Federal Assembly (Russia)
|Chairman of the Federation Council||Valentina Matviyenko, United Russia
Since 21 September 2011
|Chairman of the State Duma||Sergey Naryshkin, United Russia
Since 20 December 2011
|Federation Council political groups||Non-Partisan|
|State Duma political groups|
|Federation Council voting system||Chosen by territorial politicians|
|State Duma voting system||Party-list proportional representation|
|Federation Council last election||12 December 1993|
|State Duma last election||4 December 2011|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Federal Assembly (Russian: Федеральное Собрание, transliteration: Federalnoye Sobraniye or Federalnoje Sobranije) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993). It was preceded by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation and its Supreme Soviet.
It consists of the State Duma, which is the lower house, and the Federation Council, which is the upper house. Both houses are located in Moscow. The Chairman of the Federation Council is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of the President and the Prime Minister, the Chairman of the upper house of the Russian parliament becomes Acting President of Russia.12
The jurisdiction of the State Duma includes: consent to the appointment of the Chairman of the Government, deciding the issue of confidence in the Government, appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank, appointment and dismissal of the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounting Chamber, appointment and dismissal of the Commissioner for human rights, proclamation of amnesty, advancing of charges against the President for his impeachment and others.3
The jurisdiction of the Council of the Federation includes: approval of changes in borders between subjects of the Russian Federation, approval of the decree of the President on the introduction of a martial law or on the introduction of a state of emergency, deciding on the possibility of using the Armed Forces of Russia outside the territory of the Russia, appointment of elections of the President, impeachment of the President, appointment of judges of higher courts of Russia, appointment and dismissal of the Procurator-General of the Russian Federation, appointment and dismissal of Deputy Chairman and half of the auditors of the all Accounting Chamber and others.4
The first step of the passing of a bill is the "right of legislative initiative".5 This right is held by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council, and the individual members of the Federation Council, a group of no less than one-fifth of the State Duma deputies, the Government and the legislative bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation. Nonetheless, the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation may initiate passing bills within their respective jurisdictions.
The second step requires that a draft law will be introduced in the State Duma. The exceptions are bills that introduce taxes, abolish taxes, except tax paying, concerning state loans, change financial obligations of the state, provide for expenditure covered from the federal budget. The exceptions require the draft law to be accompanied with a resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation when introduced in the state Duma.
The third step concerns the passing of draft law by the Federal Assembly. The State Duma may only pass federal laws.6 They are passed, unless the Constitution requires otherwise, by the a majority of votes of all deputies of the State Duma.7 A State Duma passed bill must be handed to the Federal Council within five days for review.8 The bill passes if either more than half of the deputies of the Federation Council vote for the bill, or the Federation Council does not consider the bill within fourteen days.9 Upon rejection of a bill by the Federation Council, the chambers may set up a conciliatory commission to settle the differences.9 If amended, a bill must be passed to the State Duma for consideration.9 However, the State Duma can override the decision of the Federation Council if, in the second voting, at least two-thirds of the total number of deputies to the State Duma vote for it.10
The fourth step concerns presidential approval and publication. The Federation Council must send a passed bill within five days to the President of the Russian Federation for signing and publication.11 The President signs and publish the bill within fourteen days.12 Thus, a bill becomes federal law. The President may reject a bill within the fourteen days. The bill will then be passed through the State Duma and the Federation Council. However, if the bill is passed, during its second hearing, by a majority of no less than two-thirds of the total numbers of deputies of the Federation Council and the State Duma,13 the bill must be signed and published by the President of the Russia within seven days. Hence, the Federal Assembly may override a presidential veto.
The Constitution of Russia which was adopted in 1993 limits the parliament's foreign policy powers. The State Duma retained broad responsibility for adopting laws on foreign policy, but the constitution stipulated no specific foreign policy duties for the legislative branch. The constitution gave the Federation Council, the upper house of parliament, the responsibility for deciding on the use of troops abroad and reviewing State Duma ratification and denunciation of international treaties and Duma decisions on war and peace.
The State Duma and the Federation Council usually meet separately. Joint sessions are organized when the President of Russia delivers his annual address to the Federal Assembly and in some other very rare occasions.
- "Пост Председателя Совета Федерации РФ – это третий пост в стране. В случае недееспособности президента и премьера именно председатель верхней палаты парламента должен возглавить государство."
- "Почему у нас третье лицо в государстве Председатель Совета Федерации? Потому что это федерация, он не распускается, он действует постоянно." - Сергей Шахрай
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Article 103
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Article 102
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993, article 104(1).
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993, article 105(1).
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993, article 105(2).
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993, article 105(3).
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993, article 105(4).
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993, article 105(5).
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993, article 107(1).
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993, article 107(2).
- The Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993, article 107(3).
- Russian Federation Today — Official issue of the Federal Assembly (Russian)