Paralympic sports

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Paralympic Games
IPC logo (2004).svg
Main topics
Games
Ice Sledge Hockey: United States (blue shirts) vs Japan (white shirts) during the 2010 Paralympics in Vancouver.

The Paralympic sports comprise all the sports contested in the Summer and Winter Paralympic Games. As of 2016, the Summer Paralympics will include 22 sports and 526 medal events,1 and the Winter Paralympics include 5 sports and disciplines and about 72 events.2 The number and kinds of events may change from one Paralympic Games to another.

The Paralympic Games are a major international multi-sport event for athletes with physical disabilities. This includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and Cerebral Palsy. Paralympic sports refers to organized competitive sporting activities as part of the global Paralympic movement. These sports are organized and run under the supervision of the International Paralympic Committee and other international sports federations.

History

Archery: Lindsey Carmichael from the United States, at the 2008 Paralympic Games in Beijing.

Organized sport for persons with physical disabilities developed out of rehabilitation programs. Following World War II, in response to the needs of large numbers of injured ex-service members and civilians, sport was introduced as a key part of rehabilitation. Sport for rehabilitation grew into recreational sport and then into competitive sport. The pioneer of this approach was Ludwig Guttmann of the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in England. In 1948, while the Olympic Games were being held in London, England, he organized a sports competition for wheelchair athletes at Stoke Mandeville. This was the origin of the Stoke Mandeville Games, which evolved into the modern Paralympic Games.

Organization

Globally, the International Paralympic Committee is recognized as the leading organization, with direct governance of nine sports, and responsibility over the Paralympic Games and other multi-sport, multi-disability events. Other international organizations, notably the International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation (IWAS), the International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA), International Sports Federation for Persons with Intellectual Disability (INAS) and the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA) govern some sports that are specific to certain disability groups.3 In addition, certain single-sport federations govern sports for athletes with a disability, either as part of an able-bodied sports federation such as the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI), or as a disabled sports federation such as the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation.4

At the national level, there are a wide range of organizations that take responsibility for Paralympic sport, including National Paralympic Committees,5 which are members of the IPC, and many others.

Disability categories

Cycling: Karissa Whitsell and Mackenzie Woodring (pilot) from the United States, compete in Beijing 2008
Biathlon: Andy Soule from the United States, at the 2010 Paralympics in Vancouver.

Athletes who participate in Paralympic sport are grouped into ten major categories, based on their type of disability:

Physical Impairment - There are eight different types of physical impairment:

  • Impaired muscle power - With impairments in this category, the force generated by muscles, such as the muscles of one limb, one side of the body or the lower half of the body is reduced, e.g. due to spinal-cord injury, spina bifida or polio.
  • Impaired passive range of movement - Range of movement in one or more joints is reduced in a systematic way. Acute conditions such as arthritis are not included.
  • Loss of limb or limb deficiency - A total or partial absence of bones or joints from partial or total loss due to illness, trauma, or congenital limb deficiency (e.g. dysmelia).
  • Leg-length difference - Significant bone shortening occurs in one leg due to congenital deficiency or trauma.
  • Short stature - Standing height is reduced due to shortened legs, arms and trunk, which are due to a musculoskeletal deficit of bone or cartilage structures.
  • Hypertonia - Hypertonia is marked by an abnormal increase in muscle tension and reduced ability of a muscle to stretch. Hypertonia may result from injury, disease, or conditions which involve damage to the central nervous system (e.g. cerebral palsy).
  • Ataxia - Ataxia is an impairment that consists of a lack of coordination of muscle movements (e.g. cerebral palsy, Friedreich’s ataxia).
  • Athetosis - Athetosis is generally characterized by unbalanced, involuntary movements and a difficulty maintaining a symmetrical posture (e.g. cerebral palsy, choreoathetosis).

