Parks and open spaces in London
There are many parks and open spaces in London, England. Green space in central London consists of five Royal Parks, supplemented by a number of small garden squares scattered throughout the city centre. Open space in the rest of the city is dominated by the remaining three Royal Parks and many other parks and open spaces of a range of sizes, run mainly by the local London boroughs, although other owners include the National Trust and the City of London Corporation.
The centrepieces of London's park system are the eight Royal Parks of London. Covering 1976 hectares,1 they are former royal hunting grounds which are now open to the public. Four of these — Green Park (16 ha), St. James's Park (34 ha), Hyde Park (140 ha), and Kensington Gardens (111 ha) — form a green strand through the western side of the city centre, whilst a fifth, Regent's Park (197 ha) is just to the north. The remaining three Royal Parks are in the suburbs — Greenwich Park (73 ha) to the south east, and Bushy Park (450 ha) and Richmond Park (955 ha) to the south west.
Many of the smaller green spaces in central London are garden squares, which were built for the private use of the residents of the fashionable districts, but in some cases are now open to the public. Notable examples open to the public are Russell Square in Bloomsbury, Lincoln's Inn Fields in Holborn and Soho Square in Soho.
The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea contains over a hundred garden squares whose use is restricted to residents. The upkeep of these squares is paid for through a levy on top of residents' council tax.2
In addition to these spaces, a large number of council-owned parks were developed between the mid 19th century and the Second World War, including Victoria Park (86.18 ha),3 Alexandra Park (80 ha) and Battersea Park (83 ha).4
Other major open spaces in the suburbs include:
- Hampstead Heath, 320 hectares5
- Clapham Common, 89 hectares6
- Wandsworth Common, 73 hectares
- Wimbledon Common, about 460 hectares7
- Epping Forest, 2,476 hectares8
- Trent Park 169 hectares9
- Hainault Forest Country Park 136 hectares10
- Mitcham Common 182 hectares11
- South Norwood Country Park 47 hectares12
- Wildspace Conservation Park 645 hectares13
- Thames Chase 9,842 hectares14
They have a more informal and semi-natural character, having originally been countryside areas protected against surrounding urbanisation. Some cemeteries provide extensive green land within the city — notably Highgate Cemetery, burial place of Karl Marx and Michael Faraday amongst others. Completing London's array of green spaces are two paid entrance gardens — the leader is the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, whilst the royal residence of Hampton Court Palace also has a celebrated garden. All Outer London boroughs contain sections of the metropolitan green belt.15 Furthermore one of the great legacies of the 2012 Olympic Games in London will be the development of the largest (200ha) urban park in Europe at Stratford in East London.16
There are over a hundred registered commons in London, ranging in size from small fragments of land to large expanses.
- List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater London
- List of Local Nature Reserves in Greater London
- http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200102/cmhansrd/vo020207/text/20207w18.htm, Hansard. Written answers for 7 Feb 2002. URL accessed on 17 July 2009.
- "Your garden square and you", Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, UK. URL accessed 20 June 2006.
- "Tower Hamlets Council > Leisure and culture > Parks and open spaces > Parks > Victoria Park > Visitor information". web page. Tower Hamlets Council. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- "Wandsworth Battersea Park". web page. Wandsworth Council. 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- David Bentley (Last modified: 12 February 2010). "City of London Hampstead Heath". City of London. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- "London's heaths and commons". visitlondon.com. Retrieved 13 March 2010.dead link
- "Wimbledon & Putney Commons facts and figures". 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- "Epping Forest You & Your Dog". brichure. City of London. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
- "Parks & Gardens UK, Trent Park, Enfield, England". web page. Parks & Gardens Data Services Ltd. 15 August 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
- "Essex/Greater London Site Name: Hainault Forest". Natural England. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- "Mitcham Common". Mitcham Common Conservators. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- "South Norwood Country Park - Children's Play Area Design and Access Statement". Croydon Council. 27 February 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- "LTGDC launches vision for London Riverside". Invest Britain UK regional development and inward investment. 19 April 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- "Forestry Commission News Release No. 1656, 1.6 MILLION MORE TREES PROMISED FOR THE EAST OF LONDON". Forestry Commission. 28 October 1998. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- Greater London Authority - London's strategic open space network
- Olympics will leave east London an open space to rival Hyde Park - The Guardian - March 17th 2008
- London Parks and Gardens Trust
- London Landscape Architecture Visitors Guide
- Green-Spaces Guide to London
- Green Spaces Near You in London