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Panihati has an average elevation of 13 metres (42 feet).
Panihati covers two important Railway stations from Sealdah north main section line - 1)Sodepur -a densely populated urban city connected to Kolkata by Barrackpore Trunk Road and with Barasat via Sodepur Road through Madhyamgram. 2) Agarpara — which shares its borders with Kamarhati and North Dumdum Municipality. Panihati Municipality is located on BT Road at the western side of Sodepur Rail station.
As of 2001[update] India census,4 Panihati had a population of 348,379. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Panihati has an average literacy rate of 82%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 85%, and female literacy is 79%. In Panihati, 8% of the population is under 6 years of age.
North 24 Parganas district has been identified as one of the areas where ground water is affected by arsenic contamination.5