Visual Impairment - Athletes with visual impairment ranging from partial vision, sufficient to be judged legally blind, to total blindness. This includes impairment of one or more component of the visual system (eye structure, receptors, optic nerve pathway, and visual cortex).6 The sighted guides for athletes with a visual impairment are such a close and essential part of the competition that the athlete with visual impairment and the guide are considered a team. Beginning in 2012, these guides (along with sighted goalkeepers in 5-a-side football became eligible to receive medals of their own.78

Intellectual Disability - Athletes with a significant impairment in intellectual functioning and associated limitations in adaptive behaviour. The IPC primarily serves athletes with physical disabilities, but the disability group Intellectual Disability has been added to some Paralympic Games. This includes only elite athletes with intellectual disabilities diagnosed before the age of 18.6 However, the IOC-recognized Special Olympics World Games are open to all people with intellectual disabilities.910

The disability category determines who athletes compete against and which sports they participate in. Some sports are open to multiple disability categories (e.g. cycling), while others are restricted to only one (e.g. Five-a-side football). In some sports athletes from multiple categories compete, but only within their category (e.g. athletics), while in others athletes from different categories compete against one another (e.g. swimming). Events in the Paralympics are commonly labelled with the relevant disability category, such as Men's Swimming Freestyle S1, indicating athletes with a severe physical impairment, or Ladies Table Tennis 11, indicating athletes with an intellectual disability.11

Classification

Swimming at the 2008 Summer Paralympics

A major component of Paralympic sport is classification.12 Classification provides a structure for competition which allows athletes to compete against others with similar disabilities or similar levels of physical function. It is similar in aim to the weight classes or age categories used in some non-disabled sports.

Athletes are classified through a variety of processes that depend on their disability group and the sport they are participating in. Evaluation may include a physical or medical examination, a technical evaluation of how the athlete performs certain sport-related physical functions, and observation in and out of competition. Each sport has its own specific classification system which forms part of the rules of the sport.

Summer Paralympics

Current summer sports

The following table lists the currently practiced Paralympic sports:

Wheelchair basketball: Iran vs South Africa at the 2008 Summer Paralympics.
Sport Categories Governing body Paralympic Games status
Archery Archery pictogram (Paralympics).svg ARW1, ARW2, ARW3 WA Summer sport (since 1960)
Athletics Athletics pictogram (Paralympics).svg F/T11 F/T12 F/T13 F/T20, F31 T32, T33, T34), (T35, T36, T37, T38, F40, F/T42, F/T43, F/T44, F/T45, F/T46, F/T51, F/T52, F/T53, F/T54, F55, F56, F57, F58, IPC Summer sport (since 1960)
Boccia Boccia pictogram (Paralympics).svg BC1, BC2, BC3, BC4 BISFed Summer sport (since 1984)
Cycling:
Track cycling
Road cycling
Cycling (track) pictogram (Paralympics).svg
Cycling (road) pictogram (Paralympics).svg
H1, H2, H3, H4, T1, T2, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, TB (tandem), UCI Summer sport (since 1988)
Summer sport (since 1984)
Equestrian Equestrian pictogram.svg Grade Ia, Grade Ib, Grade II, Grade III, Grade IV FEI Summer sport (since 1996)
Football 5-a-Side Football 5-a-side pictogram (Paralympics).svg Visual impairment IBSA Summer sport (since 2004)
Football 7-a-Side Football 7-a-side pictogram (Paralympics).svg FT5, FT6, FT7, FT8 CP-ISRA Summer sport (since 1984)
Goalball Goalball pictogram (Paralympics).svg Visual impairment IBSA Summer sport (since 1980)
Judo Judo pictogram.svg B1, B2, B3 IBSA Summer sport (since 1988)
Paracanoe ICF Summer sport (since 2016)
Paratriathlon Triathlon pictogram.svg ITU Summer sport (since 2016)
Powerlifting Powerlifting pictogram (Paralympics).svg IPC Summer sport (since 1964)
Rowing Rowing pictogram.svg AS, TA, LTA-PD, LTA-B1, LTA-B2, LTA-B3 FISA Summer sport (since 2008)
Sailing Sailing pictogram.svg IFDS Summer sport (since 2000)
Shooting Shooting pictogram (Paralympics).svg SH1, SH2 IPC Summer sport (since 1976)
Swimming Swimming pictogram (Paralympics).svg S1, SB1, SM1, S2, SB2, SM2, S3, SB3, SM3, S4, SB4, SM4, S5, SB5, SM5, S6, SB6, SM6, S7, SB7, SM7, S8, SB8, SM8, S9, SB9, SM9, S10, SB10, SM10, S11, S12, S13, S14 IPC Summer sport (since 1960)
Table tennis Table tennis pictogram (Paralympics).svg Class 1-11 ITTF Summer sport (since 1960)
Volleyball Sitting volleyball pictogram (Paralympics).svg “Minimally Disabled” (MD) and “Disabled” (D) WOVD Summer sport (since 1976)
Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair basketball pictogram (Paralympics).svg 1 point player, 2 point player, 3 point player, 4 point player and 4.5 point player IWBF Summer sport (since 1960)
Wheelchair fencing Wheelchair fencing pictogram (Paralympics).svg Class A, Class B IWAS Summer sport (since 1960)
Wheelchair rugby Wheelchair rugby pictogram (Paralympics).svg 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 IWRF Summer sport (since 2000)
Wheelchair tennis Wheelchair tennis pictogram (Paralympics).svg Open, Quad ITF Summer sport (since 1992)

