala Dynasty, Pala Dynasty in India 8th 12th century". Lotussculpture.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Bagchi, Jhunu (1993). The History and Culture of The Pālas of Bengal And Bihar (Cir. 750 A. D. – Cir. 1200 A. D.. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. p. 19. ISBN 81-7017-301-9.
- P. 100 The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar: Cir. 750 A.D.-cir By Jhunu Bagchi
- Chaitanya, Krishna (1987). Arts of India. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. p. 38. ISBN 81-7017-209-8.
- Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 278–. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.
- P. 41 The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar: Cir. 750 A.D.-cir. 1200 A.D. By Jhunu Bagchi
- P. 39-40 The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar: Cir. 750 A.D.-cir. 1200 A.D. By Jhunu Bagchi
- George E. Somers (1 January 1977). Dynastic History Of Magadha. Abhinav Publications. p. 185. ISBN 978-81-7017-059-4.
- "Pala Empire - External References". Experiencefestival.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Chattopadhyaya, Alaka (1967). Atisa and Tibet. Calcutta: Motilal Banarsidas Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-208-0928-9.
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