Politics of Peru
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The politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
||This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. (July 2009)|
The Republic of Peru is in a state of ongoing democratization. Led by President Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso, the executive branch is attempting to be transparent and accountable. Previously a rubberstamp body, Peru's unicameral Congress is emerging as a strong counterbalance to the once-dominant executive branch, with increased oversight and investigative powers. The executive branch and Congress are attempting to reform the judicial branch, antiquated and rife with corruption.
Peruvians, whose expectations were raised during the 2000 and 2001 election campaigns, are frustrated at the slow pace of economic recovery and job creation. As discontent rises, the Toledo administration is in a race to strengthen the economy so that popular pressures do not force a shift to more radical measures.dated info So far, the Toledo government remains committed to neoliberal economic policies and structural reform in the hope of attracting sufficient international investment to generate growth and job creation.dated info
Other important political currents stem from the ongoing investigation of Fujimori-era corruption (notably the proceedings against Fujimori's former advisor, Vladimiro Montesinos), and an increase in activities by the insurgent group Sendero Luminoso. The recent trial of Abimael Guzmán has been suspended, due in part to Guzmán's use of it as a forum for broadcasting Sendero Luminoso propaganda.dated info
Regarding the latter, the Toledo government has been forced to consider putting resources back into the security forces which they had been hoping to use to fund social programs.dated info
Another relevant opposition leader is nationalist and former military commander Ollanta Humala.
After the impeachment of Fujimori (at present in jail), Alejandro Toledo could not run for the presidency again. The most recent presidential election was held on Sunday, April 9, 2006, and more than 16 million Peruvians were eligible to vote worldwide. No candidate received more than 50% of the vote, so a runoff election was held in June.
After a bitter and often vitriolic campaign, disgraced former President Alan Garcia won with 53.1% of the vote. Nationalist rival and former coup-plotter, Ollanta Humala, received 46.9%. Mr Garcia, whose first presidency in 1985-1990 was blighted by record-breaking hyperinflation, debt-default, wide-scale corruption and a Maoist insurgency, says that he's learned from his mistakes.
|President||Ollanta Humala||Peruvian Nationalist Party||28 July 2011|
|Prime Minister||César Villanueva||Independent||31 October 2013|
Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; he or she is elected for a five-year term and may not immediately be re-elected.1 All citizens above the age of eighteen are entitled and in fact compelled to vote. The first and second vice presidents also are popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties.
The President appoints the Council of Ministers (Consejo de Ministros, or Cabinet) and Prime Minister (primer ministro). All presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress must be approved by the Council of Ministers.
The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress (Congreso) of 130 members. elected for a five-year term by proportional representation In addition to passing laws, Congress ratifies treaties, authorizes government loans, and approves the government budget. The president has the power to block legislation with which the executive branch does not agree.
|Candidates – Parties||1st round||2nd round|
|Ollanta Humala – Peru Wins (Gana Perú)||4,643,064||31.699||7,937,704||51.449|
|Keiko Fujimori – Force 2011 (Fuerza 2011)||3,449,595||23.551||7,490,647||48.551|
|Pedro Pablo Kuczynski – Alliance for the Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio)||2,711,450||18.512|
|Alejandro Toledo – Possible Peru (Perú Posible)||2,289,561||15.631|
|Luis Castañeda – National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional)||1,440,143||9.832|
|José Ñique de la Puente – Fonavist Party (Partido Fonavista del Perú)||37,011||0.253|
|Ricardo Noriega – National Awakening Party (Partido Despertar Nacional)||21,574||0.147|
|Rafael Belaúnde Aubry – Forward Party (Partido Político Adelante)||17,301||0.118|
|Juliana Reymer – National Force Party (Partido Fuerza Nacional)||16,831||0.115|
|Humberto Pinazo – Justice, Technology, Ecology (Justicia, Tecnología, Ecología)||11,275||0.077|
|Total valid (turnout %)||14,074,682||100.000||15,428,351||100.000|
|Source: National Office of Electoral Processes (ONPE), National Office of Electoral Processes (ONPE)|
|Votes||% (Valid)||Seats||Votes||% (Valid)||Seats|
|Peru Wins (Gana Perú)
dominated by Peruvian Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Peruano)
|Force 2011 (Fuerza 2011)
|Electoral Alliance Possible Peru (Alianza Electoral Perú Posible)||1,904,180||14.831||21||1,498,783||14.780||1|
|Alliance for the Great Change (Alianza por el Gran Cambio)||1,851,080||14.417||12||1,413,783||13.942||1|
|National Solidarity Alliance (Alianza Solidaridad Nacional)||1,311,766||10.217||9||954,618||9.414||0|
|American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (Partido Aprista Peruano)||825,030||6.426||4||638,675||6.298||0|
|Radical Change (Cambio Radical)||347,475||2.706||0||195,441||1.927||0|