Discontinued summer sports

Sport Categories Governing body Paralympic Games status
Basketball ID Basketball pictogram.svg ID INAS-FID Summer sport (1996–2000)
Lawn bowls Lawn bowls pictogram.svg ALA, CP, VI, WC, IPC Summer sport (1968–1988, 1996)
Snooker Cue sports pictogram.svg WC IWAS Summer sport (1960–1976, 1984–1988)
Dartchery Darts pictogram.svg IPC Summer sport (1960–1980)
Weightlifting Weightlifting pictogram.svg Summer sport (1964–1992)
Wrestling Wrestling pictogram.svg Summer sport (1980–1984)


Winter Paralympics

Current winter sports

Alpine skiing: Talan Skeels-Piggins from Great Britain at the Winter Paralympics 2010 in Vancouver.
Sport Categories Governing body Paralympic Games status
Alpine Skiing program:
Alpine skiing
Para-snowboarding
Alpine skiing pictogram.svg
Snowboarding pictogram.svg
LW1, LW2, LW3, LW4, LW5/7, LW6/8, LW9, LW10, LW11, LW12, B1, B2, B3, SB LL, SB UL IPC Winter sport (since 1976)
Winter sport (from 2014)13
Ice sledge hockey Ice sledge hockey - Paralympic pictogram.svg Athletes have to have an impairment in the lower part of their body that would prevent them from competing in able-bodied ice hockey IPC Winter sport (since 1994)
Nordic skiing:
Biathlon
Cross-country skiing
Biathlon pictogram.svg
Cross country skiing pictogram.svg
LW2, LW3, LW4, LW5/7, LW6, LW8 LW9, LW10, LW10.5, LW11, LW11.5, LW12, B1, B2, B3 IPC Winter sport (since 1988)
Winter sport (since 1976)
Wheelchair curling Wheelchair curling - Paralympic pictogram.svg All wheelchair curlers compete in one sport class only. They all have an impairment affecting their legs, but usually not affecting their arms. ICF Winter sport (since 2006)

Discontinued winter sports

Sport Categories Governing body Paralympic Games status
Ice sledge racing Ice sledge speed racing - Paralympic pictogram.svg Winter Sport (1980–1988, 1994–1998)

Possible future winter sports

Bob Balk, the chairman of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Athletes' Council, launched a campaign in early 2012 to have sliding sports (bobsleigh, luge and skeleton) included at the 2018 Winter Paralympics in Pyeonghchang, South Korea.14

Abbreviations

Notes

The categories listed represent all those groups that participate in this sport at some level. Not all these categories are represented in competition at the Paralympic Games.

The governing bodies listed represent those organizations responsible for the broadest level of participation. In some cases, other disability-specific organizations will also have some governance of athletes in that sport within their own group. For example, the IPC governs multi-disability athletics competitions such as the Paraympic Games; however, CP-ISRA, IBSA, and IWAS provide single-disability events in athletics for athletes with cerebral palsy, visually impaired athletes, and wheelchair and amputee athletes respectively.

Paralympic Games status details the years these sports were practiced as full medal events at the Paralympic Games.

See also

References

External links








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