|Fonavist Party (Fonavistas des Perú)||170,052||1.324||0||158,877||1.567||0|
|Decentralist Party Social Force (Partido Decentralista Fuerza Social)||108,200||0.843||0||65,265||0.644||0|
|Forward Party (Partido Político Adelante)||42,276||0.329||0||36,193||0.357||0|
|National Force Party (Partido Fuerza Nacional)||37,633||0.293||0||35,014||0.345||0|
|National Awakening Party (Partido Despertar Nacional)||30,190||0.235||0||—||—||—|
|Justice, Technology, Ecology (Justicia, Tecnologia, Ecologia)||17,478||0.136||0||49,869||0.492||0|
|Source: National Office of Electoral Processes - on Congressional Election|
The Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional) interprets the constitution on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in regional capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are located in provincial capitals and are divided into civil, penal, and special chambers. The judiciary has created several temporary specialized courts in an attempt to reduce the large backlog of cases pending final court action.
Peru's legal system is based on civil law system. Peru has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. In 1996 a human rights ombudsman's office (defensor del pueblo) was created to address human rights issues.
Peru's territory, according to the Regionalization Law which was passed on 18 November 2002, is divided into 25 regions (regiones). These regions are subdivided into provinces, which are composed of districts. There are a total of 180 provinces and 1747 districts in Peru.
Lima Province is not part of any political region.
Leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path Abimael Guzmán (imprisoned), Gabriel Macario (top leader at-large); Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA Victor Polay (imprisoned), Hugo Avellaneda Valdez (top leader at-large). Both Shining Path & MRTA are considered terrorist organizations.
In the early 1970s and 1980s many grass-roots organizations emerged in Peru. They were concerned with problems of local people and poverty reduction. After 2000 they played an important role in the decentralisation process. Their hope was that power would be divided clearly between national and local governments and the latter would be able to address social justice and the concerns of local people better than the national government could. Some NGO-members even became part of local governments. It is questioned how good this engagement in politics contributes to the attainment of their original goals.2
Peru or Peruvian organizations participate in the following international organizations:
- Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
- Andean Community of Nations (CAN)
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
- Group of Fifteen (G-15)
- Group of Twenty-Four (G-24)
- Group of 77 (G-77)
- Inter-American Development Bank (IADB)
- International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
- International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
- International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
- International Criminal Court (ICC)
- International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
- International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU)
- International Red Cross
- International Development Association (IDA)
- International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
- International Finance Corporation (IFC)
- International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)
- International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
- International Labour Organization (ILO)
- IMF, International Maritime Organization (IMO)
- International Organization for Migration (IOM)
- International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (correspondent)
- International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
- Latin American Economic System (LAES)
- Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
- United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)
- Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
- Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)
- Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
- Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
- Rio Group (RG)
- Union of South American Nations(Unasul-Unasur)
- United Nations
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
- United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
- United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
- United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)
- United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
- Universal Postal Union (UPU)
- World Confederation of Labour (WCL)
- World Customs Organization (WCO)
- World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)
- World Health Organization (WHO)
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
- World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
- World Tourism Organization (WToO)
- World Trade Organization (WTrO)
- Constitución Política del Perú, Article N° 112.
- Monika Huber, Wolfgang Kaiser (February 2013). "Mixed Feelings". dandc.eu.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Politics of Peru.|
- Congress of Peru
- Prime minister of Peru
- Presidence of Peru
- Supreme Court of Peru
- Center for Reproductive Rights Report (PDF format)
- Council on Foreign Relations: Peru's Elections
- Local governments in Peru
- Peru's 2006 Elections
- Peru's 2006 Elections